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Ocean Energy

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					Ocean Energy
   By Erin McGowan
and Jackie Vandewater
              Ocean Energy
 Primary    Types of Ocean Power:
     Wave Energy
      • Wave Power
     Tidal Energy
     Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)
     Ocean Current Energy
      • Early stages of development
      • Not a lot is known about this specific type of
        energy
     Wave Energy and Power
 Wave  Energy is captured directly from
 surface waves or from pressure
 fluctuations below the surface.
    Wave Power uses devices to extract energy
     directly from the surface motion of ocean waves
     or from pressure fluctuations below the surface.
                   Wave Energy
   One way to harness wave energy is to bend or
    focus the waves into a narrow channel,
    increasing their power and size.
       The waves can then be channeled into a catch basin
        or used directly to spin turbines.
   Another way to harness wave energy is with an
    Oscillating Water Column (OWC) that
    generates electricity from the wave-driven rise
    and fall of water in a cylindrical shaft or pipe.
       The rising and falling water drives air into and out of
        the top of the shaft, powering an air-driven turbine.
                  Wave Power
 Wave power involves conversion devices
  that bob up and down with passing swells.
 Float devices can generate electricity from
  the bobbing action of a floating object.
 The object can be mounted to a floating
  raft or to a device fixed on the ocean floor.
       These types of devices can power lights and
        whistles on buoys.
                     Tidal Energy
   The generation of electricity from tides is similar to
    hydroelectric generation, except that tidal water
    flows in two directions.
   The simplest generating system for tidal plants
    involves a dam, known as a barrage, across an
    inlet.
       Sluice gates on the barrage
        allow the tidal basin to fill on the
        incoming high tides and to
        empty through the turbine system
        on the ebb tide (outgoing tide).
             Tidal Energy
 Tidal fences can also harness the energy in
  the tides.
 A tidal fence has vertical axis turbines
  mounted within a fence structure, called a
  caisson, that completely blocks a channel,
  forcing all of the water through it.
 Unlike barrage stations, tidal fences can be
  used in unconfined basins, such as in a
  channel between the mainland and a nearby
  offshore island, or between two islands.
                   Tidal Energy
 Tidal turbines are a new technology that
  can be used in many tidal areas.
 Tidal turbines are basically wind turbines that
  can be located wherever there is strong
  tidal flow, as well as in river estuaries.
 Since water is about 800 times as dense as
  air, tidal turbines will have to be much
  sturdier than wind turbines.
       They will be heavier and more expensive to build,
        but will be able to capture more energy.
           Ocean Thermal Energy
            Conversion (OTEC)
 OTEC has the potential to produce more
  energy than tidal, wave, and wind energy
  combined.
 The OTEC systems can be open or closed.
 In an open system, the steam is turned into
  fresh water, and new surface water is
  added to the system.
       A transmission cable carries the electricity to the
        shore.
          Ocean Thermal Energy
           Conversion (OTEC)
   In a closed system, an evaporator turns
    warm surface water into steam under
    pressure.
       This steam spins a turbine generator to
        produce electricity.
   Water pumps bring cold deep water
    through pipes to a condenser on the
    surface.
       The cold water condenses the steam, and
        the closed cycle begins again.
Development of Innovations
   Ocean Energy still needs to undergo much more
    development before it can be implemented in
    more areas
       Wave Energy is the most developed type of Ocean Energy
   Wave Energy/Power:
       The Pelamis by Ocean Power Delivery of Scotland
       PowerBuoy by Ocean Power Technologies
       Aquabuoy by AquaEnergy
       Wave Dragon by Wave Dragon, Inc.
   Tidal Energy:
       La Rance, France
       Verdant Power – water turbines
   OTEC: only experimental plants, no large operations
Ocean Energy Implementation
 Where:
     India’s West Coast
     New Jersey, Hawaii, Spain, Portugal, Oregon,
      Washington, British Columbia, South Africa
     Maine
 How:
     2005 – 2006
     Mostly funded through
      governments
     Private companies
                          John McCarthy (left) & John Keating (right) of OceanEnergy Limited with the
                           OceanEnergy Pioneer Award 2008 pictured with Eoin Sweeney (Head of the
                           Ocean Energy Development Unit (OEDU, Sustainable Energy Ireland) at the
                          EnergyOcean Conference which took place in Galveston, Texas, June 2008.
         Are Citizens Using the
             Innovation?
   Issues with energy efficiency, engineering and
    expenses
   Nations and developed countries
   Some small nations
   Not always connected to grid
   Wildlife and habitat to
    erosion, navigation hazards
    and commercial fishing
    impacts
Maine’s Ocean Energy Progress
 “FERC  grants nine tidal
  energy permits in Maine”
 9 of 14 companies
 Untapped before 2005
 Extensive work
 Gulf of Maine
        Analysis of the Innovation
 Not leading alternative energy source
 Technology must catch up
 Not all states have access to a body of water


   Goals:
       Reduce costs
       Address environmental concerns


   Expectations:
       10 years, give or take
                                      Works Cited
"Chapter 7: Ocean Power." Editorial. Santa Barbara County Renewable Energy Blueprint. Community Environmental
    Council, n.d. Web. 21 Dec. 2009. <http://www.cecsb.org/storage/
    communityenvironmentalcouncil/documents/ch7_ocean_power.pdf>.

"Energy Ocean 2009." Energy Ocean 2009. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Dec. 2009. <http://www.energyocean.com/2009/>.

"Maine Ocean Energy - Department of Community and Economic Development - News." Maine Ocean Energy -
    Department of Community and Economic Development. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2009.
     <http://www.maineoceanenergy.com/news/default.asp>.

"Maine Tidal Power - General." Maine Tidal Power - Home. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Dec. 2009.
    <http://www.mainetidalpower.com/general/index.html>.

"Ocean Current Energy." Editorial. OCS Alternative Energy and Alternate Use Programmatic EIS Information Center.
    United States Department of the Interior, Minerals Management Service, 2009. Web. 21 Dec. 2009.
    <http://ocsenergy.anl.gov/guide/current/index.cfm>.

"Ocean Wave Energy." Editorial. OCS Alternative Energy and Alternate Use Programmatic EIS Information Center. United
    States Department of the Interior, Minerals Management Service, 2009. Web. 21 Dec. 2009.
    <http://ocsenergy.anl.gov/guide/current/index.cfm>.

"The Ocean Energy Institute." The Ocean Energy Institute. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Dec. 2009. <http://www.oceanenergy.org/>.

United States Department of the Interior, Minerals Management Service. Editorial. Ocean Energy. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Dec.
     2009. <http://www.mms.gov/mmsKids/PDFs/OceanEnergyMMS.pdf>.

"Wave Energy Technology ." Massachusetts Technology Collaborative. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2009.
    <http://www.masstech.org/cleanenergy>.

				
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