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Terrorism_for_Investigators_with_Al_Qaeda_info

VIEWS: 13 PAGES: 114

									    Terrorism for Patrol and
    Investigators




1
                          Law Enforcement Sensitive
    Terrorism for Patrol &
    Investigators
       Bases of Terrorism: Background &
        History
       Intelligence Based Policing for Patrol
       Ordnance
       Stop and Approach Tactics
       Homeland Security: Contact &
        Cooperation
2
                       UNCLASSIFIED   Law Enforcement Sensitive
         Gateway Class
       Tactical Entry and                      Critical Incident
        Arrest Procedures                        Management TTT –
        for Counter-Terrorist                    10 day
        Operations – 5 day                      Critical Incident
       Critical Incident                        Management –
        Response to                              Command Post – 3
        Violence and                             day
        Terrorist Activities in
        Schools – 2 day
3
                                  UNCLASSIFIED         Law Enforcement Sensitive
        Gateway Class (cont.)
       Vehicle Interception            Informant
        Procedures, Extraction           Development – 2
        and Restraint – 5 day            day (4)
        (2)
                                        Law Enforcement
       SWAT Operations Basic
        Skills – 5 day (2)               themed exercises
       Detection and                    (Topoff 05)
        Investigation of                PPE Training
        Fraudulent Documents
        – 3 day (3)

4
                             UNCLASSIFIED       Law Enforcement Sensitive
    Bases of Terrorism:
    Background and History




5
                        Law Enforcement Sensitive
         Key Concepts
       Past Behavior is the best predictor of
        future behavior
       Weakest point is the planning phase
       Prevention of terrorism REQUIRES the
        intelligence function



6
                         UNCLASSIFIED   Law Enforcement Sensitive
      What Is Terrorism?
                         FBI Definition
    The unlawful use of force or violence against persons
    or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the
    civilian population, or any segment thereof, in
    furtherance of political or social objectives


    But most importantly: It is a technique,



7
                            UNCLASSIFIED      Law Enforcement Sensitive
          The Spectrum of Conflict

    Civil Disturbances             Global National War


    Law Enforcement                           Military



     Terrorism
8
                         UNCLASSIFIED     Law Enforcement Sensitive
    The Objective
        Scare people so that they
        do what terrorists want!

9
                              Law Enforcement Sensitive
     Why and How Is Modern Terrorism
     Different From Historical Terrorism?


        Transportation
        Weapons technology
        Population density
        Communications



10
                     UNCLASSIFIED   Law Enforcement Sensitive
              What Types of Laws Do
              Terrorists Violate?
        Bombing                        Money laundering
        Weapons                        Vandalism
         possession/usage               Murder/assault/battery
        Arson                          Extortion
        Burglary                       Kidnapping
        Vehicle theft                  Airline hijacking
        Other thefts of all kinds      Assorted interstate
        Fraud                           violations


11
                                 UNCLASSIFIED      Law Enforcement Sensitive
     What Threats Do Terrorists
     Present to Law Enforcement?

        Direct physical threats
        Civil action
        Character assassination
        Public distrust



12
                       UNCLASSIFIED   Law Enforcement Sensitive
             Forms of Terrorism
        Domestic and International
        Domestic Incidents within the U.S. (2003)
            Right Wing
                 1 incident (Terre Haute Holocaust Museum)
            Left Wing
                 None indicated (though links with special interests)
            Special Interest/Single Issue
                 2003 74 incidents, ~ 60 million in damages, bombs and
                  incendiary devices used
            Religious Fundamentalism
                 2 significant incidents (all abortion related)
13
                                         UNCLASSIFIED              Law Enforcement Sensitive
     Excellent Web Sites
        http://www.tkb.org/Home.jsp
            Terrorism Knowledge Base
        http://www.fbi.gov/terrorinfo/terrorism.htm
            FBI Terrorism Webpage
        http://www.dhs.gov/dhspublic/
            Department of Homeland Security
        http://www.adl.org/
            Jewish Anti-Defamation League
        http://www.splcenter.org
            Southern Poverty Law Center

14
                            UNCLASSIFIED       Law Enforcement Sensitive
     Domestic Terrorist
     Extremist Groups

          Activities and Trends




15
                                  Law Enforcement Sensitive
     Suppliers
     of sheets
     for KKK




16
                 UNCLASSIFIED   Law Enforcement Sensitive
     Domestic—Left-Wing
     Philosophy
        Vietnam War era groups pretty well
         eliminated
        Today – primarily Anarchists




17
                      UNCLASSIFIED   Law Enforcement Sensitive
           Anarchist Yellow Pages
           Your Guide to Anarchists and Troublemakers
           Around the Globe
        Creating Local Autonomy and Solidarity in Hartford
         (CLASH)
         CLASH, C/O AFSC, 56 Arbor St., 2nd floor
         Hartford, Connecticut 06106
         USA, North America Tel: 860-416-4575 Fax: ---URL:
         http://clash.8m.net
         Email: hartfordclash at yahoo.com Category: Anarchist Group
         Small group of anti-authoritarian activists based in the Hartford
         area, formed for the purpose of disseminating propaganda on
         anti-authoritarian organizing, and promoting direct action and
         direct democracy.

        Last updated: 15.10.2004



                http://ayp.subvert.info/index.php
18
                                      UNCLASSIFIED           Law Enforcement Sensitive
          Domestic—Right-Wing
          Philosophy
        Some groups oppose the U.S.
         government
        Some believe government has been
         taken over
        Some believe they are the government
        Some are driven by religious beliefs
        Some seek a strong Nazi/fascist
         government



19
                               UNCLASSIFIED     Law Enforcement Sensitive
           Nazis in the News
        Neo-Nazi pushes alliance with al Qaeda
         CNN
         Published on March 29, 2005
         A couple of hours up the road from where some September 11
         hijackers learned to fly, the new head of Aryan Nation is praising them
         -- and trying to create an unholy alliance between his white
         supremacist group and al Qaeda. "You say they're terrorists, I say
         they're freedom fighters. And I want to instill the same jihadic feeling
         in our peoples' heart, in the Aryan race, that they have for their father,
         who they call Allah."
        With his long beard and potbelly, August Kreis looks more like a
         washed up member of ZZ Top than an aspiring revolutionary.
        Don't let appearances fool you: his résumé includes stops at some of
         America's nastiest extremist groups -- Posse Comitatus, the Ku Klux
         Klan and Aryan Nation.



20
                                          UNCLASSIFIED             Law Enforcement Sensitive
            Nazis in the News
        Eleven indicted in huge weapons bust
         St. Louis Post-Dispatch
         Published on March 30, 2005
         The daughter of a Godfrey man at the center of what authorities called the
         largest weapons seizure in Southern Illinois history said her father only made
         machine guns for shooting at paper targets, and that racist material found in his
         home had been collected as a joke. Laura Brown, 25, and her father, Randal L.
         Brown, 53, were among 11 people indicted last week by a federal grand jury on
         charges of illegal possession of machine guns and explosives. ...
        The seized weapons include AK-47s, Uzis, and World War II-era automatic
         weapons, including .45-caliber Thompsons and belt-fed German machine guns.
        Authorities also confiscated Nazi memorabilia, targets alleged to have been
         given "blackfaces," and fliers touting the National Alliance, a white supremacist
         group, from [Randal] Brown's home in the 5200 block of Black Oak Lane. One
         poster depicted Adolf Hitler with the caption, "When I come back, no more Mr.
         Nice Guy."




21
                                             UNCLASSIFIED                Law Enforcement Sensitive
       Antigovernment
        Posse Comitatus
        Common Law Courts

        Sovereign Citizens

     • Militias




22
                     UNCLASSIFIED   Law Enforcement Sensitive
           Anti-government
        Often spouting mistaken interpretations of early American
         history to justify their actions, Militia members are united in
         their obsession with "protecting" Americans' Constitutional
         rights, which they claim the Federal government has trampled
        "Common law court" adherents declare themselves exempt from
         the laws of the United States. Using pseudo-legal theories based
         on selective - and often bizarre - interpretations of the Bible, the
         Magna Carta, state and Federal court decisions, and the U.S.
         and state constitutions, these activists present a serious threat
         to the rule of law by using phony liens, money orders and
         documents in an attempt to defy the authority of legitimate
         courts.
        William Potter Gale created an Identity group named Posse
         Comitatus, which means "power of the county" in Latin.


23
                                       UNCLASSIFIED           Law Enforcement Sensitive
          Militias
        Newly invigorated
        Views war on terrorism as directed at
         themselves
        Consider anti-terrorism measures such
         as ―Patriot Act‖ merely as a prelude to
         mass gun confiscation and martial law


24
                           UNCLASSIFIED   Law Enforcement Sensitive
          Religious-Oriented Extremists
        Christian Identity – 31
         Groups (2003)
        Church of Jesus Christ
         Christian
        Phineas Priesthood
        Odinism
         • World Church of
         the Creator
25
                            UNCLASSIFIED   Law Enforcement Sensitive
           Christian Identity
        Asserts whites, not Jews are true Israelites favored by
         God
        Jews biologically descended from Satan, other races are
         mud people
        Derived from 19th century English fad which asserted
         European whites were descended from 10 lost tribes in
         Bible
        Transformed in 20th century by racist preachers in U.S.
        Christ will not return to Earth until globe is swept clean
         of Jews and other ―Satanic Influences‖
        Agnosticism and racist neo-paganism reducing influence
26
                                 UNCLASSIFIED       Law Enforcement Sensitive
           James Wickstrom, ―Religious‖
           Leader for Christian Identity
        I'd like to see these Jews all be brought to the VA [Veterans
         Administration hospital] and wooden chairs be put down on the
         lawn. Tie the Jews in. Bring these veterans down who have
         been mutilated, physically mutilated, their lives ruined without
         the opportunity of a family or children, and give them baseball
         bats and let them beat these Jews to death! Every one of
         them!" he bellows.
        "Take these chairs and Jews after they're beaten to death,
         throw 'em in the wood chipper! And from the wood chipper let
         the remains go into a big incinerary truck, which is right behind
         the wood chipper, and give them the holocaust they rightly
         deserve!"
        "Even the women and children?" he's asked by his interviewer.
        "Take 'em all," he snarls. "Take 'em all and let none remain!"


27
                                      UNCLASSIFIED           Law Enforcement Sensitive
         From a C.I. website
        Kingdom Identity Ministries is a Politically Incorrect
         Christian Identity outreach ministry to God's chosen
         race (true Israel, the White, European peoples). We
         proclaim the Gospel of the Kingdom (government
         according to God's Law) through books, tracts, tapes,
         videos, the American Institute of Theology Bible
         Correspondence Course, our international Herald of
         Truth Radio Broadcasts, a Prison Ministry, Biblical
         Counseling, Seminars, and other means. The Elect
         Remnant, Christian Patriots, Nationalists,
         Reconstructionists, Racialists, and all seeking a higher
         level of understanding will learn Biblical solutions to
         personal and national problems, and be given keys to
         unlock hidden truth.


            http://www.kingidentity.com/index.html
28
                                 UNCLASSIFIED        Law Enforcement Sensitive
           Racist/Hate
        Ku Klux Klan (KKK) - 158 groups
         (Waterbury, Aryan Nations Knight of KKK)
        Neo-Nazis - 149 groups (1 CT Bridgeport White
         Revolution)
           Aryan Nations/National Alliance – LA 1999 Buford
            Furrow
        Skinheads - 39 Groups (1 CT Stratford CT White Wolves)
        Black Separatist - 136 4 in CT (2 Hart.)




29
                                 UNCLASSIFIED      Law Enforcement Sensitive
           KKK
        Started during Reconstruction as a method to
         intimidate blacks and whites who support them
        First era of KKK disbanded after rise of Jim Crow laws
        Second era 1920, anti-catholic and anti- jew due to
         immigration, claimed 5 million member, huge rallies
         in D.C.
        Third era was during 1960s in response to civil rights
         laws, murders, bombing, lynchings
        Much weakened since 1970s due to internal conflicts,
         court cases, government infiltration. 5,500 to 6,000
         members, often warring against each other

30
                                 UNCLASSIFIED      Law Enforcement Sensitive
            Neo Nazis
        Neo-Nazi groups share a hatred for Jews and a love for Adolf Hitler and Nazi
         Germany.
        While they also hate other minorities, homosexuals and even sometimes
         Christians, they perceive "the Jew" as their cardinal enemy, and trace social
         problems to a Jewish conspiracy that supposedly controls governments, financial
         institutions and the media.
        While some neo-Nazi groups emphasize simple hatred, others are more focused
         on the revolutionary creation of a fascist political state.
        American neo-Nazi groups, protected by the First Amendment, often publish
         material and host Internet sites that are aimed at European audiences --
         materials that would be illegal under European anti-racism laws. Similarly, many
         European groups put up their Internet sites on American servers to avoid
         prosecution under the laws of their native countries.
        The most important neo-Nazi group in the U.S. is the National Alliance. Until his
         death, it was led by William Pierce, the infamous author of the futuristic race-
         war novel The Turner Diaries, a book believed by some to have served as the
         blueprint for the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing.



31
                                             UNCLASSIFIED               Law Enforcement Sensitive
           Racist Skinheads
        A particularly violent element of the white supremacist movement, and
         have often been referred to as the "shock troops" of the hoped-for
         revolution
        Shaved head, black Doc Martens boots, jeans with suspenders and an
         array of typically racist tattoos
        Began in the industrial cities of 1960s Britain as a working class
         movement strongly marked by contempt for hippies and middle-class
         youth
        Originally embraced Afro-Caribbean music and were of different races
        Movement split between racist and antiracist elements — a split that
         has endured to the present day, both in Britain and in the United
         States, where Skins arrived in the early 1980s
         Racist Skins are referred to by their enemies as "boneheads."
         Antiracist Skins are often referred to as SHARPS, a reference to a now
         essentially defunct group known as Skinheads Against Racial Prejudice
        Racist Skinheads in the U.S., like those in other countries, often
         operate in small "crews" that move from city to city with some
         regularity
32
                                        UNCLASSIFIED            Law Enforcement Sensitive
          Black Separatists
        Black separatists typically oppose
         integration and racial intermarriage,
         and they want separate institutions -- or
         even a separate nation -- for blacks.
         Most forms of black separatism are
         strongly anti-white and anti-Semitic,
         and a number of religious versions
         assert that blacks -- not Jews -- are the
         Biblical "chosen people" of God.
33
                           UNCLASSIFIED   Law Enforcement Sensitive
             Special-Interest/Single-Issue
             Terrorism
        Most common areas
         of concern are
            Environmental
            Animal rights
            Antigenetic
             engineering
            Antiabortion




34
                             UNCLASSIFIED   Law Enforcement Sensitive
          Earth Liberation Front
     Earth First! is a verb, not a noun. In order to be an
        environmental movement, you've got to move! So
        get up and do something for the Earth! There are
        no "50 simple ways to save the planet." There are
        innumerable very difficult ways. Recycling and
        "setting a good example" don't cut it when you are
        the last generation with any chance of
        implementing a human-engineered cure. Direct
        Action means personal, focused effort on the front
        lines in the war against the Earth. Earth First! is
        defined by its actions, the purpose of which are to:
        HALT THE DESTRUCTION,RAISE THE STAKES,
        GARNER MEDIA, STRENGTHEN RESOLVE

                   www.earthfirstjournal.org
35
                                     UNCLASSIFIED          Law Enforcement Sensitive
           Animal Liberation Front
        The ALF guidelines are:
        1. TO liberate animals from places of abuse,
         i.e. laboratories, factory farms, fur farms, etc,
         and place them in good homes where they may
         live out their natural lives, free from suffering.
         2. TO inflict economic damage to those who
         profit from the misery and exploitation of
         animals.
        3. TO reveal the horror and atrocities
         committed against animals behind locked
         doors, by performing non-violent direct actions
         and liberations.
        4. TO take all necessary precautions against
         harming any animal, human and non-human.
        Analyze the ramifications of any proposed
         action. Never apply generalizations when
         specific information is available




36
                http://www.animalliberationfront.com/
                                          UNCLASSIFIED        Law Enforcement Sensitive
             Other Domestic Terrorism
             Issues
        Cyberterrorism
            Term used to refer to
             almost any attack on or
             using a computer
        Narcoterrorism
            A narcotics conspiracy that uses extreme
             force and violence against a government or
             population in order to enable it to function

37
                               UNCLASSIFIED    Law Enforcement Sensitive
     International Terrorist/
     Extremist Groups




38
                                Law Enforcement Sensitive
     Foreign Terrorist
     Organizations
        36 currently listed by State Department
        20 are Islamic
        14 are ―Insurgency‖/Revolutionary
        1 is Jewish
        1 is Apocalyptic



39
                       UNCLASSIFIED   Law Enforcement Sensitive
     International Terrorist
     Incidents - 2003
        208 International Terrorist Incident (198 in
         2002, 355 in 2001)
        625 people killed, 725 killed in 2002 (35 U.S.
         in Kuwait, Columbia, Philippines, Israel - 16,
         Saudi Arabia - 9, Iraq - 5, Afghanistan - 2)
        3,646 wounded, 2,013 wounded in 2002
        Does not include Iraq attacks on Coalition
         Forces

40
                         UNCLASSIFIED     Law Enforcement Sensitive
     THE TERRORIST POLYGON

                           OPERATIONAL
                             SUCCESS




         IDEOLOGY                            ORGANIZATION




41
       Any viable terrorist group rests on three pillars
                            UNCLASSIFIED        Law Enforcement Sensitive
     Al-Qa„ida‟s Polygon of
     Power
                     11 SEPTEMBER
                          2001

       VALIDATION




        SALAFI      RECRUITS           AL`QAIDA
       THEOLOGY                        NETWORK




42
                        UNCLASSIFIED     Law Enforcement Sensitive
     Al-Qa„ida‟s Polygon of
     Power
                   OPERATIONAL
                     SUCCESS




                  Destroying one
                   of its pillars
                  eliminates the
                       threat



       IDEOLOGY     RECRUITS        ORGANIZATION




43
                     UNCLASSIFIED       Law Enforcement Sensitive
                    Al-Qa„ida‟s Polygon of Power
                    COUNTERMEASURES
                                                                   IC + LE
                                             HARDEN    HARDEN      ABILITY
                                             TARGETS   BORDERS       TO
                                                                 INTERDICT

                                                                                  HARD
                                                                                  INSTRUMENTS

                                                         OPS
         SOFT INSTRUMENTS                              SUCCESS



                  ECONOMIC                                                               SPECIAL
                   & OTHER                                                       INTEL             MILITARY
     DIPLOMACY                PSY OPS                                                      OPS
                   DVLPMNT
                     AID

                U.S. POLICY
                                        IDEOLOGY                  ORGANIZATION
                    NGO’S
                      &
      UN, OIC
                   PRIVATE
                   SECTOR


     MULTILATERAL / NONGOVERNMENT
44
                                                       UNCLASSIFIED               Law Enforcement Sensitive
     Operational Success Very
     Difficult to Deny
                • 1995 SANG HDQRS RIYADH
                • 1998 US EMBASSIES EAST AFRICA
                • 2000 USS COLE YEMEN
                • 2001 US WT CENTER/PENTAGON
                • 2002 DJERBA SYNAGOGUE TUNISIA
                      • BALI NIGHTCLUBS INDONESIA
                      • MOMBASSA RESORT KENYA
                •2003 RESIDENTIAL COMPOUNDS RIYADH
                      • MULTIPLE TARGETS CASABLANCA
                      • MARRIOTT DOWNTOWN JAKARTA
                      • MULTIPLE TARGETS ISTANBUL
                •2004 ANTI-COALITION INSURGENCY IRAQ
                      • MADRID COMMUTER TRAINS
                      • AL-KHOBAR OFFICES & RESIDENCES
                      • AUSTRALIAN EMBASSY JAKARTA



     IDEOLOGY                                            ORGANIZATION

45
                           UNCLASSIFIED             Law Enforcement Sensitive
     “Al-Qa„ida” now is a
     distributed network
                          OPERATIONAL
                            SUCCESS




       IDEOLOGY           RECRUITS              ORGANIZATION

                  Qa„idat al-Jihad (The Base)

46
                            UNCLASSIFIED            Law Enforcement Sensitive
     THE THREAT



        The Ideological
          Dimension


47
             UNCLASSIFIED   Law Enforcement Sensitive
     The Pillar of Ideology
     “Their foundation is al-Tawhid [the belief in
     the oneness of God], their doctrine is Sunni
     Salafi, their path is jihad, and their hope on
     earth is the establishment of the religion [of
     Islam] in the heavens to win the pleasure of
     the God of the worlds, and an ending in
     Paradise.”

               From Statement announcing the merger of
       Abu Dajana al-Iraqi‟s al-Jama`a as-Salafiyya al-Mujahida
      with Abu Mus`ab al-Zarqawi‟s Jama`at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad,
                             17 May 2004

48
                               UNCLASSIFIED          Law Enforcement Sensitive
     The Pillar of Ideology
                   Idiosyncratic

                 Interpretation of
                Religious Scripture




                                      Violent Jihad: Use of
      SALAFI                            coercive means
     THEOLOGY                          against sanctioned
                                           adversaries



49
                    UNCLASSIFIED             Law Enforcement Sensitive
          Salafi Theology
         Provides doctrinal underpinnings for all radical jihadi groups.
                                salaf = ancestors
         Who are the Salaf al-Salih. . . . The Righteous Ancestors?
               The Prophet Muhammad and his Companions, including the first
               four Caliphs who succeeded him.
                      Relevant Time Period: 610 – 661 a.d.
        The only acceptable sources of religion are the Koran, and the
         words and conduct [Sunna] of the Prophet and his Companions
               Rejection of last 13 centuries of evolution in Muslim thought

         A Salafi: One who adheres to the Koran and the Sunna as
         understood and practiced collectively by the Righteous Ancestors
                Literal interpretation of the Koran, and strict observance of rituals
                Rejection of rulings and methods of traditional schools of law


50
                                        UNCLASSIFIED             Law Enforcement Sensitive
             The 4 Major Schools of Islamic Law

     Mainstream Sunni Islam recognizes 4 schools of jurisprudence
         •The Maliki school - founded by Malik Bin Anas (714-798) in Medina,
         produced the first law manual. Predominant in
              Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco, Kuwait, Bahrain, Sudan, Upper Egypt, West Africa

         •The Hanafi school - founded by Abu Hanifa Nu’man bin Thabit (699-767)
         in Iraq, introduced legal opinion based on analogy. Predominant in
               Turkey, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Southeast Asia, China, India, and Central Asia

         •The Shafi`i school - founded by Muhammad bin Idris al-Shafi`i (767-820),
         focused on the scientific interpretation of the law. Predominant in

               Syria, Lebanon, Egypt, India, East Africa, Malaysia, Indonesia, Palestinians

         •The Hanbali school - founded by Ahmad bin Hanbal (780-855), highly
         conservative, rejects consensus (ijma`) in favor of strict interpretation of the
         Koran and the Sunna. Predominant in

                Saudi Arabia, Qatar

51
                                           UNCLASSIFIED                   Law Enforcement Sensitive
     Salafi Jihadis: GOALS and
     MEANS
     THE GOAL:
         Restoration of an Islamic Order.


     THE MEANS:
         Militant Jihad, violent when
      necessary

52
                    UNCLASSIFIED   Law Enforcement Sensitive
        Restoring Islamic Order
        THE GOAL
     Replace current regimes with Islamic polities

             Rule by pious leader guided by shura (advice)
            of religious scholars

             The Shari`a (religious law) as the only source
            of legislation

             Eventually, restoration of the Caliphate and
            one pan-Islamic state.

53
                             UNCLASSIFIED       Law Enforcement Sensitive
     Restoring an Islamic Order
     THE MEANS
     Although modern Salafis initially promoted peaceful reform, radical Salafi
         scholars and clerics over the past half century have legitimized the use
         of violence as a religious duty.
        “Spiritual” or “charitable” jihad alone not acceptable when Muslims are
        under attack—Jihad remilitarized
        When Muslims are under attack, jihad is an individual obligation (fard
        `ain), which cannot be discharged by mere reliance on institutions or
        governments.
        Errant Muslims and their “corrupt deviations” from the purity of
        ancestral beliefs and practices are responsible for the weakness of the
        Islamic world and its victimization by others
        therefore takfir—to declare Muslim deviationists apostates      and
        allow their killing—is acceptable.


54
                                  UNCLASSIFIED             Law Enforcement Sensitive
     Jihad as an Individual Obligation

     “The ruling to kill the Americans and their allies—civilians
     and military—is an individual duty [fard `ayn] for every
     Muslim who can do it in any country in which it is
     possible to do it, in order to liberate the al-Aqsa Mosque
     and the Holy Mosque from their grip, and in order for
     their armies to move out of all the lands of Islam,
     defeated and unable to threaten any Muslim.”

                                  Statement by World Islamic Front
                                  (al-Qa`ida and four other groups)
                                Declaring War on Crusaders and Jews
                                           23 February 1998




55
                             UNCLASSIFIED             Law Enforcement Sensitive
             Salafi Theology: Ebb and
             Flow
     Historically, Salafi thought has surfaced as a defensive response to
        external challenges.
             13th Century: A. Ibn Taymiyya            Mongol Invasions
             18th Century: M. Ibn Abd al-Wahhab       Ottoman Setbacks
             20th Century: Sayyid Qutb                Colonialism/Secularism
             21st Century: Jihadi clerics             US-led Globalization




56
                                       UNCLASSIFIED          Law Enforcement Sensitive
     Only Jihadis are Good Muslims
       Each Muslim who fights and dies
       for the sake of God is rewarded
       by God. But a Muslim who does
       not fight has no faith and will be
       cursed by God.
                            Usama Bin Ladin




57
                    UNCLASSIFIED        Law Enforcement Sensitive
     Religious Leaders Play A Key
     Role in Jihadi Terrorism

     Terror operatives are the
     perpetrators of jihadi violence . .

     Clerics are its instigators . . .




58
                     UNCLASSIFIED   Law Enforcement Sensitive
      Religious Leaders Play A Key
      Role in Jihadi Terrorism
     The role of religious figures in the jihadi struggle is critical,
     continuous, and hands-on:

            Clerics provide the fatwas that sanction targets and
            weapons

            They are the articulators and interpreters of religious
            scripture and traditions legitimizing jihadi violence

            As teachers and prayer leaders, they condition their
            flocks ideologically for recruitment into jihadi activism




59
                                  UNCLASSIFIED            Law Enforcement Sensitive
     Religious Leaders Play A Key
     Role in Jihadi Terrorism
     Religious figures were the founders of key
     jihadi terrorist organizations
          Shaykh `Abdallah `Azzam: Maktab al-Khadamat (later
          became al-Qa`ida)

          Shaykh `Umar `Abd al-Rahman: Al-Gama`at al-
          Islamiyya

          Shaykh Abu Bakr Ba`asir: Jemaah Islamiya

          Shaykh Abu Muhammad Al-Maqdisi: Zarqawi Network

          Mullah Krekar: Ansar al-Islam
60
                             UNCLASSIFIED      Law Enforcement Sensitive
     The Jihadi Paradigm
     Summarized
     The Salafi ideological paradigm underlying jihadi
     extremism:
       The Muslim world is in crisis, and only a rightly guided
     Islamic State (caliphate) ruled exclusively by the Sharia can
     redeem it.
       Such a State can be created only through jihad, which
     often must be violent since Islam‟s enemies are bent on
     occupying and despoiling Islam‟s lands and resources,
     aided by apostate Muslim leaders.
      Jihad is an individual religious duty, and martyrdom in its
     cause leads directly to Paradise.
      Authoritative religious figures are the legitimizers of jihad,
     and they must sanction appropriate targets.
61
                                UNCLASSIFIED           Law Enforcement Sensitive
     Salafism is a Growing Movement


     Estimated Number of Salafis 1970:

             4 – 6 million
     Estimated Number of Salafis 2004:

            35 – 50 million

     Key Drivers:
       Saudi Global Da‟wa Movement since 1970‟s
       Soviet Defeat in Afghanistan by Mujahidin
62
                       UNCLASSIFIED      Law Enforcement Sensitive
       Not All Salafis are Jihadis



     4 Main Categories
        Establishment Functionaries
        Quietist Grand ‘Ulama
        Activist Reformers (Sahwa)
        Jihadis




63
                   UNCLASSIFIED      Law Enforcement Sensitive
              Some Salafi Markers:
      Names of Mosques
      Following known Salafi preachers
      Particular dress and demeanor
      Extreme reluctance to mix with females
      Reluctance to patronize non-Muslim business
      Tendency to socialize with or be seen frequently with a
       specific group, with a clear leader (Amir)
      Ready willingness to label other Muslims as „kafir‟
      Rejection of standard „democratic‟ norms and values


64
                              UNCLASSIFIED        Law Enforcement Sensitive
     Salafi Markers: Names of Mosques

      Examples of Frequently Used Mosque Names:
            Ibn Taymiyya
            Al-Sunna
            Al-Tawhid
            Al-Farouq
            Al-Furqan
            Al-Taqwah
            Makka al-Mukarrama



65
                            UNCLASSIFIED    Law Enforcement Sensitive
             Salafi Markers: Views on Democracy (I)

      Sovereignty resides in God, not the People

          The popular will, as expressed by majority vote, does not
         rule
          The Ruler governs by applying the Sharia, with the
         advice (Shura) of a council of senior religious scholars
          The Ruler is not elected by a majority of the people, but
         chosen by a consensus of senior „ulama


      The Sharia is the only source of acceptable laws
          Scripture is the final authority, not an agreed-upon and
         amendable constitution. A constitution is acceptable only
         if it enshrines the Sharia as the sole source of legislation.


66
                                         UNCLASSIFIED                    Law Enforcement Sensitive
          Salafi Markers: Views on Democracy (II)

      Civil Liberties

          None beyond those prescribed by the Shari‟a
          No religious freedom: a Muslim is forbidden to convert
         to another faith or become an atheist
          No freedom of speech: only speech allowed is that
         which does not infringe on Islam as interpreted by
         governing religious authority
          No freedom of organization: e.g., forbidden to form a
         political party


67
                                 UNCLASSIFIED           Law Enforcement Sensitive
     Salafi Markers: Views on Democracy (III)

       Equality among Citizens

          No Equality between Muslims and others
             Muslims and Dhimmis have different rights
             and obligations
          No Gender Equality
             Any position that places a woman above a
             man in authority is unacceptable




68
                          UNCLASSIFIED         Law Enforcement Sensitive
     Islamic Jihadi Terror Presents a
     Unique Challenge
      Leaders and followers view their struggle as a RELIGIOUS
      WAR
      Their worldview is defined by the “SALAFI PARADIGM”
      They define their goals in ZERO-SUM TERMS
      They define their battlefield as GLOBAL in scope
      Their choice of TARGETS and WEAPONS is UNRESTRAINED
      They are TRUE BELIEVERS

      Their religious fervor is their
      greatest source of strength.
      It also is their key vulnerability.

69
                          UNCLASSIFIED       Law Enforcement Sensitive
     Ideology is the Key
     Vulnerability
                        OPS
                      SUCCESS




           IDEOLOGY             ORGANIZATION




               Acceptance of JIHADI VIOLENCE
                    Acceptance of JIHADI VIOLENCE
              as act blessed by God and rewarded in
           as an an act blessed by God and rewarded Heaven
                             in Heaven


70
                      UNCLASSIFIED             Law Enforcement Sensitive
     Countering the Paradigm:
     Religious Refutation
         The sense of crisis pervading Muslim-
      Western relations will not disappear within an
      acceptable time-frame from a CT perspective.
         THE ONLY STRATEGY likely to shrink the
      pool of potential terrorists to manageable size is .
      ..

         to sow paralyzing doubt in the minds
         of potential jihadis about the religious
         validity of their conduct


71
                           UNCLASSIFIED         Law Enforcement Sensitive
     Implementation:
     STRATEGY
        First Order — Primary focus message:
         “Jihadi violence leads to Hell, not a Heavenly Reward”
             Instruments:   Fatwas, Counter-Fatwas, & Polemics


        Second Order — General message:
          “Islam can adapt to a technologically advanced and
          globally interdependent world—here is how”
             Instruments:     Content Generators
                                Publications/Websites
                                Research Institutes
                                Conferences
          Identify, Induce, and Support


72
                                     UNCLASSIFIED             Law Enforcement Sensitive
     Three Sources of
     Middle-Eastern Terrorism
        Questions of Palestine/Israel
        Future of Shi`ite revolution
        Establishing the Caliphate
            dar al Islam




73
                            UNCLASSIFIED   Law Enforcement Sensitive
     Major Groups
        al Qaeda
        Hezbollah
        Hamas
        Palestinian
         Islamic Jihad



74
                         UNCLASSIFIED   Law Enforcement Sensitive
             Islamic Demography
        Sunni (90%) Shias (10%)
        Sunnis
            Hanafi Rite—tolerates wide range of
             opinions
            Maliki Rite—seeks compromise with Koran;
             accepts rulings of descendents of
             Companions
            Shafeia Rite—reverts to Prophet
            Hanabali Rite—influenced by Wahhabi
75
                             UNCLASSIFIED   Law Enforcement Sensitive
         Islamic Demography
        Shi`at Ali (followers of Ali)= Shi`ites—
         develop clergy: imam, hojatalislam,
         ayatollah, grand ayatollah
            Sufism—Sufis (mystical tradition)
            Wahhabis
            Salafis


76
                             UNCLASSIFIED    Law Enforcement Sensitive
     Origins of ―al Qaeda‖
     Principal Themes; Ideology,
        Egypt, Afghanistan
      Sayyid Qutb – 1949 Greeley
        CO.
      Saw outward appearances of
        happiness, prosperity as
        actually signs of inner
        corruption and decay
      Americans thought they were
        free but actually trapped by
        selfish and greedy desires

77
                          UNCLASSIFIED   Law Enforcement Sensitive
     Origins
        1950 Qutb returns to
         Egypt
        Joined Muslim
         Brotherhood
        1952 Brotherhood
         supported Gen. Nasser’s
         revolution
        Nasser moved Egypt
         closer to West
        1954 Qutb and other
         Brotherhood arrested by
         security services

78
                           UNCLASSIFIED   Law Enforcement Sensitive
          Origins
        Torturers trained by CIA tortured Qutb and
         Brotherhood
        Qutb covered in animal fat and locked in cell
         with dogs trained to attack humans, had a
         heart attack, but survived
        Torture twisted Qutb further, believed
         western culture unleashed most brutal and
         barbarous aspects of humans
        Conceived idea of jahilliyah; a state of
         barbarous ignorance

79
                             UNCLASSIFIED    Law Enforcement Sensitive
          Origins
        Muslims now infected with jahilliyah
        Qutb called upon revolutionary
         vanguard to overthrow the leaders who
         allowed jahilliyah to infect Muslims
        1966 Qutb put on trial and executed 29
         August 1966.
        Day after execution a secret group set
         up by young man; Ayman Zawahiri.
80
                          UNCLASSIFIED   Law Enforcement Sensitive
          Origins
        By late 1970s Egypt transformed with growing middle
         class.
        Qutb ideas spreading through Egypt, gained
         credence as Sadat regime grows more corrupt
        1977 Sadat flies to Jerusalem to start peace process
        To followers of Qutb, Sadat was now corrupted and
         no longer a Muslim, and could be justifiably killed.
        1979 Iranian Revolution, Khomeini put Qutb’s face on
         a postage stamp



81
                                UNCLASSIFIED      Law Enforcement Sensitive
           Origins
        1980 Zawahiri formed Islamic
         Jihad, leader was Abdel Salam
         Faraj.
        Faraj argued Sadat should be
         killed in a spectacular way, to
         cause masses to rise up
        1980 Sadat assassinated, Cairo
         remains calm
        Zawahiri and 300 other
         conspirators were arrested,
         Zawahiri becomes their
         spokesman
82
                                 UNCLASSIFIED   Law Enforcement Sensitive
         Origins
      Zawahiri receives three year sentence
      Zawahiri tortured and interprets Qutb’s

       theories in an even more radical way
      Masses didn’t rise up because they were

       infected by jahilliyah, so they could be
       legitimately killed as well
     Detour to Afghanistan
83
                        UNCLASSIFIED   Law Enforcement Sensitive
          Al Qaeda?
        Anti-American or anti-western attacks
         springs from extreme interpretation of
         Islamism developed by Zawahiri
        No true organization, an idea prevalent
         among angry Muslim males (primarily)
        Meaning many different Islamist groups
         infected with radicalism
        Intelligence, intelligence, intelligence

84
                           UNCLASSIFIED   Law Enforcement Sensitive
          Remember

        Past behavior is the best predictor of
         future behavior




85
                           UNCLASSIFIED   Law Enforcement Sensitive
          Light at the End of the
          Tunnel?
        Demographic change favors less
         terrorist inclined individuals – young
         males
        Theology- Islamic theologians are
         moving towards denouncing the junk
         theology of Qutb
        Indonesian elections in 2004 repudiate
         hard Islamic parties

86
                          UNCLASSIFIED   Law Enforcement Sensitive
           Law Enforcement Roles:
           Terrorism Prevention

        Regardless of assignment,
         every law enforcement officer
         has a role in the war on terrorism
        While specialized terrorism units may have
         the lead responsibility for terrorism-related
         operations, all officers have a supporting
         role
87
                            UNCLASSIFIED   Law Enforcement Sensitive
     Information and Intelligence
        Community policing principles
         stress that information and
         intelligence are key factors in
         addressing and responding to
         community concerns
        Nowhere is this more critical than in
         identifying and preventing terrorist
         attacks
88
                       UNCLASSIFIED   Law Enforcement Sensitive
     Terrorism Indicators




89
                 UNCLASSIFIED   Law Enforcement Sensitive
     Probable Methods of Attack
        Terrorists study and learn from previous
         terror campaigns
        Goal is asymmetry—not to defeat
         stronger forces, but to show that strong
         forces cannot prevail
        Law enforcement needs to study
         previous attacks to learn methods

90
                       UNCLASSIFIED   Law Enforcement Sensitive
     Pre-Incident Indicators and
     Warning Signs
        History has shown that terrorist attacks
         do not occur in a vacuum
             Attacks are organized and planned weeks,
              months, or sometimes years in advance


         The planning stage is law enforcement‟s
           best opportunity to prevent attacks

91
                           UNCLASSIFIED   Law Enforcement Sensitive
             Pre-Incident Indicators and
             Warning Signs (continued)
        Most domestic terrorists/extremists
         are relatively easy to detect
        Warning signs will include
            Dress
            Speech
            Writing
            Actions
            Markings

92
                           UNCLASSIFIED   Law Enforcement Sensitive
     Pre-Incident Indicators and
     Warning Signs (continued)
        International terrorists will be more
         difficult to detect and will exhibit fewer
         warning signs than domestic groups
         and individuals
        Officers will have to use basic police
         instincts raised to a higher level
        Keep An Open Mind!



93
                          UNCLASSIFIED     Law Enforcement Sensitive
     General Observations
        Middle-Eastern males living together
        Money with no furnishings
        Disputes among close-knit groups of
         Middle-Eastern males
        Radical literature
        Hand-drawn maps


94
                       UNCLASSIFIED   Law Enforcement Sensitive
     General Observations                (continued)


        Loitering around sensitive areas
        Loud, boisterous behavior in a Middle-Eastern
         group
        Large quantities of hundred-dollar bills not
         associated with observable lifestyle
        Cypher/code packs
        Repeated use of ―God‖ not coupled with
         profanity
        Use of foreign terms/phrases not in context
95
        Misstatements of common American terminology
                         UNCLASSIFIED   Law Enforcement Sensitive
     Pre-Incident Indicators—
     Surveillance
        Personnel observed near identified
         potential targets carrying video cameras
         or observation equipment with high-
         magnification lenses
        Persons observed with maps, photos, or
         diagram sketches with facilities
         highlighted
        Persons possessing or observed using
         night-vision devices
96
                       UNCLASSIFIED   Law Enforcement Sensitive
     Pre-Incident Indicators—
     Surveillance (continued)
        Individuals observed parking, standing, or
         loitering in the same areas over multiple days
        A pattern or series of false alarms requiring
         law enforcement and/or emergency response
        Reported thefts of military, law enforcement,
         or fire ID cards, license plates, uniforms, etc.




97
                          UNCLASSIFIED    Law Enforcement Sensitive
     Pre-Incident Indicators—
     Surveillance (continued)
        Nonmilitary persons stopped with
         military-style weapons, clothing, or
         equipment
        Reports of computer hackers
         attempting to access sites with personal
         identification, maps, or other targeting
         examples

98
                       UNCLASSIFIED   Law Enforcement Sensitive
     Pre-Incident Indicators—
     Weapons Attack
        Theft or unusual sale of large numbers of
         semiautomatic weapons
        Theft or large sale of ammunition
        Reports of automatic weapons firing
        Theft or sale of protective body armor to
         non-law enforcement persons
        Paramilitary groups carrying out training
         scenarios

99
                        UNCLASSIFIED   Law Enforcement Sensitive
      Pre-Incident Indicators—
      Explosive Attack
         Theft of explosives or sale of large
          amounts of explosive powder, blasting
          caps, or high-velocity explosives
         Large sale of ammonium nitrate fertilizer
         Theft or sale of containers (i.e., propane
          bottles, propane tanks, etc.)



100
                         UNCLASSIFIED    Law Enforcement Sensitive
            Pre-Incident Indicators—Truck
            Bombs
         Theft of explosives, explosive materials,
          or chemicals
         Small test explosions in rural or wooded areas
         Treatment of chemical burns or missing
          hands/fingers
         Untreated chemical burns or missing hands/fingers


101
                               UNCLASSIFIED   Law Enforcement Sensitive
      Pre-Incident Indicators—Truck
      Bombs (continued)
         Rental of self-storage space (for
          chemicals, etc.)
         Delivery of chemicals to self-storage
          facility
         Chemical fires, toxic odors, brightly
          colored stains, or rusted metal fixtures
          in apartments, hotel/motel rooms, or
          self-storage units

102
                        UNCLASSIFIED   Law Enforcement Sensitive
      Pre-Incident Indicators—Truck
      Bombs (continued)
         Rental, theft, or purchase of a one-ton
          (or larger) truck or van
         Modification of truck/van with heavy
          duty springs to handle heavier loads
         Physical surveillance of target multiple
          times
         Purchase of or illegal access to target
          blueprints
103
                        UNCLASSIFIED   Law Enforcement Sensitive
         Pre-Incident Indicators—Truck
         Bombs (continued)
                                     Maximum         Lethal       Minimum         Falling
       Vehicle Description           Explosive      Air Blast    Evacuation       Glass
                                     Capacity        Range        Distance        Hazard
                                     500 pounds
                    Compact           227 kilos      100 feet     1,500 feet      1,250 feet
                     sedan            (in trunk)    30 meters    457 meters      381 meters

                    Full size       1,000 pounds
                                                     125 feet     1,750 feet      1,750 feet
                     sedan            455 kilos
                                                    38 meters    534 meters      534 meters
                                       (in trunk)
                 Passenger van      4,000 pounds     200 feet     2,750 feet      2,750 feet
                  or cargo van       1,818 kilos    61 meters    838 meters      838 meters

                  Small box van     10,000 pounds    300 feet      3,750 feet     3,750 feet
                   (14 foot box)      4,545 kilos   91 meters    1,143 meters   1,143 meters

                   Box van or
                                    30,000 pounds    450 feet      6,500 feet     6,500 feet
                 water/fuel truck
                                     13,636 kilos   137 meters   1,982 meters   1,982 meters

                   Semitrailer      60,000 pounds     600 feet     7,000 feet     7,000 feet
104                                  27,273 kilos   183 meters   2,134 meters   2,134 meters
 104                                         UNCLASSIFIED             Law Enforcement Sensitive
      Pre-Incident Indicators—Other
      Attack
         Theft or burglaries at army surplus
          stores and/or state surplus stores
         Rental of storage units for storage of
          nontraditional items (i.e., fertilizer, fuel
          oil, propane, etc.)




105
                          UNCLASSIFIED   Law Enforcement Sensitive
            Pre-Incident Indicators—Other
         Claims of conspiracy and/or attacks
         Jail intelligence
         Presence of pamphlets, communiqués,
          flyers, etc.
         Terrorist literature and manuals
         Bomb-making manuals
         Law enforcement training manuals


106
                             UNCLASSIFIED   Law Enforcement Sensitive
            Pre-Incident Indicators—Other
            (continued)


         Evidence of drug proceeds
          going to support terrorist
          organizations
         Large-scale drug-for-
          gun/explosive exchanges
         Recruiting drug dealers
          for political causes
         Illegally obtaining
          bomb-making materials
107
                               UNCLASSIFIED   Law Enforcement Sensitive
              Pre-Incident Indicators—Other
              (continued)


         Document fraud
             Counterfeit or altered driver’s licenses
             Altered vehicle registrations and license plates
             Suspicious identification cards (all types)
             Numerous places of
              residence that may
              not exist
             Possession of
              forged documents


108
                                     UNCLASSIFIED       Law Enforcement Sensitive
      Other Criminal Activity Associated
      With Terrorist Groups
         Credit card fraud
         Producing/using bogus prepaid
          telephone calling cards
         Producing/selling counterfeit
          designer clothing and other
          trademarked goods
         Selling stolen property, often
          obtained with bogus credit cards
         Counterfeiting currency
         Tampering with public records
109
                          UNCLASSIFIED   Law Enforcement Sensitive
            Other Criminal Activity Associated With Terrorist
            Groups (continued)


         Bank, mail, and telephone fraud schemes
         Visa and immigration fraud
         Impersonation of public officials
         Possession of stolen property
         Selling contraband
          (e.g., cigarettes, other)
         Money laundering or reverse
          money laundering
110
                               UNCLASSIFIED    Law Enforcement Sensitive
      Investigators’ Observations
         Watch for the following
             Links to bootlegging schemes
                  Cigarettes
                  Baby formula schemes
                  Grocery store coupons
             Protection rackets
             Connections to other suspicious
               groups
             Charities that do not fit the area
111
                               UNCLASSIFIED   Law Enforcement Sensitive
            Conclusions
         International terrorism increasingly
          dominated by violent religious
          extremism
         Understand the terrorist’s operational
          environment – ―modus operandi‖
         Develop strong confidence building
          ties with the communities from which
          terrorists are most likely to come
112
                           UNCLASSIFIED   Law Enforcement Sensitive
           Conclusions (cont.)
         Disrupt/interrupt the planning process –
          force terrorists to pay more attention to
          their own organizational security
         The intelligence function is critical to
          disruption
         The Army breaks things, the Marines
          break people, Law Enforcement breaks
          terrorists.

113
                            UNCLASSIFIED   Law Enforcement Sensitive
      Questions?




114
                   UNCLASSIFIED   Law Enforcement Sensitive

								
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