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					Psychoanalysis

Chapter 16
              Freud’s Influence


   Three great shocks to the collective
    human ego (Freud, 1917)
      Copernicus: Earth not the center of
       the universe.
      Darwin: Humans are not a distinctive
       species.
      Freud: Unconscious forces rather
       than rational thought govern our
       lives.
                   Freud and Unconscious Forces

   Idea of the unconscious forces
       Not accepted by Wundt and Titchener
         • Not amenable to study using introspection
         • Cannot be reduced to sensory elements
       Functionalists disregarded it
         • Although James acknowledged unconscious processes
         • 1904: Angell devoted a mere 2 pages to topic in text
         • 1921:Woodworth dealt with subject as postscript
       Watson: No use for either the unconscious or
        consciousness
   Freud: Brought concept of the unconscious to psychology
              Antecedents of the
    Development of Psychoanalysis
Personal influences        Zeitgeist
                             Introspection
Romantics
                             a dominant tool
                             in psychology

   The Hypnotists
                                    Few advances
   (some success?)
                     FREUD          in treating
                                    mentally ill

Rationalists                 Mentally ill
                             are beginning
                             to gain attention

        Darwin
                              Scientific psychology
                              is a very young science
                Antecedents of the Development of
                        Psychoanalysis

   Ideas from Darwin
     The significance of dreams
     The importance of sexual arousal
     Notion of continuity in emotional behavior from
      childhood to adulthood
     Humans are driven by biological forces of love and
      hunger
   Ideas from Charcot
       Hysteria caused the “idea” of a physical injury
                Antecedents of the Development of
                        Psychoanalysis

   Ideas from Romanes
     Elaboration on developmental continuity in
      emotional expression from childhood to adulthood
     Idea that sex drive appears as young as 7 weeks

   Ideas from Kraft-Ebbing
       Sexual gratification and self-preservation the only
        human instincts.
   Cumulative effect: In adherence to Darwin’s
    leadership, scientists acknowledged sex as a
    fundamental human drive.
             Antecedents of the Development of
                     Psychoanalysis


   Additional influences
     From Freud’s university training
       • Mechanistic orientation of Ernst Brücke, his
         major professor.
       • Prevailing determinist attitude reflected in
         Freud’s concept of psychic determinism.
             Antecedents of the Development of
                     Psychoanalysis


   From zeitgeist
     19th century Viennese attitude toward sex
       • Generally permissive
       • Freud and neurotic upper-middle-class
         women: More sexually inhibited.
       • Victorian England and puritan U.S.: Not as
         stereotypically prim, proper, and inhibited
         as sometimes portrayed.
       • 1880s-1890s: From sublimation of sex to
         overt expression.
          Antecedents of the Development of
                  Psychoanalysis


 Moritz Benedickt
    Viennese neurologist and colleague of Freud
    Cures with hysterical women
    Patients talked about their sex lives
 Alfred Binet: Published on sexual perversions.

 Libido: A term already in use.
             Antecedents of the Development of
                     Psychoanalysis

 Receptive zeitgeist led to interest in Freud’s
  concepts
 Catharsis: Emotional release.
     Already a popular concept
     More than 140 publications on topic in German by
      1890
   Freud’s concepts about dreams
     Anticipated in the literature of philosophy and
      physiology.
     Already studied by Charcot, Janet, and Kraft-Ebbing
   Freud’s genius was his ability to weave ideas and
    trends into a coherent system.
                               Sigmund Freud

   Born in Freiburg, Moravia (now Pribor, Czech republic)
   Moved to Vienna when four; Lived there approximately 80
    years
       • Father 20 years older than mother
          • Strict, authoritarian
          • Both feared and loved by Freud
       • Mother
          • Protective, loving
          • Freud emotionally attached to her
          • She was enormously proud of him
       • Oedipus complex
          • Fear of father
          • Sexual attraction to mother
                       Sigmund Freud
                          Education



   As a young student
     Owing to his intellect, which was obvious
      from an early stage of his childhood, his
      parents favored him over his siblings, and
      even though they were poor they offered
      everything to give him a proper education.
     Entered high school (Leopoldstädter
      Communal-Realgymnasium) a year early.
     Graduated in 1873 with honors
                         Sigmund Freud
                            Education

   University career
     Darwin’s theory: elicited an interest in science
     1873: began study of medicine at University of
      Vienna
       • Goal: research, not practice
       • Eight years to get his degree: took courses
         outside of medical curriculum, e.g., Philosophy
       • Initially concentrated on biology: eel testicle
         morphology
           • Inconclusive findings
           • Sexually related topic
       • Moved to physiology: the spinal cord of the fish
           • 6 years in physiological institute
                          Sigmund Freud
                        The Cocaine Episode


   Not illegal
   Use: for self, friends and family, medical patients
   Enthusiastically maintained it ameliorated his depression
    and indigestion
   Called it a miracle drug; Thought it would lead to his fame
   Carl Koller, a colleague, learned of drug through Freud;
    Used it to anesthetize eye during surgery
   Freud’s article on cocaine benefits in part responsible for
    its widespread use in U.S. And Europe until 1920s
   For rest of career downplayed his initial approval
   Used it himself until middle age
                           Sigmund Freud
                           The Physician

   Wished for appointment in academic research lab
     Brücke, his professor and director of the lab where
      Freud trained, dissuaded him.
     Used financial grounds
     Would take years to obtain professorship
     Freud too poor to provide for himself in interim
   Taking Brücke’s advice, Freud took medical exams for
    private practice.
   1881: earned MD and started clinical neurology practice
     Did not like his work but the money kept him going
     Eventually treated hysterical patients to help pay
                         Sigmund Freud
                          The Husband

   Engaged to Martha Bernays
     Several wedding dates postponed due to finances
     Freud pawned watches and borrowed money to pay
      costs of wedding
   4 year engagement to Martha
     Highly jealous of her
     Wanted to be center of her affection
     Would prefer she renounce her family
     Spent little time with her or their children
     Vacationed alone or with sister-in-law Minna
     Said Martha could not keep up with him while hiking
      and sightseeing
           Early Influences on the Development of
                       Psychoanalysis
           Joseph Breur and the Case of Anna O.

   Josef Breuer (1842-1935)
     Famous for study of respiration
     Discovered the functioning of the semicircular
      canals
     Made friends with the younger Freud
     Successful, experienced father figure who lent
      money and gave advice to Freud
     Discussed patient cases with Freud, including Anna
      O.
              Early Influences on the Development of
                          Psychoanalysis
   Anna O.   Joseph Breur and the Case of Anna O.
      Her case crucial to development of psychoanalysis
      21 years old, Intelligent, attractive
      Wide range of hysterical symptoms
      Symptoms first manifested while nursing her dying father with whom she
       was very close
   Breuer began with hypnosis
      When Anna talked about symptoms connected with specific experiences,
       symptoms abated (catharsis!)
      Daily sessions for 1 year
      Anna’s terms for symptom relief: “chimney sweeping” and “the talking
       cure”
      Repulsive acts recalled under hypnosis
      Reliving the experiences under hypnosis ameliorated the symptoms
   Positive transference
      Breuer’s wife jealous of emotional bonds connecting her husband and
       Anna
      Anna transferring her love for her father to love for her therapist
        • A threatened Breuer terminated the therapy
         Early Influences on the Development of
                     Psychoanalysis
         Joseph Breur and the Case of Anna O.

 Pathogenic ideas: Ideas that cause physical
  disorders.
 Cathartic Method: The alleviation of hysterical
  symptoms by allowing pathogenic ideas to be
  expressed consciously.
 Transference: The process by which a patient
  responds to the therapist as if the therapist were a
  relevant person in the patient's life.
 Countertransference: The process by which a
  therapist becomes emotionally involved with a
  patient.
           Early Influences on the Development of
                       Psychoanalysis
                  Freud’s Visit With Charcot
   1885: Freud received a mini-grant to study with
    Charcot
     Trained in hypnosis to treat hysteria
     Charcot became his father-figure
     Informed by Charcot of the function of sex in
      hysteria
     Upon return to Vienna, Rudolph Chrobak,
      gynecologist, reinforced possible link between sex
      and emotional problems
         Early Influences on the Development of
                     Psychoanalysis
              The Birth of Free Association

 Resistance: The tendency for patients to inhibit
  the recollection of traumatic experiences.
 Free Association: Freud's major tool for
  studying the contents of the unconscious mind.
  With free association, a patient is encouraged
  to express freely everything that comes to his or
  her mind.
    Like a psychological X-ray!
           Early Influences on the Development of
                       Psychoanalysis
                The Birth of Free Association

   Free association material
     Not random
     The experiences recalled are predetermined
     Cannot be consciously censored
     The nature of the conflict forces the material out to
      be articulated to therapist
     Its roots were in early childhood
     Much of it concerned sexual matters
     1898: “...the most significant causes of neurotic
      illness are to be found in factors arising from sexual
      life”
            Early Influences on the Development of
                         Psychoanalysis
                       Studies on Hysteria

   Studies on Hysteria: The book Breuer and Freud
    published in 1895 that is usually viewed as marking the
    formal beginning of the school of psychoanalysis.
   Repression: The holding of traumatic memories in the
    unconscious mind because pondering them consciously
    would cause too much anxiety.
   Conflict: According to Freud, the simultaneous tendency
    both to approach and avoid the same object, event, or
    person.
   Unconscious Motivation: The causes of our behavior of
    which we are unaware.
               The Beginnings of Psychoanalysis



Goal: remember traumatic experience…
Problem: resistance (defenses keep people from remembering)
First attempt: hypnosis
Another problem: temporary, sporadic, nonbelievable
Free Association: helps patients remember trauma
Causes of Hysteria: conflict from repressed trauma

The Role of Sex:
   • Freud adopted central role of sex in his theory
   • Imagined vs.real sex experiences- improvement or setback?

Bottom line: memories or fantasies of sex trauma created tension
or conflict btw conscious & unconscious mind. Tension needs to
be released somehow. Dreams, seemingly a “road to the
unconsciousness” were a logical place to start.
           Early Influences on the Development of
                        Psychoanalysis
                     The Seduction Theory

   Seduction Theory: Freud's contention that hysteria
    is caused by a sexual attack: Someone familiar to
    or related to the hysteric patient had attacked him
    or her when the patient was a young child. Freud
    later concluded that in most cases such attacks
    are imagined rather than real.
                        Freud’s Self Analysis


   Freud became “a textbook example of his theory”
     His sexual frustrations emerged as neuroses
     Year he gave up sex had “odd states of mind”
     Fears of death, travel, open spaces
   Diagnosed self as suffering from anxiety neurosis and
    neurasthenia as a consequence of sexual tension
   Krull, 1986: “Freud’s theory of actual neurosis is thus a
    theory of his own neurotic symptoms”
   Freud decided that he required psychoanalysis and
    analyzed himself using his dreams
                             Freud’s Self Analysis
                              Analysis of Dreams

   Lesson from patients: Dreams a rich source of information providing
    clues to causes of disorder.
   His deterministic belief that everything has a cause led him to look for
    unconscious sources of the meaning in dreams.
   Dream analysis: “A psychotherapeutic technique involving interpreting
    dreams to uncover unconscious conflicts.”
   Every morning Freud wrote down dream as he remembered it and free
    associated to the resultant material.
   Emergent themes
      Hostility toward father
      Childhood sexual attraction to mother
      Sexual wishes regarding eldest daughter
   Result: the basis of his theory
   Two-year duration of self-analysis
                             Freud’s Self Analysis
                              Analysis of Dreams

   Dream Analysis: A major tool that Freud used in studying the contents of
    the unconscious mind. Freud thought that the symbols dreams contain
    could yield information about repressed memories, just as hysterical
    symptoms could.
   Manifest Content: What a dream appears to be about.
   Latent Content: What a dream is actually about.
   Wish Fulfillment: In an effort to satisfy bodily needs, the id conjures up
    images of objects or events that will satisfy those needs.
   Dream Work: The mechanism that distorts the meaning of a dream,
    thereby making it more tolerable to the dreamer.
   Condensation: The type of dream work that conflicts several people,
    objects, or events into one dream symbol.
   Displacement: The ego defense mechanism by which a goal that does
    not provoke anxiety is substituted for one that does. Also, the type of
    dream work that causes the dreamer to dream of something symbolically
    related to anxiety-provoking events rather than dreaming about the
    anxiety-provoking events themselves.
               Freud’s Self Analysis
               The Oedipus Complex


   Oedipus Complex: The situation that, according to
    Freud, typically manifests itself during the phallic
    stage of psychosexual development, whereby
    children sexually desire the parent of the opposite
    sex and are hostile toward the parent of the same
    sex.
       Healthy resolution occurs when the child identifies
        with the same sex parent.
   Electra Complex
       Female Oedipal Complex
           The Psychopathology of Everyday Life


 Parapraxes: Relatively minor errors in everyday
  living such as losing and forgetting things, slips
  of the tongue, mistakes in writing, and small
  accidents.
    Freud believed that such errors are often
     unconsciously motivated.
 Overdetermination: Freud's observation that
  behavioral and psychological phenomena often
  have two or more causes.
     Actions   and attitudes don’t always match
                 Freud’s Trip to the United States


   1909: Freud and Jung invited by G. Stanley Hall to Clark
    University for 20th Anniversary celebration
   Freud lectured; Received honorary doctorate in
    psychology
      Self-described in lectures as scientist and therapist with
       significant findings
      Received with high regard
      James, Titchener, and Cattell were among the leading
       American psychologists with whom he met
      1909/1910: publication of the Clark lectures in the
       American journal of psychology, with numerous
       translations
            A Review of the Basic Components of
               Freud’s Levels of Personality


   Early conception: two parts of mental life,
    conscious and unconscious
     Conscious part like tip of iceberg
        • Small and insignificant
        • A superficial representation of the total
          personality
     Unconscious part like the huge, submerged part of
      iceberg
        • Vast and powerful
        • Contains the instincts; Driving forces of behavior
A Review of the Basic Components of
   Freud’s Levels of Personality
              A Review of the Basic Components of
                 Freud’s Theory of Personality
                             The Id
   Id (das es): According to Freud, the powerful, entirely
    unconscious portion of the personality that contains all
    instincts and is therefore the driving force for the entire
    personality.
       Operates under the pleasure principle
   Instincts: According to Freud, the motivational forces
    behind personality. Each instinct has a source, which is a
    bodily deficiency of some type; an aim of removing the
    deficiency; an object, which is anything capable of
    removing the deficiency; and an impetus, which is a
    driving force whose strength is determined by the
    magnitude of the deficiency.
   Libido: The collective energy associated with the life
    instincts.
          A Review of the Basic Components of
             Freud’s Theory of Personality
                        The Ego

 Ego (ich): According to Freud, the component
  of the personality that is responsible for locating
  events in the environment that will satisfy the
  needs of the id without violating the values of
  the superego.
    Operates under the reality principle
 Cathexis: The investment of psychic energy in
  thoughts of things that can satisfy a person's
  needs.
         A Review of the Basic Components of
            Freud’s Theory of Personality
                    The Superego

 Superego (über-ich): According to Freud, the
  internalized values that act as a guide for a
  person's conduct.
    Morals and values
 Anticathexis: The expenditure of psychic energy
  to prevent the association between needs and
  the ideas of anxiety-provoking objects or
  events.
          A Review of the Basic Components of
             Freud’s Theory of Personality
                Life and Death Instincts

 Instincts: “to Freud, mental representations of
  internal stimuli (such as hunger) that motivate
  personality and behavior.”
    Propelling or motivating forces
    Biological forces that release mental imagery
 Life Instincts (eros): The instincts that have as
  their goal the sustaining of life.
 Death Instinct (thanatos): The instinct that has
  death as its goal (sometimes called the death
  wish).
          A Review of the Basic Components of
             Freud’s Theory of Personality
             Anxiety and the Ego Defense
                      Mechanisms
 Anxiety: The feeling of impending danger. Freud
  distinguished three types of anxiety: objective
  anxiety, which is caused by a physical danger;
  neurotic anxiety, which is caused by the feeling
  that one is going to be overwhelmed by his or her
  id; and moral anxiety, which is caused by violating
  one or more values internalized in the superego.
 Ego Defense Mechanisms: The strategies
  available to the ego for distorting the anxiety-
  provoking aspects of reality, thus making them
  more tolerable.
         A Review of the Basic Components of
            Freud’s Theory of Personality
            Anxiety and the Ego Defense
                     Mechanisms

 Because we are social, we can not act out our
  sexual and aggressive impulses.
 When ego fears losing the battle between id
  and superego, anxiety results.
 “Anxiety is the price we pay for civilization”
 The ego uses Defense Mechanisms to reduce
  anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality.
          A Review of the Basic Components of
             Freud’s Theory of Personality
             Anxiety and the Ego Defense
                      Mechanisms


 Repression: The basic defense mechanism that
  banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings,
  and memories from consciousness.
 Regression: Defense mechanism in which an
  individual retreats, when faced with anxiety, to a
  more infantile psychosexual stage where some
  psychic energy remains fixated.
           A Review of the Basic Components of
              Freud’s Theory of Personality
              Anxiety and the Ego Defense
                       Mechanisms

   Reaction Formation: Defense mechanism by
    which the ego unconsciously switches
    unacceptable impulses into their opposites.
      People may express feelings that are the
       opposite of their anxiety-arousing
       unconscious feelings.
            A Review of the Basic Components of
               Freud’s Theory of Personality
               Anxiety and the Ego Defense
                        Mechanisms
   Projection: Defense mechanism by which
    people disguise their own threatening impulses
    by attributing them to others.

   Rationalization: Defense mechanism that offers
    self-justifying explanations in place of the real,
    more threatening, unconscious reasons for
    one’s actions.
         A Review of the Basic Components of
            Freud’s Theory of Personality
            Anxiety and the Ego Defense
                     Mechanisms

 Displacement: Defense mechanism that shifts
  sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more
  acceptable or less threatening object or person.
    As when redirecting anger toward a safer
     outlet i.e. kicking the dog.
 Sublimation: Rechanneling of unacceptable
  impulses into socially approved activities.
 Denial: Ignoring a problem and pretending it’s
  not there. (Maybe it’ll go away on its own!)
         A Review of the Basic Components of
            Freud’s Theory of Personality
         Psychosexual Stages of Development

 Personality forms in the first few years of life
    Problems with personality arise from
     unresolved conflicts from early childhood.
 Children pass through a series of psychosexual
  stages during which the id’s pleasure seeking
  energies focus on distinct pleasure sensitive
  areas of the body called erogenous zones.
            A Review of the Basic Components of
               Freud’s Theory of Personality
            Psychosexual Stages of Development


   Oral Stage (first 18 months)
     Pleasures   arise from sucking, biting, and
      chewing
   Anal Stage (18 Mo-3 yrs)
     Boweland bladder retention and elimination
      become a source of gratification
            A Review of the Basic Components of
               Freud’s Theory of Personality
            Psychosexual Stages of Development

   Phallic Stage (3-6)
     Pleasure zone shifts to the genitals
     Timing of Oedipal complex
   Latency Stage (6-puberty)
     Sexuality   is dormant
   Genital Stage
     Sexual   feelings begin towards others
               A Review of the Basic Components of Freud’s
                           Theory of Personality
                  Psychosexual Stages of Development
   Oral
              • Erogenous zone = mouth
              • Primary source of sensual pleasure is stimulation of the
                mouth through sucking, biting, swallowing
   Anal
              • Erogenous zone = anus
              • Primary source of sensual pleasure is stimulation of the
                anus through expelling or withholding feces
   Phallic
              • Erogenous zone = genitals
              • Primary source of sensual pleasure is stimulation of the
                genitals through fondling or exhibition or through sexual
                fantasies
   Latent
              • No erogenous zone
   Genital
              • Erogenous zone = genitals
                 Freud’s View of Human Nature


 Freud largely pessimistic about human nature.
 People can live rational lives but must first
  understand the workings of their own mind.
 The Future of an Illusion (1927)
     Religion based on human helplessness and
      insecurity.
     We create a powerful father figure to protect us.
     Religion is a painkiller, used to dull the pain of living.
     Religion should be replaced by scientific guides for
      living.
                            Freud’s Fate


 Psychoanalysis labeled a “Jewish science” in
  Germany.
 Nazis burned his books
       “What progress we are making. In the Middle Ages
        they would have burnt me; nowadays they are
        content with burning my books.”
 Fled to Paris and then London
 Died from a lethal injection given to ease his pain.
       Freud had cancer of the jaw for years and despite
        numerous surgeries, continued smoking cigars.
             Revisions of the Freudian Legend
            The Reality of Repressed Memories


   Forgetting Happens
     Forgetting isolated past events, both negative
      and positive, is part of everyday life
   Recovered Memories are Commonplace
     We    recover memories of long-forgotten
      events.
     It is unclear that the unconscious mind
      forcibly represses painful experiences and, if
      so, whether these can be retrieved by certain
      therapist-aided techniques.
              Evaluation of Freud’s Theory
                       Criticisms


 Poor method & poor
  operationalization of
  terms
 Dogmatic
 Too much sex
 Biased & not
  scientific & not
  testable (poor theory)
 Time consuming &
  costly
              Evaluation of Freud’s Theory
                      Contributions


 1st comprehensive psych theory of personality
 Treatment that didn’t torture the patient!!

 Opened topics up to other psychologists

 Brought tremendous popularity to new field of
  psych
 Stimulated interest to treat mentally ill

 Inspired new ideas because he was a radical!!

				
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