Smart Grid - An Energizing Opportunity

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					    Smart Grid – An Energizing
           Opportunity
                   March 30, 2011
                  MTA Conference

                  Mark J. Mrla, P.E.
                          &
                Dean L. Mischke, P.E.
          Finley Engineering Company, Inc.



1
    Agenda

       What is a Smart Grid
       Driving Factors
       Terms
       Home Networks
       Utility Company Options
       How Do We Serve The Power Industry


2
"I think there is a world market for maybe five computers."
--Thomas Watson, chairman of IBM, 1943


             "Computers in the future may weigh no more than 1.5 tons."
             --Popular Mechanics, forecasting the relentless march of
             science, 1949


"But what ... is it good for?"
--Engineer at the Advanced Computing Systems Division of
IBM, 1968, commenting on the microchip.


      "Who in their right mind would ever need more than 640k of ram!?"
      -- Bill Gates, 1981



3
        What is a Smart Grid

       What Smart Grid is not!
        –   It is not just smart meters
        –   It is not just green energy
        –   It is not just time-of-use rate structure
        –   It is not just HVAC shedding in the summer
        –   It is not just distribution automation systems



4
    What is a Smart Grid

       What Smart Grid is!
        –   A smart grid applies technologies, tools and techniques
            available now to bring knowledge to power – knowledge
            capable of making the grid work far more efficiently, reliably...

        –   Ensuring its reliability to degrees never before possible
        –   Maintaining its affordability
        –   Reinforcing our global competitiveness
        –   Fully accommodating renewable and traditional energy sources
        –   Potentially reducing our carbon footprint
        –   Introducing advancements and efficiencies yet to be envisioned
5
    What is a Smart Grid
    According to William Parks from the DOE, a Smart Grid would:

    •Accommodate all types of central and distributed electric generation and storage.

    •Provide for power quality for a range of needs by all types of consumers.
    •Optimize asset utilization and operating efficiency of the electric power system.
    •Anticipate and respond to system disturbances.
    •Operate resiliently to attacks and natural disasters

    •Enable informed participation by consumers in retail and wholesale
     electricity markets.
    •Enable new products, services, and markets.

         STATEMENT OF WILLIAM PARKS, SPECIAL ASSISTANT AND HAWAII LIAISON FOR ELECTRICITY DELIVERY AND ENERGY RELIABILITY
         U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY

6        BEFORE THE COMMITTEE ON APPROPRIATIONS
         UNITED STATES SENATE. AUGUST 24, 2009
    Power Generation


                                (1) Generation         Smart Grid Impacts
    Coal, Nuclear, Wind,
    Solar, Hydro, Geothermal,
    Tidal, Natural Gas, etc.                                Economics
                                                            Reliability
                                                          Environmental
       Transmission                (2) Delivery        Consumer Involvement
          System

                                                            (3) Consumer


         Distribution
           System




7                                         Meters – Residential, Commercial, Industrial
        Power Production                        Automobile & Electric Power
                                                System – Similar Evolutions


Gasoline, Diesel,        Coal, Nuclear, Wind,     Generation
Ethanol, Propane,        Solar, Hydro,                                  Impacts
Electric, Solar, etc.    Geothermal, Tidal,
                         Natural Gas, etc.                             Economics
                                                                       Reliability
                                                                     Environmental
                        Transmission               Delivery       Consumer Involvement
                           System

                                                                     Consumer
                                 Distribution
                                   System




8
Think About Computers Involved with:
    Automobile Engines             Electric Power Plants
     Emissions Systems               Emissions Systems
     Power Control Systems           Power Control Systems
     Temperature Control Systems     Temperature Control Systems
     Pressure Control Systems        Pressure Control Systems
     Fuel Efficiency Systems         Fuel Efficiency Systems

    Transmission / Drivetrain      Transmission / Distribution
     Gearbox Systems                 Ground Fault Systems
     Traction Control Systems        Breaker Reclosing Systems
     Antilock Breaking Systems       Reactive Power Control Systems
     Ride Control Systems            Frequency Control Systems
     Fuel Efficiency Systems         Voltage Control Systems
    Driver Info & Involvement      Consumer Info & Involvement
      Fuel Efficiency Feedback      Time of Day Power Usage
      Tire Pressure Feedback        Appliance / Load Control Systems
      Traction Control              Time of Use Electric Rate Structure
      Antilock Breaking System      Feedback on Outage Time Estimates
9
     Generation Driving Factors

                Peak Power Shaving
     Watts




10             Time
     Generation Driving Factors

        Prohibitive Cost to Build – $2.3B for Oak Creek New Steam
         Unit
        Environmental Permitting – Tied up in courts (NIMBY)
           Even ―Green‖ systems are not immune
                                                              Power
        Carbon and Greenhouse Gas Regulations            Generation
        Mandated Green Energy Creates problems
           May not be available when needed
           Does not eliminate Spinning Reserves      Coal, Nuclear, Wind,
                                                      Solar, Hydro, Geothermal,
                                                             Tidal, Natural Gas, etc.


11
     Transmission Driving Factors

        Prohibitive Cost to Build
           $3M/mile - Madison to La Crosse
           $7M/mile for 6 miles in Kenosha
             County
        Green Power exists in low population
         areas
        Environmental Permitting – Tied up in
         courts (NIMBY)
           Superior to Wausau

             http://www.ilbinc.com/Services/OverheadTransmission.aspx
12
     Distribution Driving Factors

        Lack of Monitoring
           Power Companies do not find
            out a local branch is down until
            someone complains
        The local distribution network
         covers a very large geographical area
        Old Equipment



13                         http://craigsland.com/Plot.aspx?plotID=32
     Consumer Driving Factors

        Power Company Viewpoint:
            Lack of Monitoring
                 Power Companies do not find out a customer is down until
                  someone complains
                 Unable to detect quality issues until something is damaged
            Desire to find ways to encourage consumers to shift loads to off-
             peak
        Consumer Viewpoint:
            Want to manage cost
            Make changes remotely
14
     Reliability – A Central Focus

                             Outage Management
                               System (OMS)

       Supervisory Control
       & Data Acquisition                                Interactive Voice
           (SCADA)                                      Response System
                                     Meter Data                (IVR)
                                    Management
     Distribution Systems          System (MDMS)

     Transmission Systems            Customer
                                Information System   Advanced Metering
      Generation Systems               (CIS)         Infrastructure (AMI)
15
     Reliability – A Central Focus

                                                             Possible Data
                             Outage Management              Communications
                               System (OMS)                  Opportunities

       Supervisory Control
       & Data Acquisition                                Interactive Voice
           (SCADA)                                      Response System
                                     Meter Data                (IVR)
                                    Management
     Distribution Systems          System (MDMS)

     Transmission Systems            Customer
                                Information System   Advanced Metering
      Generation Systems               (CIS)         Infrastructure (AMI)
16
     Some Consumer-End Smart
     Grid Terms

        PCT    (programmable communicating thermostats)
        IHD    (in-home display)
        LCM (load control module)
        HAN (home area network)
        PLC/BPL/DLC (power line carrier, broadband over power line,
         distribution line carrier)
        AMI     (advanced metering infrastructure)



17
     Home Automation Standards Examples

         ZigBee
          –   2.4GHz Wireless Mesh
          –   Based on IEEE 802.15.4 (wireless communications used in home, building and
              industrial controls)
         Z-Wave 900 MHz Wireless Mesh
          –   160 Manufacturers
          –   Proprietary
          –   Low Power
         HomePlug Command and Control
          –   Based on IEEE 1901 Broadband over Power Line Networks
          –   1901.2 for Home Networks for Smart Grid operates in the 500 kHz range and has a
              throughput of 500 kbps
          –   Operates on lines with voltages up to 1000 V at ranges up to several kilometers



18
     Consumer Communications Example

     ZigBee Specification - Suite of high level communication
     protocols
         • Low cost
        • Low power
        • 2-way communications
        • Used typically for homes, buildings, controls/sensors
        • Range of 50 meters, but varies greatly
        • Based around IEEE 802.15.4 wireless standards
19
     Consumer Communications Examples

                      RF (towers, wireless mesh,....)
     With a smart     Telecom Facilities (fiber, copper, wireless)
                      PLC / BPL / DLC
        meter
       present

                    Home Area Network
                        • ZigBee
                        • Wi-Fi (802.11)                             Utility Office




20
     HAN Communications Example

     With a smart
                          RF (towers, wireless mesh,....)
        meter             Telecom Facilities (fiber, copper, wireless)
                          PLC / BPL / DLC
       present



            Smart Meter    Home Area Network (HAN)
                                 • ZigBee                                      Utility Office
                                 • Wi-Fi (802.11)
                                                                         LCM



                                                                                      Home
                                                                                      Device
                               Thermostat
                                  IHD

21
     Thermostats and In-Home Displays

     Examples of vendors/products on the market:
        –   ICM Controls (SimpleComfort)
        –   Honeywell (Prestige HD Thermostats)
        –   HAI – Home Automation, Inc. (Omnistat2)
        –   Tendril (Set Point)
        –   ecobee (ecobee Smart Thermostat)


22
     AMI / Smart Meter System Suppliers


     Examples of vendors with systems on the market:
        −   Elster            - GE
        −   Sensus            - Echelon
        −   ITRON             - Silver Spring Networks
        −   Landis+Gyr



23
     Utility Communications Examples

                   Paging Network
                   Cell Phone Network
                   Internet


                                                                  Utility Office
      Without a
     smart meter
       present
                                        Home Area Network
                                                            LCM
                                                                         Home
                                                                         Device

                                    Thermostat / IHD

24
      Utility Communications Examples


               RF/Wireless (towers, mesh network,....)
               Telecom Facilities (fiber, copper, wireless)
               PLC / BPL / DLC


                                                                    Utility Office
     With a
      smart
      meter                            Home Area Network
                              Smart
     present                  Meter
                                                              LCM
                                                                           Home
                                                                           Device

                                        Thermostat / IHD
25
     Communications Infrastructure

                  Utility New Investment
         RF/Wireless (towers, mesh networks,....)
                    PLC / BPL / DLC
                          Fiber

              Telecom Existing Investment
                                                    Utility Office
                 Fiber, Copper, Wireless




26
     What are Power Utilities Looking
     for in a Data Network?

        Security
          –   The system must not be capable of being hacked
        Ubiquitous Coverage
          –   The Utility typically covers a much larger service area than the
              communications providers
        Reliability
          –   An outage may cause significant equipment damage and may be a
              hazard to life
        Low Cost
          –   The system needs to cost less than their designated recovery
              threshold
        Very Low Bit Rates
27        –   100s of bps but from lots of devices
     What are their Options?

        Broadband over Power Lines (BPL)
         –   Troublesome, low throughput, transformers, someone will figure it
             out
        Cellular Wireless
         –   Near universal availability, relatively expensive per node,
        WiFi
         –   Only works in urban areas, used in conjunction with BPL
        Data Network Provider
         –   Power Utilities are just now starting to investigate this option


28
     Telecom Infrastructure

        Rapid growth in consumer bandwidth requirements
        Rapid replacement/upgrade of telecom infrastructure
        Higher bandwidth requirements are driving increased use of
         fiber
        With fiber, future bandwidth increase requires only new
         electronics
        Fiber as medium for many purposes – voice, data, video, etc.
        Nearly all facilities with an electric meter, also contain telecom
         infrastructure

29
     Where Are We Now?


        Technology exists in Telecommunications to service most all
         diversities of Smart Grid platforms. (Bandwidth requirements)
         –   However – At what cost?

         –   Can a Normal Business Model sustain the needed infrastructure?

         –   Are ―Our‖ customers on board?



30
     Where Are We Now?

        On the Power side of Smart Grid advancement. Extensive
         advancement in Electronically Mapped Distribution
         technologies and numerous Automatic Meter Reading installs
         have set the stage for upcoming Smart Grid projects.
         –   However, at what cost?

         –   Back to the Business Model----Sorry.

         –   What about Distributed Generation, Wind Power etc…

         –   How would a Federally Mandated RPS help promote Smart Grid?

31
     How Do We Serve the Power Industry

        Data Circuits of Old      – Special   Circuits
         –   Special equipment – Added expense
         –   Regulated – NECA Tariffed rates
                 High Cost
         –   Few circuits were deployed – Staff had little
             experience with the equipment
         –   Long copper loops – Difficult to troubleshoot
         –   When they worked, they were very stable

32
     How Do We Serve the Power Industry

        Data Circuits Today – Broadband The Primary Circuit
         of Today
         –   Data is what we do – Voice is the declining market
                 90% of recent investment revolves around data
                    –   8kFt DSL Loops
                    –   Wireless
                    –   FTTH
                 Redundancy is now standard in IP network designs – five 9s (351.36
                  seconds of outage per year)


33
     How Do We Serve the Power Industry
        Data Circuits Today – Broadband The Primary
         Circuit of Today
         –   Data is what we do – Voice is the declining market
                 IPTV has been the driving factor in data network improvements
                    – Video is watched closely
                    – Disturbances to video circuits very noticeable
                 Staffing has been concentrated around IP experience/training
                    – Traditional CO staff is extensively IP focused
                    – IP experience is provided all the way to the house




34
     How Do We Serve the Power Industry
        DSL Circuits
         –   Advantages:
                 Relatively Low Cost – Works on existing copper
                 Mature Technology – Know how to make it work
                 Long reach at low bandwidth – 50kbps at 18kft
                 Point-to-Point
         –   Disadvantages:
                 Data rates hindered by noise, especially at longer distances
                 Less reliable than fiber services


35
     How Do We Serve the Power Industry

        FTTH Circuits
         –   Advantages:
                 Mature Technology – Know how to make it work
                 Long reach at any bandwidth – 100Mbps at 40km
                 Point-to-Point is very secure
                 GPON is also secure
                 Very high service reliability
         –   Disadvantages:
                 Very High Cost – Typically requires all new facilities


36
     How Do We Serve the Power Industry

                                           VoIP, Data to
     • Wireless                            remote
                                           customers
       Networks
       – Bandwidth
         dependant on      Central
         range
                           Office
       – Transmitter
                                                           700 MHz, Cellular,
         nodes are                                         WiFi, etc.Transmitter
         typically fiber
         fed               Bidirectional
                           Optical Node
37
     How Do We Serve the Power Industry
        Wireless Circuits
         –   Advantages:
                 Fast to deploy
                 Long reach at low bandwidth
                 Can be low cost if the infrastructure is in place
         –   Disadvantages:
                 Limited range depending on frequency, Line-of-Sight
                 Growth of wireless data networks has pushed up costs
                 Reliability can be a factor


38
     How Do We Serve the Power Industry
        Conclusions
         –   Communication Company Broadband Advantages:
               Gain access to a trained work force that already works in the
                home
               The network may already exist all the way to the home
               Can be low cost if the infrastructure is in place
         –   Communication Company Broadband Disadvantages:
               100% broadband coverage does not exist today
               Return on Investment for Communications Company may be
                limited
               The need for the Power Utility to deal with a third party
39
     How Do We Serve the Power Industry
        Conclusions
         –   Pick the low hanging fruit first
                 Look to serve the Substations
                    – There are not very many Substations
                    – Many local Power Utilities are not ready to collect very much information from
                      the consumer yet
                 Look to serve the larger Commercial Clients
                    – Most likely, you are already there
                    – They can actually affect the Utility’s usage and save money

         –   Form partnerships to create a group that can cover substantial
             portions of the Power Utility’s service area

40
     We need Partnership Now


        Our paths have now converged – Power—Telecom
         –   Not just servicing each other as in the past.
         –   While Technologies have, and continue to advance – Has
             the Level of Cooperation to package our capabilities moved
             at the same pace?


41
     Thank You!!




42

				
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