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AP English Literature _ Composition - DOC


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									English: Literature & Composition                           Names: Aldina Jakupovic, Zobiya Momin, Hong Nguyen, Oanh Tran. Edgar Jimenez
                                                               Major Works Data Sheet
   Title: The Stranger                                                     Biographical Information about the Author
                                                                                    Albert Camus was born in November 1913 in Mondovi, Algeria.
                                                                                    Camus' father left the family when Camus was a baby to fight in
   Author: Albert Camus; Translator: Matthew Ward                                   WWI, and passed away leaving Camus' illiterate mother to care for
                                                                                    the family. Because Camus only had his mother, the mother-son
   Date of publication: 1946                                                        relationship is prominent in his works. Camus was accepted into the
                                                                                    University of Algeria for philosophy. After graduating from
                                                                                    college, Camus took part in theater. In 1940, Camus married
   Genre: Postmodern Existentialism                                                 Simone Hie, but later divorced because Hie was a drug addict.
                                                                                    From 1937 till 1939, Camus wrote for the Alger-Republican, and
                                                                                    then he moved onto Soir-Republican. Then in 1940, Camus
                                                                                    remarried to Francine Faure, a pianist and mathematician. During
                                                                                    WWII, Camus became a writer for the French Resistance and
                                                                                    became an editor for the newspaper Combat. Camus' reputation was
                                                                                    growing and he wrote several books including The Stranger, The
                                                                                    Plague, The Fall, and Exile and the Kingdom. Camus also wrote
                                                                                    philosophical essays including The Myth of Sisyphus and The
                                                                                    Rebel. In 1957, Camus was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature.
                                                                                    Three years later on 4 January 1960, Camus passed away due to a
                                                                                    car accident.
   Historical Information about Period of Publication                               Characteristics of the Genre
   World War II has just ended and the world is now in tensions;                    Postmodern Existentialism- A philosophy that emphasizes the
   colonies are fighting for their independence from big imperialist                uniqueness and isolation of the individual experience in a
   nations like England and France. During this time the Algerian                   hostile or indifferent universe, regards human existence as
   Movement emerges fighting to get their independence from                         unexplainable, and stresses freedom of choice and responsibility
   France. Moreover, this is the time period between the end of                     for the consequences of one's acts. Existentialism was based on
   World War II and the Cold War, weapons of mass destruction are                   the principle which states that existence precedes essence; you
   being built and people are afraid of another war.                                define yourself at each given moment by acting at each given
   http://www.answers.com/topic/1946                                                 http://www.shmoop.com/the-stranger/genre.html
   Plot Summary (1 paragraph)
    Meursault's mother has passed away; however Meursault does not show any remorse to this news. Meursault takes the news very lightly and agrees to
   attend the funeral because it is expected. At his mother's care home, he said he did not want to see his mother for the last time. When the funeral officially
   started, Meursault paid more attention to the people and environment surrounding him rather than the funeral’s purpose. Meursault acts as he does not know
   his mother’s wants and needs. After the funeral he leaves immediately and goes to the beach where he met an old friend, Marie. They hung out the whole
   day and hooked up at the end of the day. The next day, Meursault returns to work and his ordinary and simple schedule. Meursault's neighbors are also
   introduced in the novel: Salamano and his dog and Raymond. Salamano lives with his dog and they are like an old married couple because they have been
   living together for so long and would often aggravate each other for no reason. Raymond, who is said to be a warehouse guard, is often seen with women
   and he even asksMeursault to write an angry letter for Raymond to send to Raymond's ex-girlfriend. One day Marie asked Meursault if he loves her and
   wants to get married. Meursault refuses and says it does not matter, but if Marie wants to then he will. Later on, a scream is heard and it is Raymond beating
   up his ex-girlfriend. On the weekend, Raymond took Meursault and Marie to his friend's, Masson, house. While traveling to Masson's house, the three
   friends saw that Arab men were following them, and one of the men turns out to be Raymond's ex-girlfriend's brother. At the beach, they saw the Arab men
   again and as tensions rose, Raymond and Masson got into a fight with the Arabs. Raymond got struck with a knife and after receiving aid from a nearby
   doctor, Raymond and Meursault started walking to an end of the beach where they encounter the Arabs again. At this point, the four men just sat in silent
   and secretly eyeing each other. Raymond and Meursault started walking back to Masson's house, but Meursault decided to walk back to where the Arabs
   were lying with Raymond’s gun in his pocket. As he continues to walk, he describes how the sun was burning on him causing him to get a headache and
   somewhat frustrated. Meursault claims the sun continues to beat on him which causes him to step towards the Arab and shot the man. As the man fell
   down, Meursault shoots the Arab four more time. In the second part of the novel, Meursault is arrested for his murder. In the beginning of his prison’s life,
   he is often visited by his defense attorney and the magistrate. During these questionings, Meursault says he does not believe in God which angers the
   magistrate. Shortly after being in prison, Meursault started to stop smoking and missing the free time he had with Marie as he realizes he was no longer a
   free man. Marie would visit him, however was stopped shortly after because she was not a spouse. When Meursault’s trial finally started, he was fascinated
   by how much the public was interested in his case rather than the case. Some people Meursault knew were called to testify. People at his mother’s care home
   talked about his calm and odd behavior at the funeral, while Raymond confessed that he was the one that started all this, and Marie’s statement adds onto the
   public’s mindset that Meursault was a heartless man. Altogether the trial included more information for being emotionless towards his mother, which shows
   that he does not have any feeling thus he intentionally wanted to kill the Arab. However, Meursault states that it was the sun’s extreme heat that influences
   him. At the end, Meursault is founded guilty and will be executed. In his jail cell, he had time to think alone. He thought about how it would feel if he was
   the one that was looking into an execution rather than the one being executed. He starts to wonder how life would be for Marie and others once he dies, and
   he realizes that nothing will change because death is a part of life. When the prison chaplain came in to talk to Meursault about God, Meursault once again
   states that he does not believe in God. Finally the day of Meursault’s execution he realizes how his mother must have felt when she was dying. Also he
   hoped to hear some type of response from the audience watching his execution so that he feels as he was a part of the world; that he was not a stranger. The
   only time that Meursault truly felt as if he was a stranger to the world was when he stepped into the court room, the first place he was able to go to after
   being locked up for so long. Now that he is nearing death, he does not change his mindset as much but thinks that maybe he could have taken a different
   path in life.
Major Works Data Sheet                                                                                                       Page 2
Author’s style:
Camus' writing in The Stranger is simplistic and written in first person, yet with much detail. The reader gets descriptions of the
weather, the green color of the evening sky and much more, thus developing intense moments. However, on the surface the writing is
very childlike with little dialogue, but the writing is formulated to hold a lot more hidden meaning, that can be interpreted in many
ways depending on a person's perception.

                          Quotations                                                            Significance
He was moving toward the casket when I stopped him. He said,          The reader is shown that although Meursault may not be a very
"You don't want to?" I answered, "No." He was quiet, and i was        emotional person, this passage lets one know that Meursault cares
embarrassed because i felt i shouldn't have said that. pg 6           a lot of what others think of him.

It occurred to me that anyway one more Sunday was over, that          One less person in his life made no difference to the rest of the
Maman was buried now, that i was going back to work, and that,        world, life goes on regardless of whether we still live or not.
nothing had changed. pg 24
                                                                      Meursault thinks of his current life as no better or worse than any
He looked upset and told me that i never gave him a straight          other life he could have. He is content with his current lifestyle
answer, that I had no ambition, and that it was disastrous for        but states that if some change occurred he would be content with
business. pg 41                                                       that as well.

But according to him, the dog's real sickness was old age, and        Age is an inevitability of life, and as one gets older one begins to
there's no cure for old age. pg 45                                    regret things they may have or may not have done. Salamano is
                                                                      the dog’s reflection, for he too is sick with old age.
We didn't change our pace, but Raymond said, "If there's
trouble, Masson, you take the other one. I'll take care of my         Meursault agrees to engage in the fight simply to please
man. Meursault, if another one shows up, he's yours." I said,         Raymond, as he did when he wrote the letter for him. The reader
"Yes", and Masson put his hands in his pockets. pg 53                 is again shown that Meursault cares a lot about how people view
It occurred to me that all i had to do was turn around and that       In his situation there was no one around he would want to please,
would be the end of it. But the whole beach, throbbing in the         he chose to move forward by his own free will, yet he puts the
sun, was pressing on my back. pg 58                                   reason of his actions on account of the sun.

He asked me if he could say that that day I had held back my          The lawyer appears to dislike Merusault due to his lack of
natural feelings. I said "No, because it's not true." He gave me a    emotion for his mother’s death. It could affect on how well he
strange look, as if he found me slightly disgusting. pg 65            would handle his case.

"You know, we've blown your case up a little. Summer is the           Camus reflect on society's feelings towards the misfortune of
slow season for news. And your story and the parricide were the       others. We as a society like to condemn the "evil" and enjoy
only ones worth bothering about." pg84                                seeing them punished

“Well, so I'm going to die." Sooner than other people will            Meursault begins to accept the fact that he will die.
obviously,. But everybody knows life isn't worth living. Deep         This quote ties back to chapter two when he states his
down I knew perfectly well that it doesn't much matter whether
you die at thirty or at seventy, since in either case other men and
                                                                      mother has died and yet nothing had changed. Camus
women will naturally go on living-and for thousands of years. In      reflects the idea that and individuals death does not
fact nothing could be more clearer. pg114                             cause a dramatic change in the world we live in.
Major Works Data Sheet                                                                                    Page 3
 Name             Role                     Significance                                 Adjectives
 Meursault        Protagonist              A very simple male that lives by himself     Simple, Unemotional,
                                           and does not see a big significant in his    Straightforward
                                           life. Meursault did not take anything to
                                           his heart, especially his mother's death
                                           which he viewed with almost no emotion.
                                            However as he ends up in jail, he starts
                                           to question what life really means and the
                                           significant of his presence.
 Raymond          Protagonist's Friend     Before meeting Raymond, a very               Aggressive, Irresponsible,
                                           aggressive man, Meursalt did not have        Flat Character
                                           any major drama in his life. Soon after
                                           hanging out with Raymond, Meursalt
                                           took part in the Moorish's lady abuse by
                                           sending the angry letter for Raymond.
                                           Then by joining Raymond on his trip to
                                           Masson's house, Meursault encounter the
                                           Arab; thus leading him to shot the Arab
                                           and get himself in prison.
 Salamano/Dog     Protagonist's Neighbor   Salamano serves as an example of how         Lonely, Ill-tempered,
                                           Meursault should have acted when he          Sincere, Round/Dynamic
                                           heard his mother had died. When
                                           Salamano's dog was missing, Salamano
                                           was complelty lost without him and
                                           Meursault could hear him pacing back
                                           and forth and crying for his companion, a
                                           reaction that Meursault should have had.
 Marie            Protagonist's            Marie and Meursault get together the         Naive/Compassionate,Static
                  Girlfriend               weekend of his mother’s funeral. She         Character
                                           comes in just as he loses another woman
                                           in his life. However, even though we see
                                           his infatuation of Marie, he does not
                                           show any true emotions, such as love,
                                           toward her, further showing the reader
                                           his lack of compassion.
 Maman            Protagonist's Mother     Even though the audience is introduce to     Parent/Mother
                                           Meursault's mother by her death, she
                                           keeps recurring throughout the novel.
                                           Meurasault shows no mourning nor hard
                                           emotions towards his mother's death, thus
                                           making the reader why isn't he. At the
                                           end, Meursault finally understands how
                                           his mother felt when she was
                                           approaching death for he was too.
 Attorneys        Prosecutor and Defend    Both lawyers did not argue much about        Prosecutor- Static Character
                  Attorneys                the actual shooting, but the Prosecutor
                                           based his argument more on Meursault's
                                           reaction to his mother's death. The
                                                                                        Defend Attorney-Static
                                           prosecutor says because of Meursault's       Character
                                           heartless actions he is prone to commit
                                           murder. Truthfully, both attorneys knew
                                           that Meursault was guilty.
 Chaplain         Prison's Chaplin         He comes in and talks to Meursault           Priest, Religious,Static
                                           hoping that he can get some kind of          Character
                                           religious sentiment out of Meursault. The
                                           chaplain contanstly tries to understand
                                           why Meursault does not have any
                                           religious beliefs and this causes
                                           Meursault to become aggresive with the
                                           chaplain at the end.
Major Works Data Sheet                                                                                                                                     Page 4
                        Setting                                                                    Significance of opening scene
The setting of the novel is in Algiers. Even though                                   The opening scene opens up the world of Meursault.
the "old people's home" is at Marengo, about eighty                                   From the first couple of sentences the reader can see
kilometers from Algiers, the novel mainly takes place                                 how unemotional Meursault is, even annoyed to have
in Algiers. An important aspect of the setting is                                     to deal with his mother's funeral. This brings the
nature because Meursault often spends his time at the                                 reader to begin questioning Meursault and his actions
beach, under the sun and by the water. However, the                                   immediately, laying the brick work for all the
twist of the story occurs at Raymond's friend's beach                                 questions that follow in the rest of the story.
house. After the incident, Meursault's life is centered
within the prison.

                                  Symbols                                                            Significance of ending/closing scene
1) The Sun: The sun usually symbolizes brightness,                                    The novel concludes with Meursault wishing that pople
happiness, or a new beginning. However, in The                                        would greet him with hate on the day of his execution. "I
Stranger, the sun tends to blind Meursault, and                                       had only to wish that there be a large crowd of spectators
encourages him to shoot the Arab four more times.                                     the day od my execution and that they greet me with cries
Additionally, Meursault see this "light" during his                                   of hate. He understands that his death will cause no change
Maman's funeral as well as the beach. It is another aspect                            and that he sill soon be forgotten. As human beings we like
of the physical features of nature which he admires.                                  to believe that we are one of a kind and that others care
2) Salamano and the Dog's relationship: Although it is                                about us. Meursault wishes for the people to greet him with
demonstrated how Salamano is always beating the dog, it                               the strong emotion of hate, rather than with indifference,
is later presented that their relationship is a unique. It                            Perhaps his life will cause no change in the world but he
contrasts Meursault and his Maman's relationship because                              will be at least be remembered by others if by nothing else
Camus portrays the idea that this is what their relationship                          than by hatred. The only way for a person to become truly
should be like. Even though they cannot stand each other,                             immortal is to always be remembered, as long as one is
Salamano and the dog have become use to one another                                   remembered one is not completely gone from this world.
and cannot live without each other. Despite how much
Salamano curses the dog, he misses it once is disappears.                                                          Old AP Questions
                                                                         Possible Themes
1. Simplicity: In the beginning Meursault does not take much out of his life and basically act as if he is living just to live. He only attended the funeral because it was
the right thing to do. Then afterwards he would just go back to work. Beside work he would go down to the beach and hang out with Marie. His daily routine consists
of work, eat, sleep, and hanging out. There’s really nothing more to his life. He has freedom to do whatever he wants in society; however his free will is taken away
and changes his simple life after shooting the Arab.
2. Irrationality: As said, Meursault lives an ordinary life. However events start occurring to him without a certain reason thus making his life look illogical. First his
mother pass away, and it seems like a natural death. However after returning from the funeral, he suddenly met Marie again. Not only was Meursault experiencing
unexpected event happening to him, but witness oddly situations around him. An oddly situation was Salamano losing his dog and they have been together for such a
long time that it seem unreasonable for the dog to be lost. Then unexpectedly Meursault become friends with Raymond, thus leading him to be involved in the
tensions with the Arab men. Base on how Meursault was living his life before, no one would have taught he had the courage to shot a man and not just once but also
four times afterwards. Thus everything started happening irrationally. Camus is trying to say life is unexpected, anything can happen. Meursault claims it was the
sun’s heat that made him step forward to the Arab, however he was conscious to know what he was doing so he put himself in prison and later execution. Camus
conveys the message that life can be simple and plain however it can change instantly by one single action.
3. Physical Appearance: Throughout the novel, the audience can witness that Meursault takes more interest in the environment and people around him versus the
purpose of what he is doing. During the funeral, Meursault took great notice of how slow and tired Mr. Perez was and how the sun was brightly shinning. However
normally, people would be in grief and upset because it’s the last time they will be able to see the decease. Also Camus write about Meursault as being in love more
with Marie’s physical appearance rather than her personality. Meursault takes great interest in Marie’s breast and her smile, however he does not mention much about
her actions and inner characteristics. The sun is a major object that is often observed by Meursault. He talks about it during the walk at the funeral, the sun at the
beach, and the sun at the shooting. One common characteristic Meursault always mention about the sun is the powerful heat it is giving off, which maybe stands for
how once the sun is hitting him, his life is slowly changing without him knowing. One major scene that the reader can see how much Meursault observe the physical
world is when he first enters the court room and sees all his friends and the reporters. He took more notice in one reporter and the robotic woman more than his court
case. Thus, Camus writes Meursault’s character as more of an observant and physical appearance base character than a character that cares about the emotions.

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