01 -Intro

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01 -Intro Powered By Docstoc
					     Introduction to
Information Technology
   What is an Information?
   What is a technology?
   What is information technology?
   What is the relationship between
    information, application and
Information Technology is the use of
computer & communication technology.

IT is the merging of computers,
applications and resources with
high-speed communications links carrying
all sort of data i.e text, images, sound,
video animations or simulations.
Information Technology (IT)
   Information - refers to the creation,
    gathering, processing, storing and
    delivery of sort of information (text,
    images, audio, video and animation).

   Hardware - Physical equipment like,
    system, modem, screens, printers,
    computers, telephone media etc.

   Software - List of programs, packages and
    applications that uses hardware and done its
    codes or jobs.
                      IT Process

 Hardware Resources                Software Resources

CPU   Memory   I/O     Etc.   Application        System
                               Software         Software
       Transmitting Tech
     Packets of information are being sent
      by set of network rules (protocols).
    • Internet protocol (IP)
    • Transport control protocol (TCP)
      Messages, mails and other data are
      decomposed into packets and sent to
      destination end, where all these are
      reassembled into the original
      message at the receiving machine.
Information Processing Cycle

     Input
     Processing
     Output
     Storage
     Distribution
IT Characteristics

   Speed
   Reliability
   Storage capability

                  Productivity
                  Decision making
                  Cost reduction
         IT Evolution
The history of computing hardware is
the record of the constant change &
improvement computer hardware that
reasoned faster, cheaper, reliable, and
object oriented and solutions based

Its earlier history is based calculators
and counting equipment but in 20th
century made great advances in
electronic computers.
Electrical Numerical Integrator And
Calculator (ENIAC) was developed by
John Mauchly and J Presper Eckert in
1946 by the US Government to fill the
increasing need for computer capacity to
calculate long tables and other essential
The ENIAC contained 17,468 vacuum
tubes, along with 70,000 resistors,
10,000 capacitors, 1,500 relays, 6,000
manual switches and 5 million soldered
joints. It covered 1800 square feet (167
square meters) of floor space, weighed
30 tons, consumed 160 kilowatts of
electrical power .
Transistor is not a computer,
but this invention greatly
affected the history of

John Bardeen, William
Shockley, and Walter Brattain
at the Bell Laboratories,
invented transistor in 1947,
it is great achievement in
computer and electronics
Universal Automatic
Computer (UNIVAC)
was a computer
milestone achieved by
Dr. Presper Eckert and
Dr. John Mauchly,
invented UNIVAC in
Integrated Circuit (IC)
 The Integrated Circuit is
 called THE CHIP invented in
 1958, IC contain thousands
 of transistors in its small

 It is major invention after
 transistor because it can
 perform fast and reliable
The Original Internet, being in year
1969 at deptt of Defence (DoD), it is
grandfather of the Internet.

ARPAnet protected the flow of
information between military
installations by creating a network
between geographically separated
Intel 1103

Intel-1103 was the World's First RAM
Chip. In 1970, the newly formed Intel
company publicly released with 1K bit

Dennard, developed Intel-1103 by
simpler memory cell that used only a
single transistor and a small capacitor.
 Intel 4004
In 1971 world's first single chip
microprocessor, the Intel-4004
invented by Intel engineers, it is
world's first universal

Ted Hoff recognize that the new
silicon-gated MOS technology
might make a single-chip CPU
(central processing unit) possible.
   IBM 5100
The first consumer
computer came in
market in early 1970s,
the demand for IBM-
5100 was increased
because it could be used
at home as well as in
the office.
On August 12, 1981, IBM
introduced new operating
system from Microsoft and a
16-bit computer operating
system called MS-DOS
version 1.0
  Apple Macintosh
In 1984 Apple designed
Apple Macintosh a television
like commercial PC.

GUI based Apple Macintosh
being used in general
market applications, banking
and accounting schemes,
acedmic and research areas.
     MS Windows
In 1983, Microsoft Corporation
formally announced Microsoft
Windows, a next-generation
operating system that would provide
a graphical user interface (GUI) and
a multitasking environment for IBM
Before 1990 there was no concept of public

ARPAnet made realized on the idea to distribute
information between geographically dispersed
computers, for this purpose ARPAnet created
the TCP/IP communications standard, which
defines data transfer on the Internet today,
finally it launched www protocol in 1990.

With the help of www PCs could be able to
share the information, data and other material
at any part of world.
      Information Society
Information society is based on
integrated & interrelated networks that
develop and exchange information.

Its core usage in Auto, Academic, Govt
Institutions, Military research, Public &
mobile companies, shopping malls, post
offices, roads, railways and airline
   National Archives
   Federal & Provincial domains
   Forecast weather,
   E-government, E-Commerce
   Process immigrants
   Taxes
   Registration: birth, identity, car
   Desktop Publishing
    Healthcare & Medicine

   Sophisticated surgery & transplant

   Monitor patients

   Electronic imaging (CT/MRI/US)

   Diagnose illnesses

   Tele-health, Tele-medicine
      Business and Industry
   Transaction Processing
   Process control
   Robotics
   Aviation
   GIS, GPS
   Databases
   Record keeping
   Net Banking
   Credit, Debit, ATM & Prepaid cards
    Home & Entertainment

   MS Office and other Applications
   Desktop publishing
   Multimedia
   Online Streaming
   Shopping, News and Gaming
   Downloading
   Email, Chatting & Surfing.
     Education and Training
   Virtual learning
   Digital Libraries.
   Computer Based Training (CBT)
   Video Conferences
   Grid computing
   Distance learning i.e courses,
    assignments, quiz and online tests.
   Aptitude Tests
   Computer Literacy
          Arts & Design
   Animations
   Graphics Designing
   Interior Decoration Software
   Fine Arts
   Digital photography.
   Audio/Video Capture, Editing &
   Sketch & Hand arts.
       Law Enforcement
   Fingerprint applications
   Criminal recording
   Incamera briefings & Virtual courts
   Cyber crimes
   Machine readable licenses/passports
   GPS
   Rapid transit systems
   Load containerships
   Track railroad cars
   Monitor air traffic
   Moterways watch & E-toll.
   Information Systems
A set of interrelated information
technologies that work together to
process, store, collect, and distribute

  Major parts
• Hardware
• Software
• Databases
• Networks

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