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Hazards The earth’s surface is

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					The earth’s surface is cracked into a     Below the earth’s surface is a hot molten
number of pieces like an eggshell –       layer of rock. Convection currents in this
these pieces are called tectonic plates   layer move the tectonic plates – this
                                          causes earthquakes and volcanoes
At constructive plate                                               At destructive plate
margins, 2 plates are                                               margins 2 plates are
moving apart. Molten                                                moving together. I
rock from the mantle                                                plate is denser then the
comes to the surface                                                other and therefore
which creates new land                                              subducts beneath the
(hence the name                                                     other therefore
constructive)                                                       destroying land (hence
earthquakes and                                                     the name destructive).
volcanoes are found at      Constructive         Destructive        As the subducted rock
these boundaries                                                    reaches the mantle it
                                                                    melts and pressure
                                                                    builds up to form
                                                                    volcanoes, the
                                       Conservative                 movememt of the
                                                                    plates causes
                                                                    eathquakes
                         At conservative plate margins plates are
                         either moving past each other in the
                         opposite direction or in the same
                         direction at different speeds. There are
                         no volcanoes here but friction builds
                         up and causes earthquakes
Kashmir is on the border of
India and Pakistan. It’s a
mountainous area, in fact
its part of the Himalayas.
The people who live there
earn a living by farming
the fertile soils, and by
tourism. Most people live in
the towns of Muzaffarabad
and Srinagar, but some
also live in remote villages.
This area is right where two plates
are colliding. Its called a
collision zone. The Indian plate is
squashing into the Eurasian
plate. This is what made the
Himalayas in the first place, and
its still going on.
On 8 th October 2005, the
strain proved too much.
One mass of rock
suddenly slid upwards
and set off the earthquake.
•At 8.40 am on Saturday 8 th October 2005. A massive
earthquake hits Kashmir in Pakistan.
•Its focus is 26km down.
•The quake measure 7.6 on the Richter Scale
•The shaking lasts for 60 seconds
•Aftershocks (reaching up to 6 on the Richter Scale) continue for
up to 2 days
Buildings collapsed                 In rural areas the crops mostly    Bridges toppled
                                    survived and so did the animals.
                                    So farmers could continue their
                                    jobs and markets re-opened
                                    quickly
100,000 people were injured in      Landslides                         Windows shattered
Kashmir
Electricity lines were brought      Schools were damaged and closed    3.3 million homes were destroyed
down so people were left without    and students lost their books      by the quake
electricity and reconstruction
was made harder.

Furniture fell over                 79,000 people were killed in       The overall cost of the damage is
                                    Kashmir                            expected to be over $5 billion

Disease spread – mainly             Signs fell off walls and roads     School children were buried under
diarrhoea from contaminated         cracked                            collapsed school buildings
water and respiratory infections
like pneumonia
3.3 million people lost their homes People died of cold in the harsh   In urban areas lots of people lost
and were forced to live in          winter as they only had thin       their jobs as their offices or shops
temporary shelters until            tents to live in                   were damaged
rebuilding could start in the
spring
Local people started trying to          The border between Pakistan and Indian was
rescue those who were trapped           opened in a few places to allow food and
                                        emergency supplies to cross
The Indian Red Cross
distributed 21,500 blankets, 300       Tents were given out by
kitchen sets, and medical              charities like Muslim Aid and
supplies                               the Pakistani and Indian armies


The army and emergency                 Pakistani Airways carried
services arrived to help dig           emergency food and supplies
people out                             from other countries for free


Helicopters from the military         Military hospitals were opened
were used to take the injured to      for civilian causalities
first aid centres on flatter
ground

               Rescue and medical teams
               arrived from other countries
               such as Russia and the UK, to
               try to find survivors and treat
               the injured
                                                                 Building regulations have been
                                                                 tightened to make sure that
                                                                 next time there will be less
                                                                 damage and fewer deaths
                             Schools were rebuilt and re-
                             supplied




                                                                Sanitation is supplied for the
                                                                temporary houses.

The Red Cross re-established
water supplies in Muzaffarabad


                                                  Teachers were trained in
                                                  counselling to help traumatized
                                                  children
The tents weren’t enough for the cold
winter, so the army and Red Crescent built
pre-fabricated homes using corrugated tin
for people to live in until they had rebuilt
their houses
                                      Monitor the levels of radon gas
    Monitor the behaviour of            – more gas means more
            animals                     chance of an earthquake

Use lasers to monitor any earth
                                     Water ground water levels – if
         movements
                                      they suddenly rise or fall an
                                     earthquake may be imminent

Have regular earthquake
drills to prepare the             Have a warning system in place
population                            to warn the population

   Have prepared emergency
    services to deal with the         Have sufficient food, water,
           aftermath                  medical supplies and shelter
                                      available to cope afterwards
                                                             Deforestation –
Heavy rain
                                                             cutting down trees
         Prolonged                                           means they cannot
         rainfall                                            store precipitation
                                                             and therefore more
                                                             reaches the river
Snow melt

                                                         Urbanisation – urban
     Steep valley sides
                                                         areas have more
     means water runs
                                                         impermeable surfaces
     over them quickly
                             More people                 like tarmac and concrete
     to the river
                             living it at risk           therefore water runs
                                                         over the surface into the
                             areas on flood
       Impermeable                                       river faster
                             plains (the area
       rock – means          next to the river
       water cannot          which is likely to
       soak in, instead it                        C02 emissions cause global
                             flood)
       runs quickly over                          warming which is causing more
       the surface to                             rain
       the river
Prolonged heavy rainfall (150mm in      Snowmelt in North York Moors added to more
3 days) led to the River Derwent        surface run-off and worsened the flood
bursting its banks
                                       It has rained so much the ground was saturated
                                       and no more water could soak in –therefore the
                                       rain ran straight over the surface into the river
  Many properties were under 1.5
  metres of water
                                      Many people          Worst flood in 70 years
                                      evacuated
 Effected many towns including
                                      from their
 Pickering and Mappleton                                  Sewage leaked into flood
                                      homes
                                                          water and posed serious
                                                          health risks
  Roads turned to rivers      Railways were cut off
                              Boats and canoes were         Most peoples belongings
                              used to rescue people         were covered by insurance
  Many people’s property
  and belongings were
                                              People were put up in temporary
  damaged
                                              accommodation e.g. Leisure centres
                                             Much of the land in the drainage basin is
                                             rural with few settlements so there has
                                             been little need for flood management.

Some of the river has           Washlands have been
been built up on either         created between the river
side with                       and the embankments to
embankments to keep             store water in times of flood
the water in
                                                     Local emergency services have
                                                     evacuation plans in place
Monitoring stations have been
introduced to give early
warnings of floods and allow             TV and radio stations give out flood
time for evacuation                      warnings
January 4th 2000 – 3 day storm
struck Mozambique, more than
350mm of rain in 1 day


                 January/February – continuous
                 heavy rain for 5 weeks (1163mm
                 of rainfall compared to an
                 average of 177mm in Feb)


                                     February 22 – Cyclone Eline
                                     struck Mozambique, bringing
                                     more torrential rain
Growing population has put
pressure on the land

                    Grasslands which acted as a
                    sponge and soaked up water
                    have been destroyed due to
                    overgrazing and deforestation

     Marshy wetlands at the side of          Huge growth of urban
     the river which soaked up water         areas like Pretoria and
     have been destroyed by farming          Johannesburg have led
     and building new settlements.           to more impermeable
                                             surfaces which lead to
                                             more run-off into rivers
             Houses were completely        Roads and bridges
             submerged in water and –      cut off
             people clung to roof tops
             awaiting rescue

High day time temperatures               Helicopters were used to
attracted mosquitoes – which             rescue people
spread disease

Many people relied on             Over a million made
agriculture and crops and         homeless
animals were destroyed
                               1000’s drowned and many
Houses were completely         more injured
submerged in water and –
people clung to roof tops      Many ended up living in
awaiting rescue                refugee camps - with no
                               samitation and little food –
                               disease spread and many more
                               died
                              They were in the process of
                              setting up an EU funded project
                              to give early warnings, however it
                              was not operational – if it was it
                              would have saved a lot of lives

The EU project has installed high
tech equipment to monitor rainfall        There are
and river levels – which will give        embankments on some
early warnings and allow people           rivers but not many and
to evacuate to higher ground              not in a co-ordinated
                                          way – the country is
                                          poor so cannot afford
                                          much flood
                                          management
Build embankments either
                                   Straighten the river so
side of the river to keep the
                                   water can flow through
water in, these are
                                   more quickly – can cause
sometimes called levees –
                                   flooding downstream
can cause flooding
downstream and if the
embankments fail the flood           Prevent building on flood
would be worse than if they          plains as this will allow the
weren’t there                        land to soak up water

Prevent deforestation, the
trees will store water and
slow down its passage to
the river – this is difficult in
poor countries where woos
is the main fuel source

				
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