ICT and the environment - Hindley High School - ICT

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ICT and the environment - Hindley High School - ICT Powered By Docstoc
					Name _____________________________________


Target Grade




       Unit 1-Systems and
          Applications
120 marks (40%) Externally
  marked test-1 hour 30
        minutes


           Test Preparation

This booklet needs to be completed using
            the ICT webpages

          Go to www.pepsicola.org.uk or SharePoint




                                                     1
Table of Contents
   Unit 1-Systems and Applications .............................................................................................. 1
   3.1-Current and emerging technologies ............................................................................................. 5
   Hardware and Software ...................................................................................................................... 5
   Input Devices..................................................................................................................................... 10
Optical Mark Reader (OMR) ................................................................................................................ 12
Optical Character Recognition (OCR)................................................................................................... 12
   Output Devices.................................................................................................................................. 14
   Output devices .................................................................................................................................. 15
   Input devices ..................................................................................................................................... 18
   Section 1 part 2:- ............................................................................................................................... 22
   Storage, Memory and Microprocessors ........................................................................................... 22
   Storage Devices (3.1.1 d) .................................................................................................................. 25
   Storage .............................................................................................................................................. 29
   Communication devices .................................................................................................................... 30
   Microprocessor Technology.............................................................................................................. 33
   Section 2:-Networks .......................................................................................................................... 35
   Creating a network............................................................................................................................ 37
   Encryption ......................................................................................................................................... 41
   Section 3:-Mobile technologies ........................................................................................................ 42
   Section 5:-Identify ICT problems and solve errors ............................................................................ 45
   Uninstalling software ........................................................................................................................ 47
   Solution ............................................................................................................................................. 47
   Error Dialogues.................................................................................................................................. 48
   Computer storage ............................................................................................................................. 49
   Section 6:-Emerging Technologies .................................................................................................... 50
   Section 7:-Entertainment Systems.................................................................................................... 52
   Streaming .......................................................................................................................................... 54
   Section 8:-Reliability of sources ........................................................................................................ 55
1) Referees opinion: - ...................................................................................................................... 55
       Address .................................................................................................................................... 56
       Design ....................................................................................................................................... 56
       Updates .................................................................................................................................... 56
   Section 9:-Impact of communications technology ........................................................................... 58

                                                                                                                                                          2
3.2-A range of ICT tools and techniques ........................................................................................... 60
Quality of information ...................................................................................................................... 60
Input, process, output....................................................................................................................... 66
Verification and Validation ............................................................................................................... 69
Accuracy and Plausibility of information .......................................................................................... 70
Exercise (Grade C) ............................................................................................................................. 75
Data Collection .................................................................................................................................. 76
Data Collection .................................................................................................................................. 77
Reviewing and modifying work ......................................................................................................... 80
Virtual learning environment ............................................................................................................ 81
Operating Systems ............................................................................................................................ 82
User interface.................................................................................................................................... 86
Encoding Data ................................................................................................................................... 88
Compression ..................................................................................................................................... 90
Open source and proprietary software ............................................................................................ 91
Desktop publishing and word processing ......................................................................................... 92
Podcast .............................................................................................................................................. 93
Web browsing and email .................................................................................................................. 94
Complete practical tasks ................................................................................................................... 94
Personal information ........................................................................................................................ 95
Chat Rooms ....................................................................................................................................... 99
Cyber Bullying ................................................................................................................................. 102
Email................................................................................................................................................ 104
Mobile Phones ................................................................................................................................ 107
Web browser and search engine .................................................................................................... 110
Email (Grade C) ............................................................................................................................... 113
Web logs and social networking ..................................................................................................... 116
Controlling systems ......................................................................................................................... 118
Advantages and disadvantages of Control Technology .................................................................. 119
Data logging .................................................................................................................................... 120
Now attempt the practical tasks ..................................................................................................... 123
Controlling Devices/Control feedback loop and ............................................................................ 123
Imagine logo.................................................................................................................................... 123
3.3 Society's use of ICT .................................................................................................................... 124

                                                                                                                                                       3
Computer Misuse act ...................................................................................................................... 129
Copyright ......................................................................................................................................... 131
Health and safety ............................................................................................................................ 133
Changing pattern of commerce and industry due to increased use of ICT .................................... 134
ICT and industry .............................................................................................................................. 136
Stock control ................................................................................................................................... 141
Acceptable ICT use .......................................................................................................................... 145
Abuse of email ................................................................................................................................ 147
Netiquette ....................................................................................................................................... 148
Social and personal effects of ICT ................................................................................................... 151
Sustainability and recycling............................................................................................................. 154
Surveillance society......................................................................................................................... 155
ICT and the environment ................................................................................................................ 157
ICT and the developing world ......................................................................................................... 159
3.4 Collaborative Working .............................................................................................................. 160
Communication devices .................................................................................................................. 163
Sharing Information and online safety ........................................................................................... 166
Advantages and disadvantages of collaborative home working. ................................................... 167
Test Scores ...................................................................................................................................... 168




                                                                                                                                                     4
3.1-Current and emerging technologies

Hardware and Software
   1) What is Hardware? Give 3 examples (3.1.1 a) (Grade C)

       Hardware is any physical part of the computer that you can touch, see and pickup.

       Examples of hardware include the monitor, keyboard, mouse, disk drives, printer,
       scanner and speakers.



   2) What is Software? Give some examples. What is the difference between hardware and
      software? (3.1.1 c) (Grade C)

Software are the applications and programming instructions needed to make the computer
hardware do useful work.

Some examples of systems software which tells the computer what to do:

      Operating System
      Utilities
      User Interface

Some examples of application software which allow you to do your work:

      Word processors such as Microsoft Word
      Spreadsheets such as Microsoft Excel
      Databases such as Microsoft Access




   3) What are peripherals? Give examples? (Grade C)

A peripheral is any device which connects to the computer and exchanges data with the
CPU.

Peripherals include all of the computer's input and output devices.

Examples are:

      monitor
      keyboard
      mouse
      printer
      scanner

                                                                                           5
       speakers
       external hard drives




    4) What is the CPU? (3.1.1 d) (Grade B)

    The CPU is the 'brain' of the computer. It is where all the searching, sorting, calculating
    and decision making takes place.

    The CPU contains a tiny quartz clock. Each time this clock 'ticks', one instruction can be
    dealt with by the CPU. So the more times this clock ticks per second, the more
    instructions the CPU can carry out and the faster things get done.

    The speed of the CPU is measured in either Megaherts (MHz) or more commonly now in
    Gigahertz (GHz). A 1 MHz CPU can carry out one million instructions per second. A 1 GHz
    CPU can carry out 1 billion instructions per second!

    A typical CPU installed in a computer today would run at around 3 GHz.




    5) What are the 3 parts of the CPU and what do they do? (3.1.1 d) (Grade B)

       Control Unit
       Immediate Access Store
       Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU)



The Control Unit

This has three main jobs:

    1. It controls and monitors the hardware attached to the system to make sure that the
       commands given to it by the application software are used. For example, if you send
       something to print, the control unit will keep a check that the instructions are sent to
       the printer correctly.
    2. It controls the input and output of data so that the signals go to the right place at the
       right time
    3. It controls the flow of data within the CPU



The Immediate Access Store


                                                                                                  6
This holds the data and programs needed at that instant by the Control Unit.

The CPU reads data and programs kept on the backing storage and stores them temporarily
in the IAS's memory.

The CPU needs to do this because Backing Storage (e.g. the hard disk) is much to slow to be
able to run the applications from it directly.

For example, lets pretend that a modern CPU was slowed down to carry out one instruction
per second. In this scenario, the hard disk slowed down to an equivalent rate would take
three months to supply the data needed by the CPU!




   6) What is the motherboard? (3.1.1 d) (Grade B)

   The Motherboard is the central circuit board of your computer. All of the components
   and peripherals plug into it.

   The motherboard houses the ROM chips which store the BIOS instructions. RAM chips,
   the CPU, the graphics card, sound card, network interface card, hard disk and various
   other external ports and peripherals all attach directly to it.

   The job of the motherboard is to relay information between the components and
   peripherals




   7) What is a disk drive? (3.1.1 d) (Grade C)

The purpose of a disk drive is to read data from a storage device. Common disk drives that
you will come across in your studies are:

      hard disk drive
      removable hard disk drive
      floppy disk drive
      zip disk drive
      CD drive
      DVD drive

The hard disk drive is installed inside your computer and it reads data stored on the hard
disk.

The floppy, CD and DVD disk drives are installed inside the front of your computer case so
that you can load the disks directly into them.

                                                                                              7
A zip disk drive and a removable hard disk drive are external to the computer and need to
be plugged in via a USB port.




   8) What is ROM and RAM? (Grade C)

   The two main types of memory that you need to clearly understand are Random Access
   Memory (RAM) and Read Only Memory (ROM)

   Read Only Memory (ROM)

   Data stored on ROM is not erased when the power is switched off - it is permanent. This
   is called 'non volatile memory'.

   The ROM chip is used to hold data that cannot be changed by the user. Instructions
   related to the operating system are stored on ROM chips when the computer is
   manufactured.

   This data will usually be the software that tells the computer how to load the operating
   system when it is switched on or re-booted.

   Challenge see if you can find out one extra fact on this topic that we haven't already told
   you

   Random Access Memory (RAM)

   In contrast to ROM, RAM is volatile memory. The data is held on a chip, but only
   temporarily. The data disappears if the power is switched off.

   Have you ever forgotten to save your work before the computer crashed? When you log
   back on, your work has disappeared. This is because it was stored in RAM and was
   erased when the PC was switched off.

   However, if you had saved your work, it would have been transferred from RAM to the
   hard disk where it would have been stored safely.




   9) What is the Cache? (Grade B)

   Most data is stored on the hard disk. When we use that data, it is loaded into RAM
   because it is much faster to access the data from RAM than from the hard disk. When
   we looked at the 'immediate access store' earlier, we found out that the CPU needs to


                                                                                              8
access data very quickly. Although RAM is faster than the hard disk, it still isn't fast
enough to cope with the speed that the CPU needs to deal with data.

The cache is a special type of computer memory which can be accessed much faster
than RAM. The CPU looks in the cache for the data it needs. If the data is there, it will
retrieve it and process it. If the data is not there, then the CPU accesses the system
memory and then puts a copy of the new data in the cache before processing it.

Cache memory is volatile i.e. when the computer is shut down, the data stored there is
lost.




                                                                                            9
Input Devices


 1) Name some different types of keyboards (Grade C)

 A computer keyboard is an input device that enables the user to enter characters (letters,
 numbers and symbols) into a computer.

 The keyboard consists of rows of keys with each key representing a different character.

 There are different types of keyboards available, for example, QWERTY keyboards,
 ergonomic keyboards, braille keyboards



 2) What is a tracker ball? (Grade C)

 A point and click device similar to a mouse. A palm-sized ball is nested in a cradle and as
 you roll it around, the mouse pointer moves around on the screen.

 Popular with CAD applications.



 3) Explain what is meant by touch screen (Grade C)

 A touch screen is the only device which can be classed as both an input and an output
 device.

 It consists of a display monitor that is able to sense the location of a finger touching the
 screen. The location information is sent to the software currently running so that it can
 react to the event.

 For example, the screen may be showing a graphic image of a shopping cart. Touching the
 cart image with your finger may cause the software to open up a payment page.



 4) What is a microphone? (Grade C)

 A microphone converts sound into an electrical signal. There are many types of
 microphone but they all work on the same principle.

 Sound is basically rapidly changing air pressure and so a microphone contains a
 'diaphragm' that moves back and forth as the sound waves hit it. This movement is
 detected by some electronics which produces an electrical signal. This signal is then fed
 into a sound card or audio amplifier.



                                                                                                10
 5) What is a remote control? (Grade C)

 Means to control something without physically touching it. For example most televisions
 now work with remote control. The television is controlled with a hand held Infra-red
 device.

 Remote control can also use radio frequencies, such as might be used to control a hobby
 airplane



 6) What is a scanner? (Grade C)

Scanners, or computer scanners are used to transfer images or text from paper into a digital
format that the computer can use.

Once the information has been transferred, it can then be edited, printed, or uploaded to
the Internet.

There are two main types of scanner:

   1. Flat-bed scanner
   2. Hand-held scanner



 7) What is an interactive whiteboard? (Grade C)

An interactive whiteboard can take what is being shown on the computer screen and display
it for all the class to see. Students and teachers can interact with the screen by tapping it to
select items or menus. They can also drag windows around just as you would with a mouse.



 8) What is a magnetic stripe reader? (Grade C)

 An input device which reads the magnetic stripe on the back of a credit card.

 You swipe the plastic card through the magnetic stripe reader slot. The reader is able to
 'read' or interpret the data contained within the magnetic stripe on the card e.g. bank
 account number.

 Bank and Credit cards contain a magnetic stripe, so do club cards and loyalty cards.



 9) What is a barcode reader? (Grade C)




                                                                                             11
A barcode reader, also called a price or Point of Sale (POS) scanner is a hand held input
device used to capture and read information contained in a bar code.

A bar code reader works by directing a laser beam across the barocode and measuring the
amount of light that is reflected back. The scanner converts the light energy into electrical
energy which is then converted into data by the decoder and forwarded to a computer.

They are used in almost all modern retailers, most commonly in supermarkets



10) What is OMR? (Grade B)

Optical Mark Reader (OMR)

This is an automatic input device.

Forms that have been filled in for use with an OMR machine are marked with high contrast ink. The
machine can then read the data very reliably and rapidly.

Try to picture a multiple choice test where you have to show your answer by using a pencil to fill in
a small oval next to the correct letter. The marks on the paper contrast against the white
background.

The form is scanned into the computer and the OMR software is used to recognise and record
where the marks appear on the paper.




11) What is OCR? (Grade C)

Optical Character Recognition (OCR)

When documents are scanned into a computer the contents are usually saved as an image. This
means without using OCR, any text on the original paper document couldn't be edited or saved as
text.

OCR is the technology that allows the text on paper documents to be converted into text which is
editable after scanning.

The character image is translated into character codes such as ASCII.




12) What is a graphics tablet? (Grade C)



                                                                                                   12
A graphics tablet has two parts. The first part is a slender slab that lies flat on the table.
The second part is a special pen. The tablet can sense how the pen is moving around on its
flat surface. By moving the pen around you are able to draw lines and pictures.

The computer must be running an application that can deal with the graphics tablet. For
example Photoshop or CAD (Computer Aided Design) software.



13) What is MIDI? (Grade A)

An musical instrument interface standard. Short for Musical Instrument Digital Interface.
The important point to note about MIDI is that it is a 'control interface' - it does not involve
the music itself.

For example an electronic piano can be told, through the MIDI interface, to trigger the #C
sharp' key, hold it for a second then let go. A bit like a back seat driver telling the driver
what to do.

Most electronic instruments can include a MIDI interface so an artist can use machines
such as a MIDI sequencer to control the sound of whole bunchof instruments.




14) Attempt the challenge tasks for each question (Grade A/A*)




                                                                                             13
Output Devices
 1) What is a plotter? (Grade C)

 A plotter will draw an image according to the instructions given from a connected
 computer.

 Plotters are often used by engineers, designers and architects to produce large technical
 drawings (often a metre wide and any length).

 The paper is rolled back and forth, while a set of ink pens move side to side, dropping
 down onto the paper when required.



 2) What is an actuator? (Grade C)

 The 'actuator' is the name given to a device that moves something when commanded to
 do so.

 For example an electric motor is an actuator. Its output shaft is connected to the thing that
 needs to be controlled such as a window or automatic gate.

 A pneumatic piston is an actuator, when its control valve opens, compressed air rushes
 into the piston to push or pull something.



 3) Attempt the challenge tasks for each question (Grade A*/A/B)




                                                                                             14
Output devices
  1) What are the advantages and disadvantages of CRT and TFT monitors? (Grade C)

  CRT monitors are becoming out-dated, although you will probably remember using
  them at school not very long ago.

  They are large and bulky and have a glass screen which makes them fairly robust and
  difficult to damage.

  They produce quite a lot of heat so when you have an office with lots of them it could
  get quite warm. They are also fairly noisy compared to newer TFT monitors

  TFT monitors used to be very expensive but now the price has come down they are
  beginning to replace all of the old CRT monitors. Not only do they look much nicer they take
  up a lot less space. They are quieter than CRT monitors and also create less heat.

  On the down side they are easier to damage than CRT screens. A few sharp pokes at the
  screen with a pencil can cause lasting damage. Another disadvantage is that unless you have
  a very high quality TFT monitor, the colours and contrast are not so good as a CRT monitor
  and so the picture can look a bit dull.



  2) Name 3 different types of printers. What are the advantages and disadvantages of these
     printers? (Grade C)

  Laser printers are used in many workplaces because they are quiet, they print a large
  number of sheets very quickly and they produce high quality documents.

  They print in the same way as photocopiers. Powdered ink, called 'Toner', is fused onto
  paper by heat and pressure.

  You can purchase a laser printer which prints black and white copies only or you can pick
  a colour laser printer. Black and white versions are relatively cheap to purchase and you
  only need to buy one toner (which is also expensive). Colour laser printers are still a little
  too expensive for most people to purchase for home use although many offices now
  have at least one colour laser printer.

   Ink-jet printers have been popular for a long time because they are relatively cheap to buy
   and most of them can combine both black and white and colour printing at the same time.

   These printers use cartridges which contain ink. They operate by heating the ink as it
   flows through the nozzle. The heating process causes a small droplet of ink to form. This
   is then released as a single dot which forms part of a letter or image. This is why the
   printouts often come out of an ink-jet printer still slightly wet.




                                                                                              15
   These were the first type of printers to be used in homes and schools but they are not
   used much nowadays.

   They are also called 'impact printers'. The print head contains a grid of pins and different
   combinations of pins are pushed out to form different characters. The print head then
   hits a carbon ribbon leaving an imprint on the paper. This makes them fairly noisy as you
   can hear the pins striking the paper.

   Dot-matrix printers are ideal when you need carbon copies. This is because the print
   head hits the paper with enough force that when carbonised paper is used, the impact
   makes a copy on the second sheet.

   They are also useful when continuous paper needs to be used for example printing large
   quantities of invoices or bills. They can be printed onto paper with perforations and then
   separated by tearing once the printing is complete.


   3) What are the advantages and disadvantages of plotters? (Grade B)

   Plotters are a specialist type of printer which is able to draw high quality images on very
   large pieces of paper, for example 3 foot wide by 10 foot long.

   They are used by engineers, architects and map-makers to draw plans of buildings,
   diagrams of machines or large scale maps. They can also be used for many other similar
   tasks.

   A plotter differs from a printer in that it draws images using a pen that can be lowered,
   raised and moved across the paper to form continuous lines. The electronically
   controlled pen is moved around the paper by computer controlled motors.


   4) What are the advantages and disadvantages of speakers? (Grade B)

Most computers are fitted with a small internal speaker which can produce beeping sounds
to alert you if you make an error.

Computers can also be fitted with a sound card (or chip) which will enable sound to be
output through external speakers. These usually produce a much higher quality sound than
the internal speaker.

Advantages

      Everyone in the room can hear the output from the computer.
      They can help create an atmosphere or ambiance to accompany a presentation
      They help blind people to use the computer because text can be converted into
       sound

Disadvantages
                                                                                             16
      The output from speakers can disturb others who are trying to work
      High quality external speakers can be expensive



Attempt the quiz




                                                                            17
Input devices
   1) What is an input device? (Grade C)

       What is an input device? (Grade C)
       Something used to input data into a computer.



   2) What are the advantages and disadvantages of a keyboard? (Grade B)


Advantage:                                         Disadvantage:

      The most efficient way of entering                     You have to learn to type!
       numbers, text and commands into the                    There are 'arrow keys' but they are not as
       computer, as each key has a specific                    good as a mouse for controlling the
       function.                                               screen cursor.
      Inexpensive, as virtually every                        May cause sore wrists and arms
       computer needs one.




   3) What are the advantages and disadvantages of a mouse? (Grade B)


Advantages:                                       Disadvantage:

      One of the easiest way of                            You have to have space next to the
       translating. X-Y hand movements                       keyboard to move the mouse.
       into the computer.                                   Prolonged use can give you sore wrists and
      Excellent for controlling the                         arms.
       cursor, menus and windows on                         Not as good as a graphics tablet for
       screen.                                               drawing straight lines and shapes on
      Easy to use.                                          screen.



   4) What are the advantages and disadvantages of a graphics tablet? (Grade B)


Advantage:                               Disadvantage:

      Excellent for use with a                   More expensive than a mouse, especially in the
       drawing or graphics                         larger sizes.
       package to draw lines and                  Not as precise as a mouse for menu control, so it
       shapes.                                     tends to be an addition rather than a
      Can input pressure data for                 replacement- you can run both perfectly well by
       use in a graphics package                   making sure the pen is off the tablet when you do
                                                   not need it.




                                                                                                      18
   5) What are the advantages and disadvantages of a scanner? (Grade B)

Advantage:

      Scanners can convert photographs and flat documents into electronic images.
      Both colour and black & white images can be created.
      Extremely high resolution if required.
      Relatively inexpensive compared to a digital camera.

Disadvantages:

      Cannot take 3 dimensional images.
      Document has to fit on the glass
      Relatively slow compared to taking a digital photograph.



   6) What are the advantages and disadvantages of a Concept tablet? (Grade B)

Advantages:

      Can be used to issue specific commands to the computer.
      Avoids staff having to know the price of everything.
      Allows software to be controlled with a single touch of the tablet.

Disadvantage:

      There has to be the right software running for the command to make sense.
      Number of commands that can be issued is limited by the size of the device.




   7) What are the advantages and disadvantages of a touch screen? (Grade B)

Advantage:

      Very easy to change what it is controlling by simply changing the software.
      No moving parts
      Can use any number of menu levels
      Can display large text to assist less-sighted people
      Can easily switch languages.

Disadvantages:

      Expensive compared to a standard keyboard or mouse.
      Has to have specific software to make sense of the input.
      Can be a problem seeing the screen in bright sunlight




                                                                                     19
   8) What are the advantages and disadvantages of an OMR? (Grade B)


Advantage:

      Good for inputting large volume of data at low cost.
      Very little training or instruction required to use the forms/card.
      Good for multi-choice questionnaires.

Disadvantage:

      Can only input a limited data set
      Poorly marked forms/cards cause errors.
      Creased/folded forms cause errors.

   9) What are the advantages and disadvantages of an OCR? (Grade B)

Advantage:

      Allows paper records to be converted into electronic format

Disadvantage:

      Conversion is often not perfect and so someone has to read the results and correct them.
      Can be slow (unless an expensive system is used).

   10) What are the advantages and disadvantages of an MICR? (Grade B)

Advantage:

      Very reliable, low errors
      High speed
      Not so sensitive to grubby paper.

Disadvantage:

      The ink technology is relatively expensive
      The font has to be specific



   11) What are the advantages and disadvantages of a Magnetic strip reader?
       (Grade B)

Advantage:

      Inexpensive
      Robust - not easily damaged
      Simple to use
      Fast

Disadvantage:



                                                                                                  20
     A card can be copied fairly easily.
     Sensitive to strong magnetic fields

  12) What are assisted switches and head pointers? (Grade C)

  A switch is an input device for people with physical disabilities to access computers,
  environmental controls or communication devices. The switches on this page are pressure
  sensitive and a simple press by the person causes an activation. You can use switches to
  emulate mouse clicks, run single-switch software and use the scanning method for running the
  computer.

  This system allows the mouse to be controlled by moving your head around slightly.

  The way it works is that you attach a small reflective disk on to your glasses or forehead then the
  device locks on to its position. As you move your head around, the device tracks it and sends up-
  down, left-right input into the computer to control the mouse. There are also two switch inputs
  available to allow right and left mouse switches to be emulated.




You will now be tested on what you have learned.
Record your score in the results section of your
workbook.




                                                                                                   21
Section 1 part 2:-

Storage, Memory and Microprocessors


Types of computers

   1) What is a super computer? (Grade B)

   Supercomputers are the fastest and most expensive computers in the World.

   They can cost over a hundred million pounds to build and very few organisations can
   afford to purchase one.

   They are mainly used by large universities who do a lot of research projects such as
   scientific research, weather modelling etc and by large organisations such as
   pharmaceutical companies for drug research or by the military for weapons research.

   Whilst supercomputers are working, they generate so much heat that they need to be
   housed in specifically designed rooms with environmental controls and air conditioning
   systems. It is vital that the atmosphere is kept free of dust particles and special filters
   are used to keep the air clean.

   There may be many miles of cables which connect the computer to various peripherals.
   In order to hide the cables, false floors and ceilings are often needed.

   Supercomputers usually need their own back up electricity generator to ensure that
   they can continue to work even when there is a power failure.



   2) What is a main frame? (Grade B)

Mainframes are large, powerful computers that can carry out many different tasks for many
different people at the same time.

They are slower than a supercomputer but they are far less expensive. They may cost
around 4 million pounds to purchase.

Mainframes can execute billions of instructions per second and can process large amounts
of data simultaneously.

They are usually connected to a large number of peripherals e.g. printers, terminals, disk
drives etc.

They are used by large companies such as:

      Utility companies e.g. gas and electricity suppliers to calculate customer bills.


                                                                                             22
      Banks - for managing thousands of customers accounts each day
      Insurance companies - for keeping track of policies and claims
      Airlines - for dealing with bookings, tickets, cancellations etc
      Police - for storing and processing all of the data collected each day about crimes

Mainframe computers need to be operated by specialist, trained staff. They are usually kept
in an air-conditioned rooms away from the office or factory floor.



   3) What is a P.C? (Grade C)

   We tend to call them 'desktop personal computers' or just 'PC'.

   The desktop PC has a central processing unit housed in a metal or plastic case (often
   called a tower unit). A keyboard and mouse are usually used to input data and a monitor
   to output the data.



   4) What is a laptop? (Grade C)


Laptops were traditionally expensive when compared to a similar specification for a desktop
PC. However, with the growing demand for laptops and cheaper production methods, they
are now a similar price.

The trend towards the use of laptops has been brought about due to many different
reasons:

Changes in working/living patterns

Many workers are no longer 'chained' to their desk. Many people need to be able to move
about during their working day. This could be going to different offices or buildings for a
meeting or driving to another town for a meeting or conference. It could be that people
want to be able to carry on working whilst travelling to and from work on the train.


   5) What is a P.D.A? (Grade B)


A PDA was originally developed as an electronic organiser. They aimed to replace diaries, 'to
do' lists and address books. However, rapid development has resulted in palm tops and
PDAs becoming almost cut down computers in their own right.

PDAs are now available with cut down versions of the main Office software, e.g. Microsoft
Word, Excel and Access. The reason they are so successful is that they usually have the
ability to synchronize with a desktop PC. So, any work you have been doing on your PDA can
be uploaded to your PC and the files updated.
                                                                                              23
Many PDAs can now also access the Internet and can be used to research web pages, send
emails or even play games. Some even double up as phones.

Palmtops are very similar to PDAs in their use. The main difference is that Palmtops have a
built in keyboard


   6) What are embedded computers? (Grade B)


An embedded computer is a single chip that contains all of the elements that are essential
for any computer i.e.

      RAM
      ROM
      CPU
      Input
      Output
      Clock

Another term often used for an embedded computer is a 'micro controller'. This is because
the main purpose of an embedded computer is to control something.

All of the following contain an embedded computer:

      telephones
      televisions
      cameras
      washing machines
      microwave cookers
      dishwashers
      cars


   7) Now attempt the quiz




                                                                                             24
Storage Devices (3.1.1 d)


    1) What is a storage device? (Grade C)

An external device which allows you to save data on to it.



    2) Describe the different storage capacity sizes (Grade B)

Bit                Smallest unit of data, either a 0 or 1
Byte               8 bits
Kilobyte (Kb)      Assumed to be 1,000 bytes. In reality, it is really 1,024 bytes.
Megabyte (Mb)      1,000 kilobytes (1,024 Kb)
Gigabyte (Gb)      1,000 megabytes (1,024 Mb)




    3) Describe ROM and RAM (Grade B)

    ROM is a special kind of memory which stores the instructions which the computer uses
    when it 'boots up' - the BIOS (basic input output system). It allows it to check the type of
    hard disk installed, the amount of RAM installed (see next page), the type of CPU being
    used etc.

    Because the data is 'read only', it can be read but not changed by the user.

    The ROM chip (although there may be more than one) is attached to the Motherboard.

    The key thing to remember about ROM is that the data is not erased when the computer
    is switched off - the data is stored permanently. This type of memory is called 'non
    volatile memory'

   RAM. How many times have you worked for a whole lesson on something which you
   were just about to save but then the computer crashed or your mate 'accidentally'
   switched it off. When you rebooted and logged back in, your work was gone forever.

   This was because your work was stored in RAM, or 'temporary memory'. It was fairly
   safe there while the computer was working, but as soon as it was switched off,
   everything disappeared. This type of memory known as 'volatile memory'.

   As well as storing the data you are working on, RAM also stores the modules that are
   needed to make your applications work. For example, when you open up Microsoft
   Word, you may notice a short delay while the modules are loaded into RAM.



                                                                                              25
RAM is also needed so that you can have multiple windows open and so that you can
switch between them.

However, if you have a lot of windows, documents and different applications running,
you might find that your system starts to slow down. This is because your RAM is full up
and it is having to decide what it needs to keep stored in memory at any given time and
what it can release. If this happens to you a lot, you can improve the performance of
your computer by installing extra RAM.



4) What is the hard disk? What does it store? Explain the difference between a fixed and a
   portable hard disk. (Grade A)

The hard disk is the main storage device in your computer. It is a bit like a filing cabinet:
all of your data files and applications software are stored on it.

The hard disk contains a number of metal platters which have been coated with a special
magnetic material. The data is stored in this magnetic material. Thus, the hard disk is
known as a magnetic storage device.

In order to access the data, the platters spin many thousands of times a second and a
magnetic read and write head floats just above the surface of the platter.

When you hear the term 'hard disk crash', this refers to the read/write head crashing
down onto the surface of the hard disk. There is a risk every time this happens that the
data stored in the section just where the head crashes might be damaged. That is why it
is a bad idea just to switch the computer off at the wall without shutting it down
properly.

Hard disks are measured in Gigabytes. A typical hard disk size will be around 120 Gb - 1
Terabyte.

It is possible to also have an external hard disk which can be plugged into the computer
and used to back up your data and then stored in a different place to keep it safe.




5) What is magnetic tape? Why is it useful to organisations? (Grade A)

The amount of work that you do on your computer at home can easily be backed up
onto a CD-RW or a memory stick. However, many organisations, such as your school or
an office, need to back up large volumes of data each day. A CD-RW, DVD-RW or flash
memory sticks just would not be large enough for doing this.




                                                                                             26
Large organisations who need to back up their systems daily tend to use magnetic tapes
to store their data.

Magnetic tape uses 'serial access' to find a piece of data. It works in much the same way
as a video tape that you might have at home. To find a specific piece of data, you have
to start at the beginning of the tape and continue fast forwarding until you get to the
piece of data that you need. This makes it fairly slow to find and retrieve data so it would
not be much use to store data that you needed to get hold of quickly




6) What are the different types of CD’s? (Grade B)

Compact Disks come in three main forms:

CD-ROM - CD Read Only Memory. This means that when you buy the disk, it already has
the data or program stored on it. You can read it, but can't save to it. An example would
be a music CD that you buy from a shop.

CD-WORM - CD Write Once Read Many. This means that you are able to save to this disk
one time, so you can store your data or an application on it of your choice. However,
once you have saved onto the disk once, you can access the data many times but can't
save onto it again.

CD-RW - CD ReWritable. This means that you can save data to your disk over and over
again, just like you can with a floppy disk.

Compact disks are known as optical storage devices. Data is burned onto the surface of
the disk using a laser beam in the CD drive. A laser beam is also used to read the data
stored on the disk.

A typical CD can store around 650 Mb of data - equivalent to 450 floppy disks. The entire
contents of four text based encyclopedias (no images) could be stored on a single CD.




7) What do you think a DVD ROM is? What do you think a DVD RW is? What is DVD RAM. You
   may need to use other websites to answer this question e.g.
   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DVD_ROM, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dvd_ram ,

   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DVD_RW (Grade A*/A)
   DVD ROM is a read-only memory disc (DVD-ROM), because data can only be read (played
   back).
   DVD+RW is a physical format for rewritable DVDs


                                                                                         27
       DVD-RAM is one of three competing technologies for rewritable DVDs. It is similar to
       DVD+RW.



   8) What is a DVD? List the different types. (Grade C)

   DVDs are amongst the most common methods of copying and backing up data at home.

   A DVD is similar to a CD in that it is an optical device and that a laser is used to store the
   data and read the data.

   A single sided DVD can store about 4.7Gb of data. DVDs which store data on both sides
   can hold over 9Gb of data.

   One problem with the DVD is that the different companies which make them haven't
   agreed on a standard format. Because of this, you will see various kinds of DVD disks for
   sale: DVD-R, DVD+R, DVD-RW and DVD+RW. You have to make sure that you buy the
   right kind of disk to go with your DVD equipment



   9) What are the advantages and disadvantages of a flash memory stick? (Grade C)

Flash memory storage devices are typically small, lightweight, removable and rewritable.
They consist of a small printed circuit board which is encased in plastic or metal casing. They
usually have a removable cap which covers and protects the part of the stick which is
inserted into a USB port.

Memory sticks are available from 1 Gb up to 8 Gb.

Advantages

      They are more compact and portable than floppy disks or CDs/DVDs.
      They hold more data than a floppy disk and nowadays often more than a CD.
      They are more reliable than a floppy disk because they have no moving parts
      They are being developed with fashionable looking outer casings and are almost
       becoming a 'fashion accessory' much in the way of a mobile phone.

Disadvantages

      At the moment, the cost per megabyte of storage is more expensive than floppy
       disks, CDs or DVDs.
      They can be easily lost
      The metal part which is inserted into the USB port can be snapped off if they are
       handled roughly




                                                                                               28
Storage
   1) What is virtual memory? (Grade B)

If you load the operating system, an e-mail program, a Web browser and word processor
into RAM simultaneously, 32 megabytes is not enough to hold it all. If there were no such
thing as virtual memory, then once you filled up the available RAM your computer would
have to say, "Sorry, you cannot load any more applications. Please close another application
to load a new one." With virtual memory, what the computer can do is look at RAM for
areas that have not been used recently and copy them onto the hard disk. This frees up
space in RAM to load the new application.


   2) What are the advantages and disadvantages of virtual memory? (Grade A)

Because this copying happens automatically, you don't even know it is happening, and it makes your
computer feel like is has unlimited RAM space even though it only has 32 megabytes installed

The read/write speed of a hard drive is much slower than RAM, and the technology of a
hard drive is not geared toward accessing small pieces of data at a time. If your system has
to rely too heavily on virtual memory, you will notice a significant performance drop. The
key is to have enough RAM to handle everything you tend to work on simultaneously --
then, the only time you "feel" the slowness of virtual memory is is when there's a slight
pause when you're changing tasks. When that's the case, virtual memory is perfect.



Click on the link below and answer the questions

http://www.teach-ict.com/case_studies/news_case_studies/case%20study.pdf



   1) What is online storage? (Grade B)
      Online storage is when you can store your data on the internet. Companies such as Goofle
      and BT let their customers do this for a small fee.

   2) What are the advantages and disadvantages? (Grade B)

       It will allow you to view your data anywhere in the world. You will have a backup of your
       data in case the original is lost or damaged.

       Disadvantages:- It will cost money, You are reliant on the people who store your work and
       their systems.




                                                                                                   29
Communication devices
   1) What is SMS? (Grade C)

   SMS stands for Short Message Service. Every mobile phone operator provides this
   facility where you can send text messages of up to 160 characters from your mobile
   phone.

   Most often you send an SMS message to another mobile. But now there are also SMS
   gateway sites on the internet that allow you to send and receive SMS messages from your
   web browser

   2) What is instant messaging? (Grade C)

Instant messaging lets people send instant messages (text-based conversation) to each other
over a Network, such as the Internet using instant messaging software.


   3) What is a fax? (Grade C)

   Short for Electronic Facsimilie.

   It is a method of transmitting paper documents electronically.

   The way it works is you feed the sheet of paper you want to send, into the fax machine.
   The machine then scans the document to produce an electronic data file.

   The data file is then sent to another Fax machine by telephone line, which reads it. The
   machine will use the data to print out a simlar sheet to the original.

   The handy thing about a Fax machine over email is that it can capture an image of a
   signature or a hand drawing.



   4) What is e-mail? (Grade C)

   Email is short for 'Electronic Mail'.

   Electronic mail is a form of communication where text based messages are exchanged by
   using computers attached to a network.




                                                                                              30
5) What is a chat room? (Grade C)

A chat room is a virtual place on the Internet where people can get together and talk.
They use programs which allow real time chat to take place such as MSN.

Although chat rooms can be a great place to 'socialise' and catch up with friends, many
concerns have been raised over their misuse by people pretending to be someone other
than themselves.


6) What is a forum? (Grade B)

An internet term. A 'Forum' was originally a place for ancient Greeks to talk to one
another. Now the word is used to describe a web site that allows people to write messages
to one another.

There are 'public forums' where anyone can read the messages and there are 'private
forums' where you need to belong to the forum group to read messages.

Forums are often split into discussion groups in order to help people find just the topic
they need rather than ploughing through hundreds of irrelevant postings.

You 'post' a message to a Forum and each message is called a 'posting'.

A 'thread' is a series of postings that originate from one original post.

A 'flame' is an insulting post.

A 'troll' is someone who maliciously sends flames in order to cause arguments

A 'lurker' is someone who reads posts but never sends any.

A 'moderator' is someone who decides which posts can appear on the Forum, they are
usually looking to block inappropriate topics or language.

If you happen to have a server and database available then there are many free Forum
packages that you can use to set up a Forum. For example the Open Source PHPbb is very
popular.

7) What is a bulletin board? (Grade B)

A bulletin board is a place where messages can be posted, read and replied to on virtually
every subject you can think of.

The messages are stored in order of the date they were posted and a all of the previous
replies are shown as a hierarchy of message titles.

Bulletin boards have more or less been superceded by forums.


                                                                                            31
   8) What is VoIP/Skype? (Grade A)

VoIP, or Voice over Internet Protocol, is the routing of voice conversations through the
internet or another IP-type network. Therefore VoIP calls are often free apart from the cost of
being connected to the internet.




                                                                                             32
Microprocessor Technology
   1) Describe a range of applications where microprocessor technology is used in the home.
      (Grade A*/A)

Applications of Microprocessor Technology in the home and
everyday life:

   1. Embedded computers - A vast number of modern devices in
      the home are microprocessor controlled. Examples include:
      washing machines; camera; calculators; hi-fi systems;
      telephones; microwave ovens; burglar alarms etc. etc.
          o The inputs are usually sensors, buttons or simple
             numeric keyboards.
          o The outputs include simple LCD screens displays, motors and relays,
             LEDs, lights, buzzers etc.




   2) Describe a range of applications where microprocessor technology is used in the work place.
      (Grade A*/A)

Applications of Microprocessor Technology in the workplace:

   1. Embedded computers - These are used extensively in the
      workplace, often to automate and monitor production in some
      way. Examples include: electronic tills, automatic car washes,
      security systems, FAX and telephone systems, automated
      production lines, automated warehousing, manufacturing robots
      etc. etc.
          o The inputs are usually sensors, buttons, touch screens or simple numeric
              keyboards.
          o The outputs include simple LCD screens displays, motors and relays,
              LEDs, lights, buzzers etc.
   2. Minicomputers - a multi-user computer capable of supporting from 10 to
      hundreds of users simultaneously. These are often known as servers and may be
      used by:
          o Smaller businesses to manage their data processing
          o Schools to store pupil and staff files and run the school management
              databases.

Applications of Microprocessor Technology in everyday life, home and the
workplace:

   1. Microcomputers - these systems such as typically used by home, office and
      school users. They can be divided into different types:
         a. Desk top computers - these would typically be
             supplied with the computer itself (complete with hard
             disk drive and floppy disk drive) and peripherals such
             as a screen, a mouse, a keyboard and a CD or DVD
             drive.
                 o Advantages: Relatively cheap and easy to add
                     expansion cards to.
                 o Disadvantages: Can take up a lot of space and are not easily
                     moved.


                                                                                               33
                                        b. Notebooks (laptops) - these are small
                            (typically 30cm x 20cm), light and easy to carry. The
                            screen is on the inside top flap which hinges open to show
                            the keyboard and mouse controls. They are designed to run
                            on rechargeable batteries or the mains and can contain
                            many of the features available on a desktop computer.
             Touch pads or a button are usually used to control the screen pointer.
                o Advantages: Portable due to their size and ability to run on
                    batteries.
                o Disadvantages: Expensive for their processing power compared to
                    desktop computers. You cannot use standard expansion cards.
                    Keyboards and screens not as good for extended usage.
  2. Palm-tops & PDAs (personal digital assistants) - These are
     small hand-held computers. They are usually supplied with
            software such as a diary, a contacts database, and some
            form of word processor. Many now have email facilities and
            even spreadsheets and databases. They either use a small
            keyboard or a touch-sensitive screen and handwriting
            recognition software. They can be linked to larger computers directly by
     cable or through a docking station or using an infra-red link.
        o Advantages: Very portable.
        o Disadvantages: Relatively expensive, limited expansion, non-keyboard
             versions can be slow to input data.




You will now be tested on what you have learned.
Record your score in the results section of your
workbook.


                                                                                   34
Section 2:-Networks

WAN’s and LAN’s

  1) What does WAN stand for? (Grade C)

      Wide area network

  2) What does LAN Stand for? (Grade C)
     Local area network



  3) What is a network? (Grade B)

      A network is two or more computers connected together so they can communicate which
      each other.



  4) What hardware do you need for a LAN and why? (Grade A)

  File Server : Runs software, stores files.

  Terminals : Workstations that give network access.

  Print Server : Queues up all print jobs from users in network.

  Cables (wire/optic) : Sends data.



  5) What hardware do you need for a WAN and why? (Grade A)

  Modems : To connect up to a telephone system (instead of cable).



  6) What are the advantages and disadvantages of networks? (Grade A)

  Resources (Hardware and Software) can be shared.

   Allows more effective communication between users e.g. via e-mail.

   Networks are cheaper than “stand-alone PCs.”

   Information held on the network can be accessed by all users with authorised access.

  The set-up and maintenance costs can be expensive.

   A fault with the network server can cause difficulties with the organisation.

   Networks need security measures to restrict access to users.

                                                                                            35
WANs are vulnerable to hackers and viruses.



7) Name 3 Topologies and give some advantages and disadvantages (Grade A)

    Ring, bus, star

8) Describe 3 types of network security (Grade A*/A)
 Physical security means that the hardware of the network is protected from theft and kept
   safe.
 Access security means that there is a limit to the amount of access a user has to the
   information held on the network.
 Data security means that there are measures taken to prevent the loss of data held on the
   system




                                                                                          36
Creating a network
   1) What is a router? (Grade B)

A Router is a device that transfers data from one network to another in an intelligent
way. It has the task of forwarding data packets to their destination by the most
efficient route.



   2) What is a repeater? (Grade A)

   All signals fade as they travel from one place to another.

   Each type of network cable has a maximum useable length. If you go beyond that
   length, the signal will be too weak to be useful.

   Of course, computers on a real network can easily be more than 200 metres
   apart. Therefore the network cable is split up into segments. Each segment is
   less than the maximum length allowed. Joining the segments together is a device
   known as a 'Repeater'.




   3) What is a bridge? (Grade A)

A Bridge does just what you would expect it to do - it joins two networks together so as far as
data packets are concerned it looks like one large network

   4) What is a hub? (Grade A)

   There are many network topologies available:

Star - uses a hub
Tree - uses a hub
Bus - does not use a hub
Ring - does not use a hub

   To allow the Star and Tree network topologies to work properly, each computer must be
   able to send data packets to any other computer on the network.

   The network 'Hub' allows computers to share data packets within a network.

   Each computer will be connected to a single 'port' on the hub. So if you purchase an '8
   port hub', you will be able to connect up to eight computers together.




                                                                                             37
5) What is a network protocol? (Grade A)

A 'NETWORK PROTOCOL' is the agreed method of communication to be
used within the network.

Each device / computer will use this protocol.



6) What is a filter? What does it do? (Grade A)

If your network is to be kept secure it is often essential that some filtering takes
place.

For example, some staff wish to work from home with their laptops and they need
to access files from within the company network.

In this case a filter would be set up that accepts data packets coming from that
particular laptop. Other filtering rules would block unwanted packets trying to
come in.

7) What is a server? Give examples of some different servers which may be used? (Grade A)

Printer Server.

Imagine there are a dozen computers on the network and each one needs to
print out a document every few minutes. The machine that is connected to the
printer is going to be tied up most of the time.

In this case it makes sense to allocate a machine exclusively to service printer
requests. This machine is called a 'printer server'



File server.

Consider a network of a dozen computers. There could be thousands of files
scattered across each machine. Two problems arise:

a) how do you find the file you need?

b) how do you back up your data to keep it safe?

The solution is to keep all your files on one computer. This machine is called the
'file server'.

Advantages:


                                                                                            38
Files are simple to find
Files are easily shared
User computers can be switched off without any problem of a file becoming
unavailable.
Data is easily backed up.



   Database server.

   Many companies rely on a central store of information to run their operations.
   Information such as sales and stock data is usually kept in a database.

   Very often a machine will be dedicated to run a specific database. This machine
   is called a 'database server'

   Advantages:

All data is available from anywhere in the network
A specially designed computer can be selected to run the database e.g lots of
memory.
Database is easily backed up.



   Other kinds of server.

   A server is any machine that provides a service for other users on the
   network.

   Common services include:

Email server
Internet Proxy server
Intranet server.


   8) What is a proxy server? (Grade A)
      A 'Proxy' is another word for 'Substitute'.

The Proxy Server.

This machine has the two main tasks:

Supply authorised internal users with web pages
Supply external users with authorised information and services


   9) What does a modem do? (Grade A)



                                                                                    39
A modem converts the digital data from the computer into a continuous analogue
wave form that the telephone system is designed to deal with (MODulation). The
reason for this is that the telephone system was originally designed for the human
voice i.e. continuous signals. The modem also converts the analogue signal from
the telephone network back into digital data that the computer can understand.
(DEModulation).

   10) What is a network card? (Grade A)

Network cards are required in every machine connected to the network. They allow the
signal from the network to be transmitted to the machine – this could be via a fixed cable,
infra red or radio waves.




   11) What is broadband? (Grade C)

   Broadband comes from the words 'broad bandwidth'. This term is applied to networks
   which can carry multiple channels of data. Each channel can carry a different signal e.g.
   moving images, sound or text.

   Broadband doesn't necessarily mean that it is faster, it means that more data can be
   carried at the same time.


   12) What are file servers, print servers and e-mail servers? (Grade A)



   Printer Server.

   Imagine there are a dozen computers on the network and each one needs to
   print out a document every few minutes. The machine that is connected to the
   printer is going to be tied up most of the time.

   In this case it makes sense to allocate a machine exclusively to service printer
   requests. This machine is called a 'printer server'



   File server.

   Consider a network of a dozen computers. There could be thousands of files
   scattered across each machine. Two problems arise:

   a) how do you find the file you need?

   b) how do you back up your data to keep it safe?

   The solution is to keep all your files on one computer. This machine is called the
   'file server'.

                                                                                              40
Encryption
  1) Describe how encryption works? (Grade B)




  2) Why is encryption used? (Grade C)

  Encryption means to scramble a message in such a way that only the people who are
  meant to read it can do so.

  A message sent 'in the clear' looks like:

  "This is a message anyone can read" and the encrypted message looks like gibberish:

  fu11^&**$$HHPPHDYhg**&&£--20dkmama@()@88787399(&*&))**OJKK@_D

  Encryption works by both people making use of a secret 'key' that only they know (or at
  least their computers know). The original message is mixed in with the key to create a
  secret message. This is done by some very crafty mathematics so that it is very very
  hard for someone to crack the code - very powerful computers working for a long time
  would be needed to crack a good code.

  This protects personal information stopping things like people stealing your money or
  identity




You will now be tested on what you have learned.
Record your score in the results section of your
workbook.


                                                                                          41
Section 3:-Mobile technologies

    1) List some mobile I.T devices (Grade C)

    laptop and netbook computers


    palmtop computers or personal digital assistants


    mobile phones and 'smart phones'


    global positioning system (GPS) devices


    wireless debit/credit card payment terminals




    2) List some communication technologies and give definitions. (Grade B)

    wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi) - a type of wireless local area network technology


    Bluetooth - connects mobile devices wirelessly


    'third generation' (3G), global system for mobile communications (GSM) and general packet radio
    service (GPRS) data services - data networking services for mobile phones


    dial-up services - data networking services using modems and telephone lines


    virtual private networks - secure access to a private network




    3) What are the benefits of mobile technologies? (Grade B)

Mobile computing can improve the service you offer your customers. For example, when meeting with
customers you could access your customer relationship management system - over the internet -
allowing you to update customer details whilst away from the office. Alternatively, you can enable
customers to pay for services or goods without having to go to the till. For example, by using a wireless
payment terminal diners can pay for their meal without leaving their table.


More powerful solutions can link you directly into the office network while working off site, for instance
to access your database or accounting systems. For example, you could:


   set up a new customer's account
   check prices and stock availability
   place an order online




                                                                                                         42
This leads to great flexibility in working - for example, enabling home working, or working while
travelling. Increasingly, networking 'hot spots' are being provided in public areas that allow connection
back to the office network or the internet. The growth of cloud computing has also impacted positively
on the use of mobile devices, supporting more flexible working practices by providing services over the
internet. For more information see our guide on cloud computing.




    4) What are the disadvantages of mobile technologies? (Grade B)



There are costs involved in setting up the equipment and training required to make use of mobile
devices. Mobile IT devices can expose valuable data to unauthorised people if the proper precautions are
not taken to ensure that the devices, and the data they can access, are kept safe. See our guide on
securing your wireless systems.




You will now be tested on what you have learned.
Record your score in the results section of your
workbook.




                                                                                                         43
Use correct procedures to start and shut down an ICT system (Grade C)




Use the words below to complete the sentences.

To turn the computer on you need to press the buttons on the Monitor and Desktop.

You then need to log on. To do this you press Ctrl, ALT and Delete.

You then enter your Username and Password to log onto the computer.

First name                     Delete                          Username

Desktop                        Shift                           Ctrl

Last name                      Password                        Keyboard

Delete                         Television                      Alt

Monitor                        Mouse                           Computer


                                Use the words below to complete the sentences.

                                At the end of lesson 1 you should log off your computer ready for the next
                                person to use it.

                                At the end of lesson 5 you should Shut down your computer.

                                Switch off                Power on                Switch on

                                Hibernate                 Log off                 Press the on/off
                                                                                  button.
                                Shut down                 Ask the teacher to      Power off
                                                          switch off



                                                                                         44
Section 5:-Identify ICT problems and solve errors


   1) What is software freeze? (Grade C)

When a computer seizes up or stops running



   2) How can you fix software freeze? (Grade A*/A)
    Save your work often. If you are on the Internet often, save your work as a draft and
      come back to edit it. In case you are working on a document, click the save button every
      so often. This is a quick fix in the event your computer freezes.

      Try the three finger salute by pressing Control-Alt-Delete to fix a stalled computer. This
       will bring up your Windows Task Manager. It will appear differently in different versions of
       Windows, just so you are aware. The computer will tell you which software is responding
       and which is not responding or freezes up continually.
      Click end task on the software or applications that are prone to freezes and are not
       responding.

      If you still cannot get Windows to respond, then simply touch Control-Alt-Delete again
       and shut the computer down. Or press and hold the button on the front of the computer to
       fix the freeze.

      Pull the power cord out and leave it sit for ten minutes in the event it still freezes. This
       allows the computer to "reset" and fix itself when it freezes. Then push the power button
       and start the computer normally. Open software gradually.

      Close applications, run only what you need to. Computer freezes happen when too many
       software programs running at the same time. Limit to two or three programs or Internet
       Windows at a time.

      If your computer feels hot to the touch, it could be overheating. Use a blow-off duster by
       the fan area (for desktops) to fix this when the computer is off. If this does not fix it, take it
       in for professional evaluation, as your power supply, motherboard or other hardware may
       be in need of repair.

      If the computer only freezes on a certain website, try not to visit that website or use a
       different browser. If a web browser continually freezes, try to uninstall and reinstall it.
       Alternatively, try to use another web browser that is has more speed and quality.

      Check for viruses or spyware. These can cause an abundance of computer freezes. Run
       a spyware and antivirus check to fix this, and make sure security software is properly
       installed and updated on the computer at all times. See the resources section if you need
       additional help with this.




                                                                                                      45
   Your Internet connection could also be locking you up. Call the Internet Service provider
    technical support line for assistance. It may be an outside problem with the phone line or
    cable going into your home or office.




                                                                                            46
Uninstalling software
    1) How do you un-install software? (Grade A/B)

Solution

If a software program or game is no longer being used or played or additional space is
required it may be necessary to uninstall or delete it. Below is a listing of different methods
of uninstalling software from a computer running Microsoft Windows.

Install/Uninstall option

Pro: Will remove all or the majority of all files copied to the computer during installation.
Con: Not all programs support or use this feature.

    1.   Click Start
    2.   Click Control Panel or Settings and then Control Panel
    3.   Double-click Add/Remove Programs or Uninstall a program.
    4.   Within the new window select the program you wish to uninstall and click the Remove
         button or Uninstall/Change button.

How do I know what to delete? Often users may be concerned about what is safe and what
is not safe to delete our best suggestion is if you don't know what it is we suggest that it not
be removed or ask about what it is first.

If the program or game is not listed within this list, continue reading this document for
alternative methods to uninstalling software.




Now load the virtual PC and see if you can Un-install software.




                                                                                                  47
Error Dialogues
   1) What is an error dialogue box? (Grade C)

   An alert dialog is a colloquial[citation needed] (though commonly accepted) term for a
   particular type of dialog box that occurs in a graphical user interface. It is also known as
   an alert box, alert window, error dialog, alert popup or plainly alert.

   The typical alert dialog provides information in a separate box to the user, after which the
   user can only respond in one way: by closing it. Closing an alert dialog will provide
   access to the original window, which is not available while the alert dialog is presented.

   Alert dialogs that block the application are regarded as a bad design solution by usability
   practitioners, since they are prone to produce mode errors. Also when used as error
   dialogs, they have been shown to be ineffective in their goals to inform users about an
   error condition or protect from a destructive operation.


   2) Name 4 types of alert (Grade C)

      Error: informs the user than an operation could not continue or complete due to some
       insurmountable error.
      Warning: alerts that the current course of action could be in some way dangerous or
       detrimental, often offering the option of not proceeding.
      Info: presents a general notification about a recent event.
      Question: elicits some kind of response from the user, required to complete the current
       process.


   3) Why do usability practitioners frown upon these alerts? (look in the criticism section)
      (Grade A*/A)

Modal alert dialogs are generally frowned upon by experts in usability and human-computer
interaction, since they are prone to produce mode errors due to their unrequested nature. A
study to appear at the Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society showed
that when a user dialog appears, the primary goal of users is typically to get rid of them as
soon as possible[2] even without any analysis of the causes for the dialog appearance. When
asked, users dismissed any dialog box as a distraction from their assigned task.




                                                                                                 48
Computer storage
   1) What is Computer data storage? (Grade C)

Computer data storage, often called storage or memory, refers to computer components
and recording media that retain digital data. Data storage is one of the core functions and
fundamental components of computers.



   2) What is the purpose of computer data storage? (Grade C)
      To retain data

   3) What is primary and secondary storage? (Grade B)

Primary storage (or main memory or internal memory), often referred to simply as
memory, is the only one directly accessible to the CPU. The CPU continuously reads
instructions stored there and executes them as required. Any data actively operated on is also
stored there in uniform manner. RAM

Secondary storage (also known as external memory or auxiliary storage), differs from
primary storage in that it is not directly accessible by the CPU. The computer usually uses its
input/output channels to access secondary storage and transfers the desired data using
intermediate area in primary storage. Secondary storage does not lose the data when the
device is powered down—it is non-volatile. Per unit, it is typically also two orders of
magnitude less expensive than primary storage. Consequently, modern computer systems
typically have two orders of magnitude more secondary storage than primary storage and data
is kept for a longer time there.



You will now be tested on what you have learned.
Record your score in the results section of your
workbook.




                                                                                              49
Section 6:-Emerging Technologies

Emerging technologies

   1)   What impact does emerging technology have on businesses? (Grade B)

   Emerging technology's impact on business
   Because of technology, business has been able to advance in such ways that associates
   can communicate across the globe without ever leaving their respective offices. They
   can send information instantaneously, download important documents, and a number of
   other things. Consider how emerging technology has impacted business in the following
   ways:

   Web conferencing. As technology advances at rapid paces each day, more and more
   companies are finding that web conferencing is an effective, cost-effective way to handle
   business. Web conferencing is a form of technology that uses an internet connection to
   hold group meetings or trainings in real-time via the internet. Web conferencing allows
   businesses to save a great deal of money on travel costs while increasing productivity.
   Teleconferencing. Similar to web conferencing, teleconferencing is a popular option for
   holding meetings, conferences, or training seminars for many small businesses.
   Basically, teleconferencing is a phone call in which more than two people participate.
   Almost all businesses rely on teleconferencing to some extent.
   Communication. Emerging technology has had a dramatic increase on communication in
   the workplace. Not only does emailing and instant messaging allow employees and
   business partnerships to communicate, but it allows them to send files and important
   documents instantly online. In addition, wireless devices allow business people to send
   emails, check stocks, and talk to people around the globe from any location.




   2) What impact does emerging technology have on society? (Grade B)

   Emerging technology's impact on society
   The latest technological advances are not limited to just business. Emerging technology
   has affected the way we live in many ways, including:
   Medical technology. Sophisticated medical equipment, constantly evolving and
   improving, has helped to save thousands of lives. Special monitors and machines allow
   doctors to do a number of things never thought possible, like perform intricate surgeries
   by displaying them on a larger monitor. Medical equipment and the technology it uses
   has also helped many people to manage their own care from their homes.
   Safety. Global Positioning Systems, emerging technology for home alarms and fires, and


                                                                                             50
  cellular technology has helped to make our lives safer in a number of ways. Lost? Simply
  plug in your destination to GPS. Witness a crime? Report it instantly on your cell phone.
  In addition, emerging technology has made homes safer with the ability to detect deadly
  gases and smoke in the home.
  Expedite processes. Because of emerging technology, products are made and delivered
  to store much faster than ever before. In addition, machines and technology help to
  eliminate or greatly reduce human error.
  Finances. ATM, or Automated Teller Machines, as well as internet banking, have made it
  easier and more accurate to manage finances.




  3) What are the negative effects of emerging technology? (Grade A)

     While technology has definitely made life easier, some fear that the work of
     technology and machines in general will make the need for people obsolete in the
     workplace. This could have a negative effect on the economy in general as it would
     increase unemployment rates.




You will now be tested on what you have learned.
Record your score in the results section of your
workbook.




                                                                                          51
Section 7:-Entertainment Systems



Entertainment Systems



    1) Write a list of entertainment systems found in the home. (Grade C)
                      i. Dedicated games consoles
                     ii. Digital Television
                    iii. MP3 players
                    iv. DVD/Blu Ray Players

    2) Write an explanation of what each system does. If you need any help click on the link below.
       (Grade B)


http://www.teach-ict.com/glossary/D/D.htm

Games console: -A computer dedicated to running games software. For example Xbox, PSP
and Wii.

A games console contains a very powerful computer that can make billions of graphic
calculations per second. This results in very realistic and smooth action.

The games console does not normally use a keyboard as an input device. Instead it uses a
hand held device that allows you to control the action with fingers and thumbs.

Some new input devices are also sensitive to movement of hands and arms, such as the Wii
input device.

Games consoles are now beginning to take on a wider role by connecting to online games.

Digital TV: -This is a television that receives its signal from a satellite or 'freeview' receiver.
The signal is digital in nature.

Many older televisions are 'analogue' because they take their signal from a tv aerial, which
is analogue in nature.

The analogue TV signal is due to be switched off in the UK over the next few years, so
eventually analogue televisions will be a thing of the past and everyone will have to use a
digital tv.

MP3 Player: - MP3 is an acryonym for MPEG layer 3.




                                                                                                      52
It is the standard format for compressing a sound sequence into a very small file, up to 12
times smaller. The good thing about MP3 is that there is no or very little loss of sound
quality from the original file.



DVD/Blu Ray: -DVDs can store 4.7 Gigabytes of information, while a Compact Disk can only
hold 700 Megabytes. Film DVDs can also have interactive menus and bonuses like as deleted
scenes and commentaries.

The disc can have one or two sides, and one or two layers of data per side; the number of
sides and layers determines how much the disc can hold




                                                                                              53
Streaming
  1) What is media streaming? (Grade B)

  Streaming media is multimedia that is constantly received by and presented to an end-
  user while being delivered by a streaming provider.[note 1] The name refers to the delivery
  method of the medium rather than to the medium itself. The distinction is usually
  applied to media that are distributed over telecommunications networks, as most other
  delivery systems are either inherently streaming (e.g., radio, television) or inherently
  non-streaming (e.g., books, video cassettes, audio CDs). The verb 'to stream' is also
  derived from this term, meaning to deliver media in this manner. Internet television is a
  commonly streamed medium.

  Live streaming, more specifically, means taking the media and broadcasting it live over
  the Internet. The process involves a camera for the media, an encoder to digitize the
  content, a media publisher where the streams are made available to potential end-users
  and a content delivery network to distribute and deliver the content. The media can
  then be viewed by end-users live.


  2)   What is sky player? How does it work? Click on the link to help you. (Grade
       C)http://skyplayer.sky.com/vod/page/default/home.do

       Enables you to watch TV on demand

  3) How does sky+/sky HD/ Virgin HD work? Click on the link to help you. Discuss things like
     recording on hard disk and pausing TV in real time (Grade
     A*/A)http://www.sky.com/portal/site/skycom/skyproducts/skytv/skyhd/whatis

       Has a hard drive. Allows you to store programmes to it.




You will now be tested on what you have learned.
Record your score in the results section of your
workbook.




                                                                                                54
Section 8:-Reliability of sources

Read the Reliability of sources presentation in section 8 of the ICT
webpage

                            Who do you believe?
Below are two different opinions on a penalty awarded against Wigan Athletic in a
recent cup-tie.


1) Referees opinion: -

The Wigan player challenged his opponent from behind clearly making no contact
with the ball. The challenge was at least 2 yards inside of the penalty area and I had
little choice but to award a penalty kick.

2) Wigan Athletic Supporters opinion: -

I thought it was a terrible decision. Our player clearly won the ball and anyway I
believe the challenge was outside of the penalty area.




Task
   1) Write a sentence below saying why you believe or don’t believe the referee




   2) Write a sentence below saying why you believe or don’t believe the Wigan
      supporter




                                                                                     55
           1) What are the most common suffixes and what do they stand for? (Grade A)




    Suffix           Example                                                        Description


    .com             The "standard" ending to web adress often used by commercial   http://www.microsoft.com
                     organisations


    .org             Generally used by not for profit organisations                 http://www.oxfam.org


    .co.uk           A company's website based in the UK                            http://www.bbc.co.uk


    .gov             A government organisation, eg local council                    http://www.westberks.gov.uk/


    .ac.uk           University, schools and colleges                               http://www.bham.ac.uk/
    or.sch.uk




           2) How can you tell if a website is unofficial? (Grade C)

    There are many clues to spot an unofficial website.

    Address
    A website is likely to be unofficial if the address (URL):

   does not include any of the following: gov, ac, .co.uk, org, .com at the end of the
    address
   is very long
   includes free web hosting companies such as Yahoo, AOL, geocities or freewebspace
    The more you use the web, the more familiar you'll become with different URLs.

    Design
    You can usually tell that a website is produced by an unofficial source just by looking its
    design. An unofficial website is likely to have:

   ugly graphics and animated gifs
   poor page layout
   spelling errors
   broken links to pages


    Too many colours and unreadable fonts make websites unattractive.

    Updates
    Most websites include a 'last updated' date. Always check this. Some websites haven't
    been updated for years and information may be completely out of date.


                                                                                                               56
  3) Explain what reliability, bias, official, unofficial, fact, and opinion mean (Grade C)

     Reliable:-
     “something that can be trusted or believed”
     Valid:-
     ”based on truth or reason”
     Bias:-
     ”allowing unreasonable personal opinions to influence judgement”
     Unofficial:-Not by or authorised by the person/organisation the site is about.
     Official: - By or authorised by the person/organisation the site is about.
     Fact:-
     “something which is known to have happened or to exist, especially something for which
      proof exists”
     Opinion:-
     “a thought or belief about something or someone”




You will now be tested on what you have learned.
Record your score in the results section of your
workbook.




                                                                                               57
Section 9:-Impact of communications technology


Communications Technology

  1) How do wireless networks work? (Grade A)
     Wireless networks use radio signals to communicate between workstations, file servers and
     hubs. A popular name for this kind of network is “Wi-Fi”

  2) What are the advantages of a wireless network? (Grade B)

  No need to lift floorboards to lay cable

  The computers can be anywhere in the house or even the garden on sunny days!

  Simple to add a new machine to the network

          e.g friends bringing along a laptop to share

          holiday photos etc.


  3) What are the disadvantages of a wireless network? (Grade B)

  Can be more expensive, especially if there are many machines to connect.

  You have to be very careful about security – your data is broadcast well beyond the house walls!

  Can be prone to electrical interference e.g storms or something else sending similar radio signals
  such as a faulty car passing by.


  4) What could you use to connect laptops wirelessly to a wired network? Why might this be
     useful? (Grade A)

  It can be convenient to connect mobile laptops to the network. In this case a wireless hub is the
  answer. The wireless hub is hard wired into the network and laptops connect to the wireless
  hub by Wi-Fi.

  It allows you to access the network on the move.


  5) Give some advantages of a wireless communication (Grade B)

  Advantages of a wireless network at work

          a. Excellent for connecting visiting employees.
          b. Convenient for meeting rooms.
          c. Useful for people in the open air (but near an office)

                                                                                                 58
          d. Easy to add temporary machines to the network without having to lay cables
          e. Excellent for networking temporary offices e.g Press office at a national event.

  6) What are the disadvantages of wireless communication? (Grade B)

  Disadvantages of a wireless network at work

          a.   Security is one of the biggest issues as network data can be highly confidential.
          b.   Not as reliable as a wired network – prone to electrical interference
          c.   Can be difficult to diagnose network problems.
          d.   More expensive to connect many machines compared to cable.

  7) What are the advantages and disadvantages of infra red? (Grade B)

  Advantages of Infra-Red

          Immune to electrical interference

          Much harder to eavesdrop as you have to be within line of sight

          Simple to set up.

  Disadvantages of Infra-Red

          Every machine has to be line of sight

          Cannot work through walls

          a. Only works well over a short distance

  8) What is Bluetooth? What are the advantages and disadvantages of it? (Grade B)

  A radio technology designed to operate mainly over a short range – a few metres.

  Bluetooth is a specific standard and so devices designed to be ‘Bluetooth’ compatible are
  guaranteed to work together (unlike Wi-Fi which has a number of ‘standards’)

  Not as fast as Wi-Fi. Typically 300kbps compared to 54Mbps for WiFi

  Consumes less power and so devices running on batteries can work for longer.




You will now be tested on what you have learned.
Record your score in the results section of your
workbook.



                                                                                                   59
3.2-A range of ICT tools and techniques

Quality of information
Click on the link below then answer the questions.

Quality of information

   1) What is GIGO and what does it mean?




   2) List the factors which affect the quality of information?




   3) Give some examples of when inaccurate data occur?




                                                                  60
4) What is relevant information? Give some examples




                                                      61
5) How does age affect the quality of information? Give examples.




                                                                    62
6) How does completeness affect the quality of information? Give examples




                                                                            63
7) How can presentation affect the quality of information? Give examples




                                                                           64
8) Explain what is meant by the level of detail




                                                  65
Input, process, output


Input, process, output

Click on the link below then answer the questions.

http://www.teach-
ict.com/as_a2/topics/input%20processing%20output/input_process_output/index.htm

    1) Create an input, process, output, storage diagram below. Use the shapes in word to do this.




    2) What is input? Give examples.

    INPUT is the data flowing into the system from outside.

    For example:

           A thermometer linked to the system provides data on raw temperatures.
           A financial service provider sends a stream of current share prices to your
           computer.
           A newspaper takes a news feed from a news wire service such as Reuters.
           A person types data into a database system by means of a keyboard

    3) What is process? Give examples.

    PROCESSING is the action of manipulating the input into a more useful
    form.

    For Example:

           The raw temperature data is converted and loaded into a temperature table
           in memory.
           The stream of current share prices is analysed to see which company it
           belongs to and is separated into the relevant company tables in the
           database system.
           The newspaper takes the pure text obtained from the news wire service
           and creates a front page layout using pictures and formatted text.
                                                                                                66
         The keystrokes being entered by the typist is converted into ASCII format
         that the computer can understand.


4) What is output? Give examples.

Output is the information flowing out of the system.

Example:

         The temperature data having been processed, is now output as a multi-
         coloured graph.
         The share prices are presented as live moving graphs on screen
         The raw news wire information is viewed on your website as a story, all
         nicely formatted in the company style.
         The keystrokes being entered are immediately shown on the typist’s
         monitor so she can see what is being entered.

5) What is storage? Give examples.

This information may be

         input data
         partly processed data
         or most often it is output data.

Storage is the means of holding information for use at a later date

Examples:

Input:

An oil company has paid millions for underground testing to
take place in their bid to find new oil.

The raw data gathered during the tests may be kept in
storage in case a more clever way of processing the data comes up in the future.

Process storage:

This is not a common form of storage, but nevertheless sometimes essential. For
example if you are making changes to an important database and halfway
through the computer shuts down – what state is your request in? – did it
happen? To cover things like this, some databases store temporary tables so that
it can ‘roll back’ if required.

Output:




                                                                                     67
By far the most common form of information to be stored. Output information
such as films are stored on tapes and DVD. Music is kept on CD’s. Data is stored
on hard drives and backup tapes.



6) What is feedback? Give an example

You are competing in the x-factor competition.

       First of all you provide an INPUT - You sing your heart out.
       The judges PROCESS the INPUT – they consider your talent
       The judges provide an OUTPUT – they give you a score.
       The judges then go on to tell you where things went well (and what didn’t
       go well) this is FEEDBACK.
       Having taken in the FEEDBACK, in the next round, you sing even better.




7) What is positive and what is negative feedback?

There are two kinds of feedback: Negative and Positive.

 With negative feedback if the input goes up then the output
goes down. So when some of the output added to the input, it
effectively dampens down the chance of the system
becoming unstable. Negative feedback is used to keep a
system stable.

 Positive feedback: If the input goes up, then the output also goes up. Positive
feedback is not commonly used as it tends to make the system unstable.




                                                                                   68
Verification and Validation
   1) What does accuracy mean?

        It means making sure the information is completely correct and has no errors.

   2)    What does validity mean?
        That it is sensible, possible, and within reasonable bounds. It means that the information is
        reasonable.

   3) Why are errors a problem?
      They can cause a whole project to fail.

   4) List some possible types of errors
      Transcription, transmissional and processing.

   5) What is a transcription error?
      When data is manually copied.

   6) What is a transmission error and how can it be avoided?
      When data correctly entered into a computer corrupts when it is sent to another computer.

   7) What is a processing error?
      When mistakes are made when the data is entered.

   8) How can errors be reduced? Give examples
      Data and processing needs to be checked carefully. All stages of the process should be
      verified and validated.

   9) What is verification?
      Checking the data for errors

   10) What is validation?
       Checking the data entered is sensible, possible, and within reasonable bounds.

   11) What are validation checks? Give examples
       Checking the data at different stages.

   12) What is batch processing?
       When a number of transactions are processed together.

   13) What is the difference between validation and accuracy?
       Validation checks if the data is reasonable. Accuracy checks if it is correct.




                                                                                                    69
Accuracy and Plausibility of information
   1) What kind of information might an organisation need?


Customer records, Stock levels, Production figures, Sales performance, Stock prices

   2) Give some examples of information different organisations might need.

Hospital

Patient records, Drugs available, Beds available, Staff roster, Medication records,
Side-effects of medication, Doctor's qualifications, Financial information, Emergency
information

Car Factory

Location of parts, Price of steel, How many cars built today, How many faults per
car, Staffing levels – absences, Shortages, Energy consumed

Stock exchange

Up to the minute stock prices, Company reports, Current exchange rate, Share
trading volume, Economic forecasts, Weather warnings - long and short

   3) Give some examples of information employees in different organisations
      might need.

Assembly worker. In this role, typical information includes

A list of jobs which need to be completed today, What order the jobs need to be
done in, Any issues with the quality of work

Middle Manager. Typical information would include.

Business targets, Project timings, Staffing levels, Training requirements, Budget
reports, Sales performance

Managing Director. The overall strategy for the company is important, so typical
information would include

                                                                                      70
Company share price / movement, Competitor actions, Projected annual profits,
Likely upcoming legislation, Shareholder annual report

   4) Explain what is meant by short term and long term information.

Short term:

Exactly what 'short term' means depends on the organisation. For example in a
sales organisation, these things would be short term

Daily / weekly sales performance, Daily / weekly production figures, Cash flow
position, Share price, Current stock levels

Long term:

On a longer term basis, information is more about slow moving things such as

Annual sales forecast, Upcoming competitor product launches, Meeting legal
requirements that fall at a specific time in the future, How the market is moving and
your share within it, Company Research and Development strategy

   5) Why is ensuring information is accurate important?

   The reason for having information in the first place is to be
   able to make good and valid decisions.

   If information is inaccurate, then it is very likely to lead to
   poor or downright wrong decisions being made.

   For example, imagine that a company has a sales outlet in a
   distant market. Every week they send in their sales figures to
   central headquarters - but a new employee is hired and
   makes a mistake - instead of sending sales figure of 300,
   she sends sales of 30.




                                                                                        71
6) List some causes and effects of inaccurate information.


                    Effect and cause of inaccuracy
               Effect                                        Cause
   Wrong profit and loss accounts                Incorrect finance information
      Wrong stock re-ordering                 Incorrect sales or production figures
Getting your long term strategy wrong           Misunderstanding market trends
 Being surprised by the competition               Poor competitor information
 Not properly undestanding what the
                                                         Faulty surveys
          customer wants




7) Why is it important to check the age of information?

    Another aspect of information is how up-to-date is it?
    There are some organisations that simply must work with
    time-critical information.


    Stocks and share trading - billions of pounds change hands based on
    information that is only a few minutes old - and is out of date a few minutes
    later


    Fire service needs the very latest traffic information to plan the best way to an
    emergency
    Electricity company managing the national grid keeps track of second by
    second demand in order to keep the system working efficiently.

    Telephone companies constantly re-route phone traffic through the least busy
    parts of their networks in order to avoid bottlenecks.




                                                                                      72
    8) Give an example of how information might move around an organisation

For example in a car dealership, typical departments are:


Sales Floor, Parts ordering / stores department, Repair garage, Accounts / Financing operation,

Customer orders. Each department depends on information from each other.


For example a customer comes in to exchange their old car for a new one. This leads to the following

information flow:


1. Sales area talks to the customer to

see what they need and in addition they

send information to the garage operation

to look over the old car.




                                                 2. The garage looks over the old car and sends

                                             information to the parts department for the bits they will

                                                            need bring the car up to spec.




3. Parts department sends information

      to their suppliers for the bits.




                                            4. Meanwhile, the customer wants to pay for the new car

                                               with a finance loan, so Sales send information to the

                                              Finance department to see if a loan can be arranged.




 5. Eventually the customer cannot find

 the exact car she wants from stock so

Sales send information to the Customer

Order department to raise an order with



                                                                                                       73
             the car factory.




This is just a small part of the information flows going on, as each piece of information needs a

response - for example


                                Garage - "car is ok but only worth a few hundred pounds"

                                Parts - "we can get the parts in a day or so"

                                Finance - "Yes her credit rating is fine, so loan approved"

                                Car factory - "New car will arrive in three weeks"

                                Sales to customer - they let her know the outcome of all this and

                                shake hands on the deal.




                                                                                                    74
Exercise (Grade C)
Use the spell checker to correct the sentence below. For each word select the first
suggestion the spell check comes up with.

You shudnt relie on spell chqrs cos they dont alwyz pik up miztks if ppl carnt spell
proply in the frst playc .

   1) Write the result below. What have you learned from this exercise?




      Do not forget to attempt the other practical
      tasks in this section!




                                                                                       75
Data Collection
   1) What is automatic data capture? Give some examples
      Something that reads information instantly e.g. barcode reader

   2) What is manual data capture? Give some examples
      People collect the data themselves

   3) List some ways you can improve a data capture form

       Name, title, logo, clear instructions, options, boxes to enter data




                                                                             76
Data Collection
  1) What is RFID?

  What is it?

  Is an abbreviation for Radio Frequency Identification.

  This is a term used to describe a type of wireless technology used to identify
  objects, animals (or people).

  What does it look like?

  There are two parts to the system.

  1. The tag.
  The simplest version is a tiny microchip that contains a code identifying the thing
  to which it is attached / glued to.

  The microchip is often connected to a flat spiral aerial that allows it to work by
  radio signals.

  2. The Reader.
  This machine sends a radio signal to the tag asking for its code. The tag senses
  the request and sends back its unique code. The reader can then connect to a
  computer or database and uses the code to identify what the object is (or the
  identity of the person the tag is attached to).

  The system works over a foot or so, which is fine when the tags are guaranteed
  to be close to the reader.

  The handy thing about the tag is that it needs no power at all - no battery needed.
  This is because the reader sends it enough radio power to turn on whilst it is
  being interrogated.

  Are there other types of RFID?

  Yes, the no-battery versions are great for cheap, non-critical tags as might be
  used in a book-sleeve or shirt package.

  But if it is really important to have reliable identification then there are more
  expensive and larger battery-powered versions. These use higher radio power
  and so they transmit over a much greater distance (100's of metres).

  These kind of tags are used for very expensive items such as military stores or
  toll booth systems where you will be charged for using a road or rail system.

  Who uses it?

  1. Businesses that want to keep track of their stock as it moves from one place to
  another.

                                                                                       77
   For example, many parcel delivery companies now offer the ability for you to
   check where your parcel is as it is being delivered. They can do this by attaching
   an RFID tag on the parcel, then a reader at each main point of its journey keeps
   track of its progress.

   2. Security systems that can sense the identity of the person wanting access to a
   restricted area.
   The person wears an RFID tag, so when they approach a reader, it can request
   an identity check without the person having to do anything.

   3. Anti-theft
   Many shops use RFID to deter shop-lifting. Have you noticed some shops have
   some tall objects standing either side of the doors? You have to walk between
   them in order to leave the shop. This is part of an RFID system. Many of the
   more expensive items in the shop will have hidden RFID tags. If you try and walk
   out of the shop, the Readers either side will request the tag for its code - that
   code is checked against a database to see if it has been paid for yet. If not, the
   alarm sounds. Another reader is located beneath the desk by the till. As you pay,
   they slide the object over the reader to register it is as having been been paid for.

   4. Passports.
   Many countries, including the UK now use RFID tags inside passports. The tag
   not only identifies the person, but also stores a digital photograph and a record of
   their movement in and out of the country. In order to reduce the chance of
   someone 'skimming' that information, the passport contains a metal film to
   prevent them being read when closed.



http://www.teach-ict.com/glossary/B/Biometrics.htm

   2) Explain what biometrics mean

   A security term.

   This describes various technologies used to measure some feature of a person in
   order to identify them within a security system.

   For example
   > Fingerprint recognition
   > Iris recognition
   > Voice recognition
   > Facial recognition

   These biometric systems can also be combined together to make a system more
   reliable.

   E.g. school canteen uses biometrics.



                                                                                      78
   Biometrics is a controversial topic because many people are concerned with
   privacy issues when they are applied to things like passports and identity cards.

http://www.teach-ict.com/news/news_stories/news_biometrics.htm


   3) Read some of the news stories and give examples of how biometrics works

   E.g. school canteen uses biometrics.



Chip and pin

   4) What is chip and pin? What is its purpose? How does it improve security?

       Chip and Pin is an attempt to reduce the growth of credit and debit card fraud

       Because it’s so easy to clone the magnetic stripe on a card additional
       measures are needed

       Chip and pin cards contain a working chip which is much harder to counterfeit

       Cloned cards are less use unless a thief knows your pin number (which is why
       it’s essential you guard your pin when using an ATM or making a purchase in
       a store)




                                                                                       79
Reviewing and modifying work
  1) Why is it important to proof read your work? (consider the limitations of the spelling and
     grammar checker)
     Check for errors. Pick up any errors the computer may have incorrectly corrected. Spelling
     and grammar checkers do not always correct all errors.

  2) Why is it important to not rely on the spelling and grammar checker too heavily?
     They may chose the wrong word to replace an incorrectly spelt one. Words like were, where
     and we’re all spelt correctly but the computer may not know which one you wish to use.

  3) Why should you always save different drafts of your work?
     So you can see the progression in your work. You will also then have backup copies and
     cannot lose all your work if a draft is deleted corrupted or lost.

  4) Why is important to plan projects first?
     To ensure you reduce potential problems, meet deadlines, ensure everyone knows their
     jobs.

  5) What is meant by target audience?
     The person who the project, task etc. is aimed at.

  6) What are the advantages of seeking feedback about your work?
     You can see if your work is a success. You can identify good and bad features. You can find
     and correct any mistakes.

  7) Give some ways you could you obtain feedback from people?
     Questionnaires, verbal feedback, discussion groups etc.




                                                                                               80
Virtual learning environment
  1) What is a V.L.E?
  In ICT it means 'Virtual Learning Environment'.

  This is a database driven web site set up to support learning online.

  A VLE typically contains a place to create online lessons, a method of testing
  online, setting homework, calendar functions and so on.

  There are commercial VLE applications available and also 'open source'
  applications such as Moodle.

  In our school the VLE is SharePoint or www.pepsicola.org.uk




You will now be tested on what you have learned.
Record your score in the results section of your
workbook.




                                                                                   81
Operating Systems
Operating Systems

Click on the link then answer the questions http://www.teach-
ict.com/gcse/software/opsystems/miniweb/index.htm

   1) What is an operating system?

   There are two main categories of software. There is 'application software' with examples such as
   word processors, spreadsheets and databases. The other main category is called 'system
   software' which includes the operating system and utility programs.

   Once your computer has begun booting up using the BIOS instructions in ROM, the operating
   system will be the first piece of software to be loaded up.

   The operating system is needed to control everything happening in your computer. It controls the
   memory, the disks, the periperals and the application software.

   Without the operating system your computer would just sit there doing nothing.



   2) What is BIOS?

   The BIOS runs as part of the start up sequence when you switch on your computer. The BIOS
   contains all the code required to control the hardware e.g. keyboard, monitor, mouse.

   The BIOS is stored seperately from the hard disk on a ROM chip. This means that if the computer
   crashes, the BIOS data is protected.



   3) What task does on O.S perform?




   4) Give some examples of O.S

   The one that you are are most likely to be familiar with is one of the Microsoft Windows
   operating systems.

   Almost all personal computers are loaded with Windows before you purchase them and most
   schools use a network version.

   If you use an Apple Mac computer then you will be familiar with Apple's unique operating system,
   Mac OS.

                                                                                                  82
Many people find this far easier and more intuitive than Microsoft's Windows versions.

Linux is an alternative operating system for most computers.

It has the advantage of being free of charge. This is because it is 'open source' software.

5) What is a single user O.S?

Many of you will have a computer at home and as mentioned on the previous page, it is likely to
have either Microsoft Windows or Mac OS loaded onto it.

Whilst you are using your computer it is likely that you don't need to share periperhals e.g. a
printer and you probably don't need to share out your processing time with another person in the
house.

Therefore, the operating system on your computer only has to deal with the tasks you are giving
it. It doesn't need to worry about sharing out memory, hardware or processing time.

This is called a single user operating system

6) What is a multi-user O.S?

Large companies often use a mainframe computer system. These are very expensive, powerful
machines and it would make no sense at all for only one person to be able to use the computer.

However, a mainframe computer can only do one thing at a time - even if it does it very quickly.
So, to allow the mainframe to be able to deal with hundreds of people who all want to do
something different, multi-user operating systems were developed.




                                                                                                   83
    Multi-user operating systems work by 'slicing' up the processing time of the CPU into tiny chunks.
    Each chunk of time is given to a user to deal with their task. See the diagram below to explain.




    7) What is a multi tasking O.S?

    When you are working on the computer you probably have a web browser open, an email or
    instant messaging system open and one or more applications such as a word processor,
    spreadsheet or graphics package open.

    You are able to do this because your operating system will switch the application modules in and
    out of RAM as you are using them and return them temporarily to the hard disk when they are
    open but not being accessed.

    This is called multi-tasking

    8) What is real time processing? Give some examples.

Real time processing is usually found in systems which use computer control.This processing method
is used when it is essential that the input request is dealt with quickly enough so as to be able to
control an output properly. For example, the computer inside the Engine Control Unit in a car has to
manage the engine at every moment based on what the driver wants to do.

Real time processing has to be programmed very carefully to ensure that no input events are missed.

Note that real-time processing does not have to be 'fast'. For example, a traffic light system is a real-
time system but it only needs to process data relatively slowly. On the other hand, controlling a car
engine has to deal with input events happening every thousandth of a second so a very fast computer
is needed to do this -but both the traffic-light and the car engine computers are carrying out 'real-time'
processing.

                                                                                                       84
Examples:

       Traffic lights
       Heart rate monitoring
       Aircraft control
       Computer games



    9) What is transaction processing? Give some examples

Inputs are noted by the computer, but it deals with them after a short delay. It spends that delay
handling other inputs and managing data movements.

The delay may be so brief that it looks to you as if it has happened straight away. But in terms of
'computer time', where each computer cycle is far less than a millionth of a second, it will have spent
many cycles doing other things.




For example,

       Booking pop concert tickets
       Ordering books online
       Handling bank accounts



    10) What is batch processing? Give examples

It is often not desirable to deal with the inputs until a certain number have occurred or a set time has
passed. So they are stored until the system comes online to process the data in one 'batch'.

Batch processing is usually fully automatic unlike 'real-time' or transaction processing which are
interactive.

For example

       A stock control programme may store records of every item sold in a shop that day. Then, at
        the end of each day it calculates what needs to be ordered.
       An online competition stores all the entries until it is time to find the winner.
       Electricity, gas and telephone bills are usually calculated on a monthly basis.




                                                                                                       85
User interface
   1) What are the different types of UI?
      Command driven, menu driven, form driven

   2) What is a menu driven interface? Give some advantages and disadvantages.

   Menu-driven systems offer the user a list of options from which they can choose. e.g

   Select the service you wish to use

   3) What is a form driven interface? Give some advantages and disadvantages.

   With a form-driven interface you are given the opportunity to enter information in a step by step
   manner. This data is then transfered into a database.




   4) What is a GUI? Give some advantages and disadvantages.

In 1981, workers at Xerox Parc in the USA developed a highly visual interface that involved these
new items:-

      Windows
      Icons
      Menus
      Pointers

or WIMP for short. Thus the Graphical User Interface was born. The display was divided into
bordered areas called 'Windows'. Applications and files were represented by small graphical images
called Icons. Actions could be started or selected by the use of Menus and the 'hand pointer' became
to be known as the 'Mouse'

   5) What makes a good UI?



                                                                                                    86
Be attractive and pleasing to
the eye
                                Have all
                                options
                                clearly
                                shown
                                Be easy to
                                use
                                Ensure all
                                screens are
                                consistent
                                Use
                                suitable
                                colours for
                                key areas
                                Use words
                                that the
                                user will
                                understand
                                Have clear
                                warning
                                messages
                                when an
                                incorrect
                                operation
                                has been
                                performed
                                Have
                                online help
                                Support
                                common or
                                necessary
                                input
                                devices
                                e.g. mouse,
                                keyboard




                                              87
Encoding Data
    1) Why is data encoded?
       To shorten it.
    2) What effect does this have on file size?
       This reduces file size.
    3) What the advantages and disadvantages of encoding data?


Advantages of coding


Less storage space required, Comparisons are shortened and can therefore be made
quicker, thus speeding up searches, a limited number of codes makes data input faster and
simplifies validation.


Problems of Coding

Precision of the data is 'coarsened', e.g emerald green and light green both coded as Green.
This coarsening may not be apparent to the user if the code is turned back into a colour
name on output.

Coding obscures the meaning of data

A reader seeing the 'gender' data as M/ F is pretty likely to know that it means Male/ Female.
But with more obscure codes such as Switzerland being coded as CHE means the reader
must be given the complete list of possibilities to understand the meaning of the data.



Coding of Value Judgements

For example, was that curry too spicy? As it is to be coded
as a judgement of 1-4. This will be coded differently by
different people and makes comparison difficult.




The problem with a value-judgement is that there is no single correct value. The value
depends on someone's opinion.

Coding of value judgements will inevitably lead to coarsening of the data since there will be a
wide range of opinions that could be held and only a limited number of codes available.




                                                                                            88
4) What could be the possible effects of having lots of large files containing music, graphics,
   videos, songs etc. on your computer/network?
   Would take up a lot of memory and slow the network down.




                                                                                                  89
Compression
   1) What does compression mean?

   Compression means to reduce the size of a data file for example a document,
   spreadsheet, image, sound file etc.

   2) Why is compression and good idea?

   It is a good idea to compress large files because they can take up a lot of storage
   space on your hard disk. They will also take a long time to send as an attachment
   by email.

   Before you can use a compressed file, you must uncompress it.

   Compression is usually carried out by using a piece of utility software such as
   'WinZip'



http://www.teach-ict.com/glossary/Z/zip.htm

   1) What is a zip file?

   To 'zip' a file. This means to compress a data file by using the zip algorithm.

   Files that have been compressed using zip has the .zip extension. For example a
   spreadsheet file called myfile.xls is 'zipped' into a myfile.zip file.

   Compression is often quite good on spreadsheet and document files - 70% is
   often achieved. But zipping a JPEG or GIF file does not result in a smaller file
   because they are already highly compressed.

   A very popular zip utility is called 'WinZip'




Complete compression 2 practical task!



You will now be tested on what you have learned.
Record your score in the results section of your
workbook.


                                                                                      90
Open source and proprietary software


  1) What is open source software?

      Software that can be studied, changed and improved by users.

     http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proprietary_software

  2) What is proprietary software?

     Software licensed under the rights of the copyright holder.

     http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_source_software

  3) What are the advantages and disadvantages proprietary software versus open source
     software? (this is half way down the page)
     Proprietary software is sold under license and cannot be changed. It is an industry which
     makes a lot of money and creates a lot of jobs.

     Some people see open source software is damaging to the commercial market selling
     software. However open source software can be improved by many users increasing its
     quality.




You will now be tested on what you have learned.
Record your score in the results section of your
workbook.




                                                                                                 91
Desktop publishing and word processing
  1) What is DTP?

  Before personal computer became commonplace, only professional printers
  could produce leaflets, newspapers, books etc.

  But as personal computer became more powerful, 'Desktop Publishing' software
  was developed that allowed you to lay out pages yourself on the computer
  monitor. The most popular desktop publishing software include
  "InDesign","QuarkXPress" and "Framemaker"



  2) How DTP different to word processing software (E.g. word)?

  3) This software is different from a word-processor package because it is
     designed to let you move pictures and text around the page until you are
     happy with the layout.




                                                                                92
Podcast
  1) What is a podcast?

  The 'Pod' bit refers to the iPod mp3 player that has become massively popular,
  the second bit - 'cast' - refers to distributing content, either factual or
  entertainment.

  So a podcast is someone producing an audio mp3 for other people to download
  and listen to on their mp3 player. There are now thousands of podcasters making
  short 'programs' about every subject under the sun.

  Mainstream broadcasters also provide podcasts of their shows and factual
  programs that you can download and listen to in your own time.

  It is very simple to produce a podcast. Simply record your speech with a
  microphone. The data file then gets formatted as an mp3 file. This file is then
  uploaded to a server so it is available to visitors and subscribers of the site.

  You can now also have 'video' podcasts that are short video clips intended for
  downloading and viewing offline.




You will now be tested on what you have learned.
Record your score in the results section of your
workbook.




                                                                                     93
Web browsing and email

Complete practical tasks


You will now be tested on what you have learned.
Record your score in the results section of your
workbook.




                                                   94
Personal information
You need to explain to the year 6 pupils how to stay safe when using the internet.


You need to explain to the year 6 pupils how to stay safe when using the internet. Use the
link below to answer the questions. Then add the information onto your website.



http://www.teach-ict.com/ks3/internet_safety/staying_safe/stayingsafe3.htm

   1) Explain 8 ways to use the internet safely?


Talk to your parents

Speak to your parents about what you will be doing on the Internet. Agree some rules
between you about what sites you are allowed to use, what times of the day you can log on
and for how long you are allowed to be online.

Never give out your password

No matter who asks, whether it is a stranger in an email or your best friend, never ever give
out your passwords.

Once people have your password they can log into your accounts and post as if it were you.
You have no control over what they might say and you are responsible, even if it wasn't you
that said it.

Don't give out your contact details

On this site, we get emails every day from students who want to add their opinion to the
current poll or hot topic.

I am amazed at how many students put their email address, facebook page and even phone
number in their message saying 'contact me'. Note: we remove any personal details before
the post is placed in the poll or hot topic.

You don't know who is reading things that you post on the internet. Don't make it so easy for
strangers to find out who you are and get in touch with you.

Don't download any software without permission

Even if that free game is exactly what you have been after for weeks, don't ever download or
install software without checking with your parents first.

Most software is fine and won't cause you any problems. But some sites put up games or
things that look interesting so that you will download them. Once you install them, they might


                                                                                             95
have a virus or a key logger which can automatically send details of everything you type to
somebody.

Respect people's privacy

Just because your camera might be able to take photographs or videos, you don't have the
right to post those pictures or videos onto the internet without permission.

Try to imagine how you would feel if you found out that a video showing you doing
something very embarrassing was posted onto the internet and you didn't know how many
people had watched it. You would feel humiliated and might be scared of facing people
afterwards.

This is bullying - don't be the person who humiliates others.

Use a child safe web browser

Many web browsers offer a child friendly version. This means that sites have been checked
beforehand to make sure that they are suitable. You would be far less likely to accidentally
come across a website with inappropriate content.

Respect copyright

Imagine you have a piece of homework that is due in for tomorrow. You think that there is no
need to panic because you know that you can find a website and just copy and paste what
they have written.

That is a bad idea. Firstly, your teacher will know, they can tell when something isn't written
in your own words. Secondly, you haven't done yourself any favours. Yes, you got your
homework in on time, but did you actually learn anything? Thirdly, and more importantly, the
work on the internet wasn't yours to copy, it belonged to the person who had written it. So
effectively, you have stolen their work.

Don't just copy and paste work from the internet. Research, read, understand and then write
in your own words.

Use the internet safely and responsibly

While you are going about your everyday life, you know what is right and wrong, what you
should and shouldn't do. Well the same rules apply to the internet.

Don't say mean or untrue things about other people, don't tell lies, don't try to embarrass or
trick anyone.




                                                                                              96
2) Give examples of personal details you should not give out on the internet


Use a nickname

When you log into a chatroom you should always make sure to use a nick name or alias,
something which can’t easily be used to identify you.

You can tell your real friends your nickname so they know who to look out for when they
join the chatroom, but it helps keep your real life identity safe from anyone else around.

Never give out personal details

The most important of these is to never give out your personal details. This means no
telling people your real name, even just your first name. If there is someone unsavoury
in the chatroom, they can start to use your name to gain your trust.

You also shouldn’t tell anyone how old or even your gender. That might sound a bit odd,
but if there is an adult in the chatroom who is trying to target young girls or boys, you are
giving them the information they need.

Other information that you absolutely mustn’t give out are any details about where you
live, you shouldn’t be telling people your actual address or even which town you’re from
as that gives them the chance to say they live near you and try to gain your trust.

You also shouldn’t tell them which school you go to. It wouldn’t take a genius to track
down a school. They only need a bit more information about you gleaned from your
conversations in the chatroom for them to be able to identify you at school.

No matter what reasons or excuses people give, don’t ever tell them your phone
number. They might make out that they really like you and they want to chat to you in
person. Don’t be fooled, keep your phone number a secret.

Keep your email address a secret. You might think that it can’t do any harm to let
someone have your email. But they might start sending you pictures that make you feel
scared or uncomfortable. They could even send you a computer virus in the email.

Don't send your picture to anyone

Never ever send anyone your picture. It doesn’t matter how much they ask or promise to
send you one in return, don’t let them see what you look like.

Don't open attachments from anyone

This shouldn't be a problem because you won't give anyone your email address, will
you? But, if for some reason you did give it out and you find someone is sending you
emails with mean or rude pictures, don't open them and tell your parents immediately.



                                                                                           97
Stay in the public chatroom

Always stay in the public chatrooms. If someone you don’t know suggests going into a
private chatroom so you can talk in private, don’t agree. The public chatrooms have
people in them. They might notice if there is something wrong. If you are in a private
chatroom alone with someone, there is no one to help you out.

Even if you are in the public chatroom and someone says anything which makes you feel
uncomfortable, don't respond back. Log off and tell your parents.

Don't meet up in real life on your own

Don’t ever agree to meet someone in real life that you have met in a chatroom without
first discussing it with your parents. If you do ever decide to meet someone, make sure
that it is in a public place and make sure that your parents go with you. If someone
suggests that you go alone, it should set alarm bells ringing.

Make sure that you follow all of these rules and you should be able to enjoy using
chatrooms and stay safe in them.




                                                                                         98
Chat Rooms
You need to explain to the year 6 pupils how to stay safe in chat rooms. Use your own research to
answer the questions. Add the web address in the boxes below. Finally add the information onto
your website.

    1) What are the benefits of using chat rooms?



Most people you chat to will be genuine. You can have a conversation with them,
have a laugh, tell each other about things and over time build up a real friendship.



    2) What are the dangers of using chat rooms?




But, you do need to be aware that not everyone in a chatroom is really who they say
they are. Because you can’t see who you are talking to, the person called pinkbunny
might not really be a 13 year old girl. They might be a 45 year old man who gets a
kick from chatting to young girls or boys, or perhaps even worst, trying to meet up
with them in real life.

To improve your work:-



Now search the internet to see if you can find some examples of the consequences of people
not staying safe when using chat rooms. Add the information into the box above



    3) List 7 ways to stay safe in a chat room and explain them?


Tell your parents

You must tell your parents if you are planning to use chatrooms. They only want to keep you
safe and to do this, they need to know what you are doing and what chatrooms you are
using. Decide on some rules together about what you should and shouldn't be doing.

Use a nickname

When you log into a chatroom you should always make sure to use a nick name or alias,
something which can’t easily be used to identify you.

You can tell your real friends your nickname so they know who to look out for when they join
the chatroom, but it helps keep your real life identity safe from anyone else around.

Never give out personal details




                                                                                                    99
The most important of these is to never give out your personal details. This means no telling
people your real name, even just your first name. If there is someone unsavoury in the
chatroom, they can start to use your name to gain your trust.

You also shouldn’t tell anyone how old or even your gender. That might sound a bit odd, but
if there is an adult in the chatroom who is trying to target young girls or boys, you are giving
them the information they need.

Other information that you absolutely mustn’t give out are any details about where you live,
you shouldn’t be telling people your actual address or even which town you’re from as that
gives them the chance to say they live near you and try to gain your trust.

You also shouldn’t tell them which school you go to. It wouldn’t take a genius to track down
a school. They only need a bit more information about you gleaned from your conversations
in the chatroom for them to be able to identify you at school.

No matter what reasons or excuses people give, don’t ever tell them your phone number.
They might make out that they really like you and they want to chat to you in person. Don’t
be fooled, keep your phone number a secret.

Keep your email address a secret. You might think that it can’t do any harm to let someone
have your email. But they might start sending you pictures that make you feel scared or
uncomfortable. They could even send you a computer virus in the email.

Don't send your picture to anyone

Never ever send anyone your picture. It doesn’t matter how much they ask or promise to
send you one in return, don’t let them see what you look like.

Don't open attachments from anyone

This shouldn't be a problem because you won't give anyone your email address, will you?
But, if for some reason you did give it out and you find someone is sending you emails with
mean or rude pictures, don't open them and tell your parents immediately.

6. Stay in the public chatroom

Always stay in the public chatrooms. If someone you don’t know suggests going into a
private chatroom so you can talk in private, don’t agree. The public chatrooms have people
in them. They might notice if there is something wrong. If you are in a private chatroom
alone with someone, there is no one to help you out.

Even if you are in the public chatroom and someone says anything which makes you feel
uncomfortable, don't respond back. Log off and tell your parents.

Don't meet up in real life on your own




                                                                                            100
Don’t ever agree to meet someone in real life that you have met in a chatroom without first
discussing it with your parents. If you do ever decide to meet someone, make sure that it is
in a public place and make sure that your parents go with you. If someone suggests that
you go alone, it should set alarm bells ringing.

Make sure that you follow all of these rules and you should be able to enjoy using chatrooms
and stay safe in them.




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Cyber Bullying
You need to explain to the year 6 pupils how to stay safe when using the internet. Use your
own research to answer the questions. Add the web address in the boxes below. Finally
add the information onto your website.

   1) What is cyber bullying and roughly how many people are affected?


You might have heard the term 'cyber bullying' but not be sure what it means.

Cyber bullying means to try to hurt someone's feelings by using technology such as
the internet, email, chatrooms and texting.

As many as one third of teenagers have been victims of cyber bullying. This has
included things like having a private email you sent to someone forwarded to other
people so they could read it, or having a rumour or an embarrassing photograph
posted about you online, without your permission.

In the past, bullying took place in school or on the way to school. Things would be
whispered, shouted or passed around. Now, with a few clicks, a photo, video or a
conversation can be shared with hundreds via e-mail or millions through a website,
online profile or blog posting.

Some people think that it's ok to do these things. They think that because its online
and not being said in person, it doesn't count or it won't hurt anyone. They might feel
like they are anonymous because of the Internet and that they can post whatever
they like because they won't get found out.

Don't be a person who bullies others using technology. It is cruel and mean. It does
hurt others. It does humiliate them. It does make them feel bad about themselves.



   2) How can you protect yourself from cyber bullying ?


     Unfortunately cyber bullying seems to be happening more often as time goes
on. We can only give you some tips on how to try to protect yourself.

Personal information

Don't give out personal information in chatrooms, social websites, blogs, etc.

Passwords

Don't tell anyone, even your best friends, your passwords. They might be your best friend
now, but what if you have an argument. They might log into your account and post really
mean things and make it look like it was you.

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Don't respond

If you receive any mean or threatening messages in the chatroom, text or email, don't ever
respond. You might be tempted to delete the message but don't. Save it and show an adult -
you might need the message to use as evidence against the person who sent it.

Contact the website

If you find mean things have been said about you on a website, for example, MySpace or
Facebook, you can ask to have the comments removed. The same is true if you find out that
photographs or videos have been posted without your permission.

Tell someone

Don't suffer in silence. If you are being bullied then tell your parents. If you don't feel that you
can talk to them then tell a teacher or an adult that you trust. You mustn't keep it to yourself
because if you do, the bully has got exactly what they want.




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Email
Explain the following terms

   1) Inbox

The place where you find emails which have been sent to you.

   2) Outbox

After you send an e-mail message, Outlook moves the e-mail message to your
Outbox. When Outlook connects to your mail server, the e-mail message is delivered
and a copy of the sent e-mail message is moved from the Outbox to the Sent Items
folder.

   3) Reply

When you receive an email you can reply to it. At the top of the email there is a reply
button. If you click on this you can reply to the email without having to enter the
persons address. Your message then will include the text from the original
message.



   4) Forward

You can send a message you receive to someone else by forwarding it. This sends
the message you have received to other people.



   5) Email address

This is the address you have to type in to send an email to someone else e.g.
joebloggs@hotmail.com



   6) CC

When you send an email there are three boxes were you are able to type in email
address. They are TO, CC and BCC. You have to type and address in the TO box.
CC stands for carbon copy. If you add an email address in there then that person
will receive an exact copy of the email.



   7) BCC




                                                                                   104
If you type a person’s address into the BCC box then they will also receive an exact
copy of the email. The people in the TO and CC fields will not see that this person
has received a copy of the email.



   8) Subject field

The Subject field tells the person receiving the email what it is all about. This
appears as a heading in the Inbox before the person has even opened the message.



   9) Attachments

These are files sent with the email. Emails can be sent with things like word
documents, presentations, pictures etc.



   10) Email signature

An email signature can be added to any message you send. Generally, a signature
is used to provide the recipient with your name, e-mail address and business contact
information

   11) Deleted items

This is the place were emails you have deleted are stored. You can retrieve emails
from here if you want them at a later date or delete them forever.



   12) Contacts

This is a place where you can store all the email addresses of the people you email.
You can click on contacts and find their details quickly. There is also no need to type
their address in each time as their details are already stored.



   13) Junk mail or spam

   Spam means sending massive amounts of electronic junk mail that people
   haven't asked for.

   In legal terms it means to send 'unsolicited commercial email'

   This term is used because the vast majority of spam is sent in order to try and
   persuade you to buy something.


                                                                                     105
   Many ISP email packages offer 'spam filters' that try to prevent these emails
   getting through to your inbox, but it is a very difficult problem to separate spam
   from wanted emails. Your email service may have a 'Bulk' or 'Junk' box that
   contains the diverted spam. It is then up to you to have a look to see if there are
   some real emails accidentally caught by the filters.



   14) Spam filters

   To reduce this burden, the Internet Service Providers (ISP) have anti-spam filters
   in place on their networks that try and spot spam and then block it.

   There is no perfect system, as the spam-senders are constantly battling to find
   ways around them. For example, a filter may look for certain key words within the
   email - so the spammers send text images instead or they deliberately mis-spell
   or mangle words that humans can read, but machines cannot.

   Anti-spam filters work by following a set of rules that together decide whether or
   not an email is spam. They also have black-lists of IP addresses that are known
   to issue spam. There are 'Baysean Filters' and 'Heuristic Filters' that try to learn
   as they pick up more and more spam. But unfortunately some still gets through.

   You can rent email services that offer to filter spam for you. The dodgy emails are
   re-directed to a 'Bulk box'. Then it is up to you to check if any proper emails
   ended up there as well.



   15) Out of office assistant

You can create a message to reply to people when you are not in the office. You set
up the message to be sent to people who email you between certain dates and times
that you are not in the office.




                                                                                     106
Mobile Phones
You need to explain to the year 6 pupils how to stay safe when using their mobile phones.
Use the link below to answer the questions. Then add the information onto your website.



http://www.teach-ict.com/gcse_new/communication/mobile_phones/miniweb/index.htm



http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/3388715.stm




   1) What technology do new mobile phones contain?


Radios, cameras, gps technology, videos, wifi, music player, Apps, touch screen, sat nav,
maps etc.




   2) Why can mobile internet pose a greater threat to child safety than using a P.C?


      The new generation of mobile video phones could make the huge scale of
internet child abuse even worse, a report has warned.

A report by children's charity NCH, formerly National Children's Homes, said: "The
internet is about to go mobile, and that could make many things more difficult to
prevent or detect.

"Almost all of the issues of child safety on the internet that exist today become much
more complex when the internet goes on the street."

Emerging 3G technology, likely to be widely available in the UK in the next year, gives
users access to the internet, to see each other and to take, watch and send video clips.

John Carr, the author of the NCH report, said one of the problems with the phones was
that people looking at child porn on the net were more anonymous than those using
computers, who can often be traced.

He was particularly concerned about pre-paid phones - where a handset is bought
without a contract and the calls are paid by voucher - as the retailer keeps no record of
who buys them.

Mr Carr called on the industry to come up with a way that allows a "greater degree of
certainty" about who is buying and using phones.


                                                                                         107
Easy access

He was also concerned that with 3G phones, children could also be surfing the net away
from the watchful eye of their carers.

Mr Carr said: "With the old, fixed internet, one of the cornerstones was encouraging
parents to supervise what their children did.

"That is far more difficult if children can get access to the internet from anywhere by
mobile phone."




Mr Carr called on mobile phone operators - who currently have a strong code about not
marketing mobiles to children - to do more to educate them in the safe use of phones.

The phones also increase the opportunities paedophiles have to access sites which may
serve only to fuel their fantasies.

And they could well make it easier for paedophiles to take and share images of children
with others - or even to encourage children to take and send images of themselves, he
said.

But the industry is well aware of these problems, and the six major operators -
Hutchison 3G, Vodafone, Virgin, T Mobile, Orange and O2 - have begun working together
to tackle them.

Hutchison's 3G network in the UK, 3, operates a "walled garden" approach, which means
that users can only access internet sites approved by the operator.

Simon Gordon of O2 told BBC News Online: "It's something that we've been working on
now for the best part of two years.

"We are taking it seriously and working with experts, child safety groups and the
government on the best way to deal with this."

Filtration software

The six are due to publish a code of conduct in the next month, which covers various
aspects of safety including filtration software, education and registration of users.

Mr Gordon said his firm was trying to tackle the points raised by Mr Carr.

It currently encouraged users to register their details, but could not force them to do so,
he said - but if the government brought in a law to ensure all mobile owners were
registered "we'd be happy to adopt that".

                                                                                          108
On education, he said his company had already begun to talk to children directly, with
teams of staff touring schools and talking to pupils.

Hints and tips included "don't use camera phones outside the school gates", and "tell a
teacher or other adult if anyone you do not know tries to contact you over your phone,"
he said.

The companies said they were also working on barring unsuitable content which children
could be upset by, or which could help paedophiles desensitise and "groom" children.

Al Russel, head of content at Vodafone UK, said his firm wanted people to have to make
a special effort to view adult material - and children to be unable to do so.

"At Vodafone we're pursuing a policy of if you're not 18, you can't see any 18-rated
content.

"So if you want to see 18 content, you'll have to register a credit card, or go into a retail
shop to make these services available," he said.




                                                                                          109
Web browser and search engine
Explain the following words

   1) Browser

   A web browser is a software application that provides a way to view and interact
   with pages on the World Wide Web.

   You will be using a web browser to look at this page. Have a look at the top bar.
   You will see a back, forward and refresh button. You will also see a menu which
   allows you to view your history and bookmarks.

   Popular browser examples include Internet Explorer, Firefox, Safari and
   Netscape Navigator although there are many others.

   2) Search engine

A Search engine is a database on the World Wide Web that helps us to quickly and
easily find the web pages we want.

The user enters 'key words' or phrases on the subject that they are interested in. The
search engine searches its database looking for references to the key words. It then
returns web pages with links to the relevant websites it found.

The most popular or most visited websites are usually put near to the top of the
results page.

Some examples of search engines are:

      Google
      AltaVista
      Yahoo

   3) Home page

   The Home Page is the main page of a web site. It is the first page that you will
   visit when you visit a site.

   Its main role is to welcome you to the site, to give you an idea of what the site will
   contain and to provide links to other areas of the site so that you can navigate
   around.

   The home page is usually saved as index.html or index.htm




   4) Navigation


                                                                                      110
This is the term used to plan a route from one place to another. For websites, it
means a method has been provided for you to jump from one webpage to
another.

'Menus' are very popular navigation method. A 'Menu' may be made of graphical
images such as the ones you see on the left.

Another very popular form of navigation is the text 'hyperlink' often embedded in
the main text but coloured differently to give you a clue it is there.



5) Phishing

Phishing” is a form of Internet fraud where criminals aim to steal valuable
information such as credit cards, social security numbers, user IDs and
passwords for bank accounts.

They set up a fake website which looks identical to a legitimate company such as
a bank or insurance company. They then try to trick people into logging into the
site and giving their account details and security codes.

6) Bookmark

This is a method of storing or saving a link to a web page. The bookmarks are
listed making it easy for you to return to that web page in the future.

7) ISP

An Internet Service Provider, or ISP, is a company which usually for a monthly
subscription fee, will allow a user to connect to the Internet.

Some ISPs put their users directly onto the Internet, while others will send a
connection through its or a different company's servers, which is slightly slower.

ISPs provide different services. Usually they give space for electronic mail (e-
mail) and a website.

Examples of ISPs are AOL, BTinternet, Freeserve and Tiscali.




8) Internet protocol

Part of an important network protocol called TCP/IP that is used to control data
moving through the Internet.

                                                                                   111
IP stands for Internet Protocol.

The IP half of the protocol is responsible for moving data from one part of the
network to another. Each packet of data has a destination IP address that looks
something like this:-

82.165.39.154

(Cut and paste or type this IP address into your browser address bar to see
where you get to).

Every computer or device connected to the Internet has an IP address.

To see what the other half of the protocol does see also TCP in the glossary.




                                                                                112
Email (Grade C)
Explain the following terms

   1) Inbox

The place where you find emails which have been sent to you.

   2) Outbox

After you send an e-mail message, Outlook moves the e-mail message to your
Outbox. When Outlook connects to your mail server, the e-mail message is delivered
and a copy of the sent e-mail message is moved from the Outbox to the Sent Items
folder.

   3) Reply

When you receive an email you can reply to it. At the top of the email there is a reply
button. If you click on this you can reply to the email without having to enter the
persons address. Your message then will include the text from the original
message.



   4) Forward

You can send a message you receive to someone else by forwarding it. This sends
the message you have received to other people.



   5) Email address

This is the address you have to type in to send an email to someone else e.g.
joebloggs@hotmail.com



   6) CC

When you send an email there are three boxes were you are able to type in email
address. They are TO, CC and BCC. You have to type and address in the TO box.
CC stands for carbon copy. If you add an email address in there then that person
will receive an exact copy of the email.



   7) BCC




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If you type a person’s address into the BCC box then they will also receive an exact
copy of the email. The people in the TO and CC fields will not see that this person
has received a copy of the email.



   8) Subject field

The Subject field tells the person receiving the email what it is all about. This
appears as a heading in the Inbox before the person has even opened the message.



   9) Attachments

These are files sent with the email. Emails can be sent with things like word
documents, presentations, pictures etc.



   10) Email signature

An email signature can be added to any message you send. Generally, a signature
is used to provide the recipient with your name, e-mail address and business contact
information

   11) Deleted items

This is the place were emails you have deleted are stored. You can retrieve emails
from here if you want them at a later date or delete them forever.



   12) Contacts

This is a place where you can store all the email addresses of the people you email.
You can click on contacts and find their details quickly. There is also no need to type
their address in each time as their details are already stored.



   13) Junk mail or spam

   Spam means sending massive amounts of electronic junk mail that people
   haven't asked for.

   In legal terms it means to send 'unsolicited commercial email'

   This term is used because the vast majority of spam is sent in order to try and
   persuade you to buy something.


                                                                                     114
   Many ISP email packages offer 'spam filters' that try to prevent these emails
   getting through to your inbox, but it is a very difficult problem to separate spam
   from wanted emails. Your email service may have a 'Bulk' or 'Junk' box that
   contains the diverted spam. It is then up to you to have a look to see if there are
   some real emails accidentally caught by the filters.



   14) Spam filters

   To reduce this burden, the Internet Service Providers (ISP) have anti-spam filters
   in place on their networks that try and spot spam and then block it.

   There is no perfect system, as the spam-senders are constantly battling to find
   ways around them. For example, a filter may look for certain key words within the
   email - so the spammers send text images instead or they deliberately mis-spell
   or mangle words that humans can read, but machines cannot.

   Anti-spam filters work by following a set of rules that together decide whether or
   not an email is spam. They also have black-lists of IP addresses that are known
   to issue spam. There are 'Baysean Filters' and 'Heuristic Filters' that try to learn
   as they pick up more and more spam. But unfortunately some still gets through.

   You can rent email services that offer to filter spam for you. The dodgy emails are
   re-directed to a 'Bulk box'. Then it is up to you to check if any proper emails
   ended up there as well.



   15) Out of office assistant

You can create a message to reply to people when you are not in the office. You set
up the message to be sent to people who email you between certain dates and times
that you are not in the office.




                                                                                     115
Web logs and social networking (Grade B)

    1) What is a web log?

    Blog is the shortened version of the word for web-log.

    A blog is a website that is used like a diary. Many people create a blog and then
    write regularly about things they have been doing or events which have taken
    place. Posts often include links to other site.

    People can read the blog entries and post comments as feedback.

    2) What is social networking? Give examples

A social networking site allows you to post messages, upload pictures, videos and
stories to your own personal page.

Facebook, Twitter, My Space, Bebo

    3) What are the advantages of social networking?




.




    4) What are the disadvantages of social networking?




                                                                                    116
Object   Description          What is it    How does it use
                              monitoring?   control?
         A security light.




         A burglar alarm.



         A car park barrier




         A micro wave.




         Smoke alarm.




         Street lights.




         Automatic doors.




                                                              117
            Controlling systems
            Complete the table below using the answers in the box at the bottom of the page. You may use
            more than one answer per system and can use the same answer more than once.


System to be controlled                          Control: computer         Reasons
                                                 (C) or human (H)

Traffic lights

Driving a train

Keeping a check on the condition of
patients in hospital
Filling bottles of lemonade in a factory

CCTV cameras in a city centre

Human                                            Computer                  Involves making judgements

Boring activity for people                       Needs to be               Too dangerous for people
                                                 continuous

Computers don’t need sleep                       Paying people is          Computers are expensive to buy
                                                 expensive

Requires skill                        Obeys simple rules Requires creative thinking
Computer Control is more suitable when……….      Human Control is more suitable when………..




                                                                                                           118
                   Advantages and disadvantages of Control Technology


   1. Think about how control technology effects the world we live in. Think about what would the
      world be like without systems like automatic doors and traffic lights. In the box below list some
      advantages and disadvantages of control technology.

(Grade C)

    Advantages                                         Disadvantages




   In the space below describe the advantages and disadvantages of traffic lights.
        Think about how the traffic lights replaced a traffic Police Officer.
        What can a traffic Police Officer do that a set of traffic lights can’t?
        What can a set of traffic lights do that a Traffic Police Officer can’t?




Think of another example where a computer system that uses sensors has
replaced a job that used to be done by a person and describe it in the box




                                                                                                   119
Data logging
   1) How is data collected?

   Sensors are used to take readings or measurements at regular intervals of their
   environment.

   The sensors could be collecting data on a wide range of thing such as
   temperature, humidity, pressure, wind speed, water currents, electrical voltage,
   pH readings etc.

   The sensors may be either analogue or digital. If they take analogue readings, an
   Analogue to Digital Converter (ADC) will be needed to convert the signal into
   digital data which the computer can understand.

   As the sensor takes a reading, the data is sent though a cable or wireless link to
   the data logger.

   The data logger usually stores the data for a period of time before sending it in a
   large batch to a computer which will process and analyse it.

   A data logger is often a hand-held battery-operated device which has a large
   amount of memory



   2) Give examples of situations were data is logged and how it is logged?

In a Hospital

When a patient has had a major operation or is very ill, they may be in the Intensive
Care Unit (ICU).

While they are in the ICU, they will be constantly monitored to make sure that their
condition is stable and not deteriorating.

A heart monitor will take readings of their heart rate and pattern of beats. These
readings will be displayed as digital numbers on the monitor itself and they will also
be output to a continuous graph so that the doctors can pick up any changes over
time.

Their breathing rate will be monitored and their level of oxygen measured. Alarms
will be triggered if their oxygen level goes below a certain amount.

Their temperature will be measured at regular intervals to monitor whether they have
an infection and if so, whether it is responding to treatment.



Water Companies

                                                                                    120
Water companies have to constantly monitor the acidity of the water in their
reservoirs. They also monitor pollution, chemicals and the number of bacteria in
rivers.

In order to do this:

      The sensors take measurements of the water
      An ADC converts the analogue signals into digital data
      The data is sent to the data logger where it is stored until called for by the
       Water Board's computer.
      On request, the digital data is transmitted to the Water Board's computer.
      Special software (data logging software) takes the data and analyses it
      The results of the analysis are presented as graphs and tables
      The results are printed out

Racing Cars

Some companies invest millions into developing state-of-the-art racing cars.

They want to know every aspect of how their car is performing so that they can
ensure the engine is calibrated correctly, the right amount of fuel is being delivered,
the best speeds are being achieved etc.

Digital electronic dashboards are used inside the cars. They display data collected
by the sensors.

This data is logged and stored for later analysis by the engineers.

Also, output alarms can be set to alert the driver when certain conditions have been
met.

Data can also be scrolled through by the driver pushing a button.




   3) What is remote data logging? Give examples

   Data often needs to be collected from places that are nowhere near a nice cosy
   office.

   The data might need to be collected at all times of the day and night or during
   weekends when people might be away from work.

   Data might also need to be collected from dangerous places such as volcanoes
   or from places where it is not practical or safe for a human to be, maybe deep in
   the ocean, in the upper atmosphere or even on other planets.



                                                                                        121
Remote data logging means that the sensors collect data 'out in the field' and
pass it to a portable data logger.

The data logger then relays the data either wirelessly, by fibre-optic cables or
possibly even by satellite, back to a computer ready for analysis



4) What is a logging interval?

The 'Logging Interval' is the period of time over which measurements are taken
by the sensors.

If the measured value changes very rapidly then the time interval needs to be
rapid as well, otherwise crucial events will be missed. On the other hand, if the
data is going to change very slowly, then you would take readings much less
often so that you do not get too much data.



5) Give some advantages and disadvantages of data logging.

Advantages

Data Logging can be used in remote or dangerous situations

Data logging can be carried out 24 hours a day, 365 days of the year

Time intervals for collecting data can be very frequent and regular, for example,
hundreds of measurements per second

can be set up to start at a time in the future

No need to have a person present

Data logging is often more accurate because there is no likelihood of human error



Disadvantages

If the data logging equipment breaks down or malfunctions, some data could be
lost or not recorded

Equipment can be expensive for small tasks

The equipment will only take readings at the logging interval which has been set
up. If something unexpected happens between recordings, the data will not be
collected.


                                                                                    122
Now attempt the practical tasks

Controlling Devices/Control feedback loop and

Imagine logo



You will now be tested on what you have learned.
Record your score in the results section of your
workbook.




                                                   123
3.3 Society's use of ICT
ICT and the Law
   1) What is the purpose of the data protection act?

   The Data Protection Act helps to control the data that is collected, stored and
   processed about people by organisations like companies and schools.
   Organisations can only use the data they collect for the purpose they collected it
   for. As a data subject you have the right to request access to the information an
   organisation hold about you for a fee of up to £10.


   2) What are the responsibilities of companies holding personal data?

         Principle                           What it means
Personal data should be    This means that you should be told that data is
obtained and processed     being collected about you, and you should know
fairly and lawfully        what the data will be used for.
                           The Data Controller has to state why they want to
Personal data can be held collect and store information when they apply for
only for specified and     permission to be able to do so. If they use the
lawful purposes            data they have collected for other purposes, they
                           are breaking the law.
                           Organisations should only collect the data that
                           they need and no more. Your school needs to
                           know your parent's phone number in case they
Personal data should be need to contact them in an emergency. However,
adequate, relevant and     they do not need to know what your
not excessive for the      grandmother's name is, nor do they need to know
required purpose           your eye co lour. They should not ask, nor should
                           they store such details since this would be
                           excessive and would not be required to help with
                           your education.
                           Companies should do their best to make sure
                           that they do not record the wrong facts about a
                           data subject. Your school probably asks your
Personal data should be parents to check a form once a year to make
accurate and kept up-to- sure that the phone number and address on the
date                       school system is still correct. If a person asks for
                           the information to be changed, the company
                           should comply if it can be proved that the
                           information is indeed incorrect.
                           Organisations should only keep personal data for
                           a reasonable length of time. Hospitals might
Personal data should not
                           need to keep patient records for 25 years or
be kept for longer than is
                           more that is acceptable since they may need that
necessary
                           information to treat an illness later on. However,
                           there is no need for a personnel department to

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        Principle                              What it means
                           keep the application forms of unsuccessful job
                           applicants.
                           People have the right to inspect the information
Data must be processed
                           held on them (except in certain circumstance -
in accordance with the
                           see later). If the data being held on them is
rights of the data subject
                           incorrect, they have the right to have it changed.
Appropriate security       This means information has to be kept safe from
measures must be taken hackers and employees who don't have rights to
against unauthorised       see it. Data must also be safeguarded against
access                     accidental loss.
Personal data cannot be
                           This means that if a company wishes to share
transferred to countries
                           data with an organisation in a different country,
outside the E.U. unless
                           that country must have similar laws to our Data
the country has similar
                           Protection Act in place.
legislation to the D.P.A.




   3) What are the rights of the data subjects?

   Under the sixth Data Protection principle, data subjects have the right to:

   - see data held on them. They must apply in writing and pay a small fee (often
   around £10). The company must respond to the request within forty days.

   - have any errors corrected

   - Claim compensation for any distress caused if the Act has been broken

   - prevent processing likely to cause damage or distress

   - prevent processing for automated decision taking by writing to the data
   controller to inform them that no decisions should be taken based on automatic
   processing. Some banks decide whether a customer should be given a mortgage
   on the basis of a computer program. The data subject has the right to prevent
   that happening.




   4) Name some exemptions to the act.

   Not everyone is automatically entitled to see the data which is held on them.
   There are certain circumstances under which data controllers are exempt from
   providing information to data subjects.


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These are:

National Security - If required for the purpose of safeguarding national security,
data controllers do not have to disclose the data held to data subjects.

Crime - Data which is being held in order to prevent or detect a crime does not
have to be disclosed.

Taxation - any data collected for taxation purposes is exempt

Health, Education and Social Work - personal data about the physical or
mental health of the data subject. You have no automatic right to view your
medical records. If a doctor believes that viewing them would harm your mental
wellbeing, they can be withheld from you.

Schools and examinations - personal data relating to the present or past pupils
of a school. Examination scripts and examination marks held by examination
authorities

5) What is the personal data guardianship code?

It is a code of practice designed to tell every member of an organisation their
responsibilities when handling personal information.


6) Describe its principles of accountability, visibility, consent, access,
   stewardship and responsibility.

Accountability
All those holding personal data should follow publicly accessible, data
governance principles that include clear management responsibility, authority and
the processes for: collecting, retaining, identity matching, sharing, disseminating,
and disposing of, risk assessment, security and audit of personal data. If this is
done correctly, it will foster public trust and safeguard the personal data within
their care.

Example: An organisation that sends an unencrypted CD containing sensitive
personal data by post is clearly not following sound governance procedures for
protecting personal data held in their charge. People who should be considered
at fault are: (1) the Board, who are ultimately responsible, (2) the responsible
person who is accountable and (3) the data handler who sent out the CD.

Visibility
Subject to some legal exceptions, data subjects have the right to be informed of
and to access all data about themselves that an organisation holds. There may,
however, be a charge for this. They have the right both to correct this data if it is
wrong and to know who has had access to it.




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Example: Data subjects have the right to see their personal data held by credit
rating agencies and the right to correct the data when they can demonstrate that it
is wrong.

Consent
In each situation the collection and use of personal data has to be fair and lawful
and in accordance with the eight data protection principles. There must be a
proper basis for processing personal data meeting one of the conditions for
processing set out in schedules 2 and 3 of the DPA. Individuals should be given
as much control as is possible over how their personal information is used and
disclosed. This means giving them clear information about this when they provide
their personal data and seeking their consent where this is appropriate. Explicit
consent will be particularly necessary where uses/disclosures of sensitive data,
such as medical information, is contemplated.

Example 6: Your employer is legally obliged to pass on data relating to your
earnings to HM Revenue and Customs and getting your consent to this is clearly
inappropriate but a request for your earnings details from a building society to
verify a mortgage application would require your explicit consent before these
details could be passed on.

Access
Everyone should have a right to know the roles and groups of people within an
organisation who will have access to their personal data. There should be an audit
trail within the organisation showing who has actually accessed personal data. For
certain types of personal data, such as health, sexuality, religion and membership
of organisations like trade unions or political parties, data subjects should have
the right to allow access to their personal data only with their explicit consent.

Example 10: Not all staff working in a medical clinic should have access to a data
subject’s identifiable medical records. These should only be accessed by staff
directly engaged in the data subject’s care and treatment.


Stewardship
Those collecting personal data have a duty of care to protect it throughout the
data life span. They need to ensure that anyone using it understands the risks
associated with its use, the purposes for which consent has been obtained and its
accuracy (e.g. whether the personal data has been verified or is interpretation and
hearsay, when it was collected, if it has a finite useful life and if it has been
cleansed). Where personal data is passed on to a third party, thus creating a
community of sharing, the organisation that originally collected the personal data
should ensure that any caveats associated with their use of it are passed on and
permission is obtained from the data subject.

Example 12: Many organisations have outsourced some support services, for
example payroll. Where an organisation commissions a supplier to collect
personal data, the responsible person in the outsourcer or third party supplier is
equally accountable for abiding by data protection principles as the responsible
person in the original collecting organisation.

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Responsibilities
All organisations should have an agreed and documented policy on data
assurance (security) and data privacy, including compliance with the DPA. This
policy should set out the governance arrangements for data assurance and
privacy. Good governance makes clear who is responsible (the Board) and
accountable (the responsible person) for the protection of all personal data
collected. Ultimately, responsibility rests with the Board, specifically with the Board
of a private sector organisation, the accounting officer of a public sector
organisation and the trustees of a charitable organisation. The responsible person
should be appointed by the Board and can delegate to other workers the authority
for all or part of the processes in the data life span, e.g. data input, data
correction, data disposal. It should be clear, at all points in the Data Life Span,
who has been authorised to handle personal data and the extent of their
authorisation. Organisations holding personal data have a responsibility to ensure
its accuracy and relevance and to have effective processes in place to review,
maintain and dispose of it. They also have a responsibility only to collect and hold
the minimum of personal data needed for the service(s) offered.

Example 13: A delivery company will need to know the name, address and
telephone number of a customer, but does not need to know the customer’s
religious beliefs.

7) How can you prevent unauthorised access to computer systems containing
   personal data?

User accounts, Log on details, keep passwords secure, regularly change
passwords, Levels of access, security questions.




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Computer Misuse act


    1) What is the purpose of the computer misuse act?

Hacking has been around almost as long as the Internet; some people just love to try
and break into a computer system.

Prior to 1990, there was no legislation in place to tackle the problems caused by
hacking. Although everyone knew that it was wrong and should be against the law,
there was nothing that anyone could do about it.

As the problem grew, it became apparent that specific legislation was needed to
enable hackers to be prosecuted under the law.

So, in 1990, the Computer Misuse Act was passed.

The Computer Misuse Act (1990) recognised three new offences:

    1. Unauthorised access to computer material
    2. Unauthorised access with intent to commit or facilitate a crime
    3. Unauthorised modification of computer material.



    2) What is meant by hacking?

    Hacking means to illegally access other people's computer systems in order to
    destroy, disrupt or carry out something illegal.

    Hacking is usually carried out remotely, i.e. someone outside a company wants to
    try to break into the computer system.

    Even if the hacker only does it as a challenge or for a bit of fun, it is still illegal.



    3) What measures can be taken to stop hacking?

    A firewall is designed to help protect a computer network from intruders. It does
    this by controlling what data can and cannot pass through it.

    A firewall can either be

   A piece of software e.g. Windows has a built in Firewall, Zone Alarm is a free
    firewall or you can purchase commercial software firewalls.


                                                                                               129
   A piece of hardware. These boxes are much faster than the software version but
    they are also much more expensive and tricky to set up.

    You would expect home networks to be protected by a software firewall but a
    large corporation would have several layers of hardware firewalls protecting their
    networks as well as intruder detection software applications looking for odd
    behaviour on their networks. Basically, the more valuable or sensitive the
    information, the higher the level of protection expected.




    4) What is a computer virus?

    A computer virus is a piece of program code that, like a biological virus, makes
    copies of itself by attaching itself to another program. The virus can waste the
    host's resources, and sometimes destroy or change files.

    While viruses are usually malicious - destroying data or crashing network
    services - many do nothing or are just annoying (for example, displaying a
    message to the user). Many viruses are made to wait a long time before doing
    anything, usually destroying data on a certain day, like a holiday.

    Viruses are usually spread by a computer network, by e-mail, or by removable
    media, like a floppy disk or memory stick.



    5) What measures can be taken to stop computer viruses?



    Anti-virus software, Anti-spy software, treating unknown files with caution.




                                                                                    130
Copyright


    1) What is copyright?

    This copyright designs and patents act was introduced to protect the investment
    of time, money and effort by the people who create original pieces of work.

    This can mean authors of books, composers of music, the makers of a film, a
    computer game designer or a company that creates applications such as word
    processing software.

    They all invest a great deal of time and money to produce these things and quite
    rightly, their work belongs to them.



    2) What is plagiarism?

    Copying something and pretending it is your own.



    3) What are the moral and ethical effects of illegal media downloads and file
       sharing?

    How many of the following are you guilty of?

   Copying a computer game from your mate
   Downloading a few tracks from the internet - they are free aren't they
   Copying text from a website and pasted it into your own work

    Come on, if we tell the truth, I bet we have all done these things. But does it really
    matter?

    It is estimated that almost 40% of software is copied. This has a huge impact on
    the software industry.

    By just cutting the software piracy rate from 25% to 15% would result in an extra
    40,000 jobs in the IT sector and an extra £2.5 billion in tax revenues.

    The extra revenue that software companies would receive would mean that they
    could reinvest more into new product development, perhaps a new game or a new
    application package.

    It’s estimated, in fact, that people breaking the law and downloading copyrighted
    music costs the industry something like £8.5 billion a year – and loses £1.5 billion
    for the VAT man.



                                                                                       131
So, the end result, if everybody that has a PC in the UK decided to download
ripped off music rather than buy it, would be an end to the music industry in the
UK



4) What can an ISP do if copyright is being breached?

They can remove you internet service.




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Health and safety
  1) What potential health and safety problems could you get from prolonged use
     of ICT equipment?

  Health problems: stress, eye problems, wrist problems (RSI), back and neck
  problems and tripping over cables




  2) What steps could be taken to reduce these risks.

  Alleviating health problems: take breaks, appropriate lighting, eye tests, use of
  wrist rests and other devices, back and adjustable seating and set monitor
  heights, footstools avoid tripping other devices, avoid hazards, safe positioning of
  hardware/potential hazards and cable trunking




  3) Describe some safety issues relating to computers

  Safety issues: excessive heat/temperature, management of electrical
  systems/computers, light, fire prevention, hygiene and measures for preventing
  accidents in the work place, and loss of power supply.




  4) What steps could be taken to overcome these issues?

  Safety measures: air conditioning, not overloading electrical sockets, no trailing
  wires, checking and replacing/mending malfunctioning computer equipment and
  cabling (data and electrical), diffused/ambient lighting, blinds to block out direct
  sunlight, position of monitors, no food/drink around the computer, installing fire
  extinguishers, using UPS and surge protectors.




You will now be tested on what you have learned.
Record your score in the results section of your
workbook.




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Changing pattern of commerce and industry due to increased use of ICT


  1) What are the advantages to businesses of selling on the internet?




  2) What are the advantages for customers of shopping on the internet?




  3) What are the psychological factors of e-commerce?




  4) What are the environmental factors of e-commerce?




  5) Give examples of illegal or unethical e-commerce?




                                                                          134
6) How does e-commerce work?




7) Who uses it?




8) What are the disadvantages?




                                 135
ICT and industry (Grade C)

   1) What affects has ICT had on the following industries
    Printing

Daily newspapers used to be printed on this old fashioned printing press.

Printing used to be a very manual, skilled job with a master printer taking years to
learn his craft.

Each word had to be created by 'type setting' by hand.

This meant picking each individual letter and creating sentences (backwards).

Once the type setting for the page was created, each page would be printed off in a
large batch before the type setting would be changed for the next page.

In 1985, photo-typesetting was developed and it made it possible to automate the
printing of newspapers and books.

Nowadays, newspapers are written by journalists who use a computer.

The digital layout is then transferred to the printer and newspapers are printed very
quickly in their thousands.

      Secretarial

Up until the mid-1980s, when letters or reports needed to be typed, a typist would
use a manual typewriter.

Each page had to be typed carefully since mistakes were hard to fix - usually the
page would have to be typed out again.

There were no formatting features - if you wanted something bold, you had to type
over the same words twice!

Using a typewriter was a skilled job since there was no room for mistakes! And so
each senior manager had to have a typist available to produce letters and memos.

Typists would also work in large rooms, such as the one seen above. They were
called the 'typing pool'.

If anyone needed some work typed, it would be sent to the typing pool. The work
would be allocated to a typist. It would be typed out and then returned to the person
who requested it.



      Accounting

                                                                                       136
Before the development of ICT accountants would keep track of all financial records
by hand.

They would enter every payment and receipt into a ledger. This was a full time job
for many people.

All calculations had to be performed by hand or by a very cumbersome mechanical
machine - electronic calculators were not invented until the late 70's.

It was easy to make a mistake, to add up something incorrectly or even to forget to
record something.

The introduction of calculators helped to speed up the work involved in balancing the
books and helped reduce some of the mistakes made.

When financial packages and spreadsheets for personal computers came along
around 1978, it transformed the way businesses handled their financial accounts.

With these changes, the role of Accounting Clark largely disappeared. They now had
to re-train to use the new electronic spreadsheets. The skill of mentally adding up
numbers quickly and accurately was no longer required as the computer could do
this much faster and more reliably.



      Banking

In the past, the only way to withdraw money from your account was to queue up and
wait to speak to a bank teller.

Most workers were paid their wages in cash every week. A lot of workers didn't need
bank accounts as they bought what they needed with cash. This meant that banks
often weren't very busy.

As ICT developed, businesses began to pay salaries directly into a bank account
instead of by cash. Employees had to open bank accounts and visit the bank every
time they wanted to deposit or withdraw money.

This meant that banks became much busier and they had to take on a lot more staff.
This of course cost them a lot of money. They wanted to find a way to reduce
queues and cut down on staff wages.

And so, the Automatic Tellar Machine (ATM) was developed. Customers could serve
themselves. They could withdraw cash, check their balances and order statements
without ever having to speak to a member of staff.

This helped reduce the workload on the 'real' bank tellers, but the popularity of ATMs
has grown so much, that it actually reduced the need for many staff and led to job
losses


                                                                                     137
      Call centres

In the past, when a customer wanted to talk to someone in a company they would
usually be able to telephone and be put through to the right person who could help
them.

Many companies didn't like this because while people were talking to customers on
the phone they weren't doing their jobs.

ICT made it possible for large call centres to be created. These can be a room or
large office where staff are employed to do nothing else except take telephone calls
from customers and sort out their problems.

This is efficient for an organisation because staff who should be doing other things
don't get disturbed.



   2) What affect has ICT had on working patterns?

   The introduction of ICT has led to a huge change in working hours. People who
   traditionally only worked 9-5, Monday to Friday, may now find that they have to
   work evening, nights and weekends in order to provide the service that
   customers expect. This can leave them feeling tired and stressed.

   Customers expect to be able to call their bank or building society in the evenings,
   sometimes even at 3am - someone has to be there to answer the telephone.

   Customers expect to be able to buy their goods online at midnight - someone has
   to be there to ensure that the website is working correctly and that the servers
   don't have any problems.

   Customers expect goods to be on the supermarket shelves when they want
   them. Lorries have to be driven night and day to ensure this and so route
   planners need to be available to replan a route when a delay occurs.




   3) What affect has ICT had on employment?

   Inevitably, since ICT can automate many jobs and do them not only faster but
   also more accurately, then many of the old jobs have disappeared.

   We no longer have typing pools full of secretaries, there is no need for an office
   full of clerks to calculate and count out weekly wages, there is no need for
   printers to manually typeset the newspaper pages. Many hundreds of thousands
   of people have lost their jobs over the last couple of decades.


                                                                                   138
   Job loss is not pleasant; it affects peoples' self worth and creates all kinds of
   stress and disruption in families and society in general.




   4) What impact has ICT had on retraining staff?

   Many people who found that their job had disappeared because of the
   introduction of computes have had to retrain.

   They might have been kept on to do the same role but using a computer rather
   than doing things by hand.

   Or if their job disappeared completely, they would probably have had to train and
   learn a whole new set of skills.

   Training can be given by the personnel department or by other workers. Or it
   could be purchased from specialist companies who visit the organisation and
   train people 'on-site'. Workers can also go on courses at the local college to learn
   new skills.

   Whatever method is used , training is expensive. While the person is learning to
   use the new technology, they are not working to full capacity.



   5) Give examples of Jobs created by the growth of ICT

On the positive side, ICT has resulted in many new jobs being created created.

Here are a few examples - I'm sure you can think of many more.

Network Technician

      Helps set up office and school networks
      Monitors network performance
      Installs new software
      Sets up and monitors user accounts
      Ensures network security

Computer programmer

      Writes the code for new software
      Adapts or develops existing software

Website Designers



                                                                                       139
With the explosion of the Internet, there has been a huge demand for people who
can design and write websites.

There has also been many jobs created around web advertising, web hosting and e-
commerce

Help Desk Operator

      Answers technical problems from staff
      Provides advice when software/hardware not working
      Resets passwords
      Can remotely control a computer screen to demonstrate how to do something.

Business Analyst

Because businesses need specialist software and hardware to suit their particular
needs, most large organisations employ a team of business analysts.

These analysts examine the methods currently used by the company and determine
what works and what needs improving. They then work with employees,employers
and software developers to design and create a new system to solve the business'
requirements.

ICT Teacher

Well if it wasn't for you guys - we wouldn't have a job now would we?



What other jobs can you think of that have been created as a direct result of the
introduction of ICT?




                                                                                    140
Stock control (Grade C)

   1) What is an automated production line? What effect does this have on
      employment?

     This is where products are made by machines with little or no help from
     people.

   2) What is stock?
      The physical items companies sell.

   3) What is stock control and who uses it?




                                                                               141
4) Explain real time and batch stock control




                                               142
5) How do companies keep track of stock?




                                           143
6) Give some advantages and disadvantages of stock control.




                                                              144
Acceptable ICT use (Grade C)

  1) What is computer crime and why do people commit it?




  2) Why are thieves interested in your credit card details?




                                                               145
3) What are the consequences of lost of data?




4) What is fraud?




                                                146
Abuse of email (Grade C)

  1) Give a reason why companies would not want you to send personal emails in
     company time?
     You should be working.

  2) List some things you shouldn’t send in an email at work

     Customers information, inappropriate content e.g. pornography, silly jokes,
     bullying, derogatory comments about your boss or colleagues, financial
     information, trade secrets,

  3) What are the possible consequences of email abuse?
     You could be sacked.


  4) What is an email usage policy?
     Guidance on how to use email at work




                                                                                   147
Netiquette (Grade C)

Netiquette

Click here
  1) What is Flaming?




  2) What are the rules on netiquette?




                                         148
http://www.teach-ict.com/glossary/S/spam.htm

   3) What is spam?

   Spam means sending massive amounts of electronic junk mail that people
   haven't asked for. In legal terms it means to send 'unsolicited commercial email'.
   This term is used because the vast majority of spam is sent in order to try and
   persuade you to buy something. Many ISP email packages offer 'spam filters' that
   try to prevent these emails getting through to your inbox, but it is a very difficult
   problem to separate spam from wanted emails. Your email service may have a
   ‘Bulk’ or ‘Junk’ box that contains the diverted spam. It is then up to you to have a
   look to see if there are some real emails accidentally caught by the filters. To give
   you an idea of the problem, it is estimated that around 80%-90% of all emails on
   the internet is spam

http://www.plagiarism.org/

   4) What is plagiarism?

Many people think of plagiarism as copying another's work, or borrowing someone
else's original ideas. But terms like "copying" and "borrowing" can disguise the
seriousness of the offense:


According to the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, to "plagiarize" means

      to steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as one's own
      to use (another's production) without crediting the source
      to commit literary theft


                                                                                    149
      to present as new and original an idea or product derived from an existing
       source.

In other words, plagiarism is an act of fraud. It involves both stealing someone else's
work and lying about it afterward.


But can words and ideas really be stolen?

According to U.S. law, the answer is yes. The expression of original ideas is
considered intellectual property, and is protected by copyright laws, just like original
inventions. Almost all forms of expression fall under copyright protection as long as
they are recorded in some way (such as a book or a computer file).


All of the following are considered plagiarism:

      turning in someone else's work as your own
      copying words or ideas from someone else without giving credit
      failing to put a quotation in quotation marks
      giving incorrect information about the source of a quotation
      changing words but copying the sentence structure of a source without giving
       credit
      copying so many words or ideas from a source that it makes up the majority of
       your work, whether you give credit or not (see our section on "fair use" rules)

Most cases of plagiarism can be avoided, however, by citing sources. Simply
acknowledging that certain material has been borrowed, and providing your
audience with the information necessary to find that source, is usually enough to
prevent plagiarism.




                                                                                      150
Social and personal effects of ICT (Grade C-A*)

   1) List the technology available to help people with disabilities. Give advantages
      and disadvantages of each technology.

   Braille translation software can be used, for the blind and people with
   insufficient sight, to translate words and figures which are inputted into Braille into
   a text version, or translate text into Braille. Electronic Braille displays can be
   placed under normal computer keyboards and this, therefore, enables the user to
   read the contents of the computer screen by touch, in Braille. A Braille embosser
   will connect to a computer in the same way that a printer does. Also, the
   embosser will print Braille output from the computer by punching dots onto paper.

   Advantages: Enables the blind and people with insufficient sight to understand
   the message portrayed by the Braille. “Braille Technology is capable of
   revolutionizing the lives of thousands of people because it allows them to engage
   in the virtual world that cannot be perceived through their eyes.”

   Disadvantages: Will be expensive to buy and fix if it gets broken. “The National
   Federation of the Blind estimates that only 10 per cent of the vision-impaired are
   able to read Braille.”

  Closed-circuit televisions, more commonly known as CCTVs, or video
  magnifiers can be used to aid people with a small amount of vision in the way
  that works as a magnifying aid. Printer material and objects can be placed under
  a camera and the magnified image is displayed on the computer monitor or
  television screen.
  Advantages: Enlarges certain parts of text on the main screen to enable visually
  impaired people to see the text more clearly. “A video magnifier allows greater
  magnification whilst also offering great field of view.”
  Disadvantages: Can be expensive to fit, buy and fix if broken and would take up
  valuable desk space. You would also need to pay people to service them. “I had
  to save my money for weeks before I could afford a video magnifier.”


  Visually impaired people with limited or even no sight may use the internet to
  access the web by using access technology. However, it is critical that the
  websites are designed properly and to a high standard, and that a text alternative
  exists for each and every none text element, i.e. graphics, on the web page itself.
  The Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI), part of the World Wide Web Consortium
  (W3C), publishes web content accessibility guidelines which, if followed correctly,
  ensure that the website has the accurate standards of accessibilities to all users,
  especially those with disabilities.
  Advantages: Enables visually impaired people to use the internet just like
  everybody else. “These machines sift through the HTML code and the technology
  deciphers what needs to be read aloud and what should be ignored.”
  Disadvantages: Websites have to be to a very high standard with text
  alternatives, or else the visually impaired cannot use the website to its full
  capability. “If your site is accessible to this group of users then the size of the text

                                                                                       151
throughout the page will increase, if not, blind people will be unable to use the
site.”


The usage of e-mail and SMS messages (also known as text messages) on
mobile phones has opened up the world of communication for those who are hard
of hearing. ICT can be used in schools and colleges so that students don’t have
to be dependent on the spoken word. For instance, interactive whiteboards are
used as an ideal tool in the sense that students can see what is happening on the
board without needing to listen and interpret instructions.
A whole new range of technology has been expertly developed to assist those
that are hard of hearing. Special devices are available can be used around the
standard home which can alert those hard of hearing to the sounds of
appliances such as the doorbell, telephone, smoke detector and burglar
alarm. To alert the hard of hearing, these devices will use extra loud audible
alarms, or, to help those with no hearing whatsoever, flashing lights or vibration.
Transmitters can be placed close to the devices which the user would specifically
want to hear, which, when the devices make a noise, the transmitter will pick up
and alert those hard of hearing on a pager, with vibrations or flashing lights.
Advantages: Those with hearing impairments can hear every day sounds such as
the doorbell, telephone and smoke detector, as well as being able to listen
sufficiently in class. “The voice is transmitted wirelessly to the hearing aids
eliminating the effects of distance and background noise.”
Disadvantages: Equipment such as interactive whiteboards and transmitters can
be expensive to buy and problematic to fix. “It took two weeks just to reinstall the
whiteboard, I wasn’t pleased.”

Many people that are hard of hearing can find it hard to hear in places such as
classrooms, conference halls and meeting rooms. This is due to the rooms having
poor acoustics which has a blurring effect on the people with hearing difficulties.
Induction loops and infrared systems can be installed which can be used to
overcome the hearing difficulties in larger places. These devices work by
replacing the sound path (the path between the source of the sound and the
listener) with an inductive or infrared signal. These signals aren’t affected by
acoustics or any other sounds.
Loops systems are used in combination with the user’s hearing aid and it is used
as a receiver which converts the signals listed above into sound. To convert the
signal back to sound, infrared systems use special receivers.
Advantages: People that are hard of hearing can hear clearly in large rooms such
as classrooms and conference halls. “They are a loop of cable around a
designated area, usually a room or a building, which generates a magnetic field
picked up by a hearing aid.”
Disadvantages: These devices can malfunction which would leave the person
who is hard of hearing in a position where they could not hear efficiently Also,
obtaining the correct standard of equipment can be expensive.. “The long term
average of the field strength at a typical listening location must be 100mA/m, +-
3dB.”
Computers and ICT can be used to improve the lifestyle of those with physical
disabilities by offering them independence and opportunities for employment. For
instance, teleworking is a feature that means that anybody who finds it hard to
                                                                                    152
commute can hold video conferences, for example, can exchange various
information and can work from home. This is an advantage for those with physical
and mobility disabilities as it means that they don’t need to leave the comfort of
their own homes, or workplace, to work.
In addition, video conferencing can be used to allow any children in hospital to
be included in their lessons at school. To allow people with physical and mobility
disabilities to purchase their shopping, online websites are available to purchase
all their daily requirements. Nowadays, there is not much that can’t be purchased
over the internet. As well as this, home banking is available to allow them to pay
bills and manage their finances. Therefore, ICT has truly opened up the world for
this group of people, and makes their everyday lives easier.
Advantages of video-conferencing: It enables several people to work from home
and is not very expensive once the conference is in session. “A video conference
is a set of interactive telecommunication technologies which allow two or more
locations to interact via two-way video and audio transmissions simultaneously.”
Disadvantages: If the internet malfunctions during the conference, communication
can be lost and it is also expensive to buy the initial equipment.


Technology has had many advantages on society. For example, people can
now work from home using ICT, which reduces the amount of traffic on the roads,
which, in turn, has a positive effect on the environment due to a reduce in the use
of petrol.
Also, it gives disabled people more confidence to work for themselves and enable
them to make new friends.
In addition, there will be more skilled workers for the labour force.
However, there are also disadvantages.
There are not enough jobs available as it is, but even more workers means more
people seeking jobs.
As a result of working from home, jobs are lost in the sales of petrol, cars and
also mechanics that are needed to fix the cars.


As well as having a positive effect on society, technology also effects
disabled people. For instance, technology would make it easier for the disabled
people to get jobs. In addition, the technology can help make those disabled
more skilled.
The skills gained by the technology also increase the disabled people’s
confidence which in turn can help them get further jobs in the future.
On the other hand, there are also disadvantages:
Because the disabled people are using technology and not interacting with
others, this will decrease their people skills which can affect them in their future
lives. Also, the disabled people would be isolated at home, which could cause
unhappiness with the job which would decrease the standard of work.




                                                                                  153
Sustainability and recycling (Grade C)

   1) What is a Smart bin?

Wheelie bins with microchips which measure how much rubbish they contain could
be introduced to make householders cut down on their waste.




   2) How does a smart bin encourage people to recycle?

People could be charged according to the size of their bin or of their rubbish bags
which they would buy from the local authority. The proposals would mean the more
they recycled the less they paid.




You will now be tested on what you have learned.
Record your score in the results section of your
workbook.




                                                                                 154
Surveillance society (Grade C-A*)

   1) List the ways you are watched and monitored using ICT. Fully explain each
      point.
    CCTV—you are viewed up to 300 times a day, monitor shoplifters, face
      recognition of criminals.
    Number plate recognition-recognise number plates for speed cameras,
      congestion charge
    Mobile phone-Your signal can be used to track where you are. Can be used
      to catch criminals or for parents to monitor their children’s location.
    Credit cards-Monitor what you buy and where. Banks may contact you if
      irregular spending takes place. This is to ensure it is you who is using your
      card.
    Satellites-Can monitor us from the skies e.g. Google earth
    Sky +-Can monitor what type of programmes we watch
    Work call monitoring-means managers can check what employees are saying.
      Can be used for training or to make sure workers aren’t making personal calls
    Key logging-Everything typed on your keyboard can be monitored
    Cookies-Track what websites you have been on. They help companies
      gather information about you.



      http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/this-britain/britain-becoming-a-big-
      brother-society-says-data-watchdog-446700.html
   2) Explain why some people are worried by this surveillance

       Lack of freedom, constantly being monitored, invasion of privacy.



       http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_database

   3) What is a national database? Give some examples of national databases,
      their purpose, and what information they collect.

A national database is where the government holds lots of information about people.
For example: -

      National DNA database-holds information on some criminals. Police can use
       this information to catch criminals e.g. checking by fingerprints, dna etc.
      Oyster cards-track peoples movement on public transport.
      London congestion charge monitors all car number plates. It is used to
       charge people for driving through London. It knows all the details of a vehicle
       from the number plate e.g. model engine size and who is insured to drive it.



                                                                                   155
   Regulation and investigatory powers act-allows the government to browse
    telephone, email and fax without reason or permission.



   http://www.teach-
   ict.com/as_a2/topics/crime_and_ict/miniweb_crime_types/pg_5.htm
4) What are the consequences of identity theft?

    Somebody can impersonate you. Suddenly bills start turning up for things that
    they never bought - holidays, new credit cards, hotel bills, car loans, direct
    debits from their bank account. It is seriously bad news!.




                                                                                     156
ICT and the environment
   1) How is ICT used to monitor the earth? Why is this done?




      Click here
   2) What negative effects do ICT have on the environment?

Devices which emit heat e.g. televisions, DVD players, SKY+ boxes, phones and
computers contribute to global warming.




   3) How has ICT helped with climate change?

ICT monitoring the planet has provided useful data on climate change. It has helped
set targets for countries such as carbon emissions.




   4) How can ICT help with disaster relief?It can send countries early warnings
      about impending disaster such as tsunamis, earth quakes, volcanic eruptions
      etc. This could allow a country to act before the event and save lives.




                                                                                157
   5) How can ICT reduce the need for Air and road travel?

Video conferencing instead of flying or driving..




   6) How can ICT reduce paper e.g. letters and bills?

Online billing, email, text messages, instant messaging.



   7) What are intelligent transport systems and how can they help the
      environment?

Parking guidance systems can reduce petrol by guiding you to the closest space.
Satellite navigation can get you to place so you don’t get lost and use more petrol
trying to find somewhere. Congestion charge can reduce cars on the road.




                                                                                      158
ICT and the developing world (Grade C/B)

   1) What differences might you find between ICT in this country and in poorer
      countries?

Lack of technology e.g. TV, phones, internet. No businesses using ICT e.g. tills,
databases, spreadsheets etc.




   2) In what ways can ICT be useful in developing countries?

Communication e.g. mobile phones, internet, email, improve health care, make
businesses more efficient, create jobs.




You will now be tested on what you have learned.
Record your score in the results section of your
workbook.




                                                                                    159
3.4 Collaborative Working
Collaborative working

    1) What is collaborative working?

People working together in a team to complete a project



    2) Explain how the project manager, System analyst, system designer,
       programmer (or team which creates the system) and tester work together to
       complete projects.

       The project manager is in charge of the entire project. They monitor and
        coordinate every aspect of the project for initial concept to delivery (think of
        the PM on the apprentice). They manage the staff, plan the project and the
        timescales, coordinate problem solving, manage the budget, control the
        documentation and are the point of contact for clients.
       The systems analyst discusses with the customer, what they want, what they
        currently do and any problems with their current system. They then liaise with
        the team to help create the best solution.
       The systems designer designs and creates a plan which has enough detail for
        the rest of the team to create.
       The programmer creates the system.
       The tester will test the system to ensure there are no errors.

.

http://www.teach-
ict.com/gcse_new/communication/comm_methods/miniweb/pg15.htm

    3) What is video conferencing and how can this help with collaborative learning?
       Give some advantages and disadvantages.

Video conferencing is something which allows people in different locations to
communicate with each other. In business this is called conference calling. The
advantage of this is people do not have to travel to meetings by cars or planes. This
reduces costs and environmental damage. However people cannot communicate
face to face and something’s cannot be shown properly on a video screen.




    4) Give examples of when collaboration takes place in business and education?


                                                                                     160
Any project in a business that more than one person works on is collaborative
working. Even somewhere like McDonalds uses collaborative working. One person
cooks the food; one person puts it in bags and on the food racks and one person
serves the customers. In school you often work collaboratively. Every time you
undertake a project were you work in a team you are working collaboratively. When
you have teachers and teaching assistants in your classroom they are working
collaboratively. When you work on cross curricular projects your teacher is working
collaboratively with teachers from another department..




      Click here
   5) What is the purpose of project management tools?

Project management tools help you plan and schedule your prject.




   6) What is a Gantt chart and what does its purpose?

A Gantt chart lets you plan how long each task on a project will take.




   7) What is a PERT chart and what does its purpose?

A PERT chart lets you see how tasks within a project are linked. This lets you set
time scales on when tasks need to be finished. This is important as If you get this
wrong, people could be waiting to start another task which is dependent on a task
which has yet to be finished.




   8) What are critical path methods and why would they be used?

This lets you identify critical tasks within a project. This helps set the timescale for
tasks and indeed the whole project. Some tasks cannot be started until critical ones
are finished.




                                                                                      161
   http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/visio-help/about-shared-workspaces-
   HP001041456.aspx
9) What is a Shared workspace? Give an example of when you have used a
   shared workspace.
   A shared workspace is a computer which is connected to a network. Several
   users can then use this computer. They can access their own and shared
   files from it. The computers you use in school are shared workspaces.




                                                                          162
Communication devices (Grade C)

  1) What is SMS?

  SMS stands for Small Message Service. Every mobile phone operator provides
  this facility where you can send text messages of up to 160 characters from your
  mobile phone.

  Most often you send an SMS message to another mobile. But now there are also
  SMS gateway sites on the internet that allow you to send and receive SMS
  messages from your web browser

  2) What is instant messaging?

  Instant messaging lets people send instant messages (text-based conversation)
  to each other over a Network, such as the Internet using instant messaging
  software.


  3) What is a fax?

  Short for Electronic Facsimilie.

  It is a method of transmitting paper documents electronically.

  The way it works is you feed the sheet of paper you want to send, into the fax
  machine. The machine then scans the document to produce an electronic data
  file.

  The data file is then sent to another Fax machine by telephone line, which reads
  it. The machine will use the data to print out a simlar sheet to the original.

  The handy thing about a Fax machine over email is that it can capture an image
  of a signature or a hand drawing.


  4) What is e-mail?

  Email is short for 'Electronic Mail'.

  Electronic mail is a form of communication where text based messages are
  exchanged by using computers attached to a network

  5) What is a chat room?

  A chat room is a virtual place on the Internet where people can get together and
  talk. They use programs which allow real time chat to take place such as MSN.



                                                                                   163
Although chat rooms can be a great place to 'socialise' and catch up with friends,
many concerns have been raised over their misuse by people pretending to be
someone other than themselves.


6) What is a forum?

A 'Forum' was originally a place for ancient Greeks to talk to one another. Now
the word is used to describe a web site that allows people to write messages to
one another.

There are 'public forums' where anyone can read the messages and there are
'private forums' where you need to belong to the forum group to read messages.

Forums are often split into discussion groups in order to help people find just the
topic they need rather than ploughing through hundreds of irrelevant postings.

You 'post' a message to a Forum and each message is called a 'posting'.

A 'thread' is a series of postings that originate from one original post.

A 'flame' is an insulting post.

A 'troll' is someone who maliciously sends flames in order to cause arguments

A 'lurker' is someone who reads posts but never sends any.

A 'moderator' is someone who decides which posts can appear on the Forum,
they are usually looking to block inappropriate topics or language.

If you happen to have a server and database available then there are many free
Forum packages that you can use to set up a Forum. For example the Open
Source PHPbb is very popular.


7) What is a bulletin board?

A bulletin board is a place where messages can be posted, read and replied to
on virtually every subject you can think of.

The messages are stored in order of the date they were posted and a all of the
previous replies are shown as a hierarchy of message titles.

Bulletin boards have more or less been superceded by forums.



8) What is VoIP/Skype?


                                                                                 164
VoIP, or Voice over Internet Protocol, is the routing of voice conversations through
the internet or another IP-type network. Therefore VoIP calls are often free apart
from the cost of being connected to the internet.


   9) What is video conferencing?

A video conference is a 'meeting' between two or more people who are in seperate
geographical locations.

It is made possible by the use of video monitors, specialist software, fast broadband
connection and /or satellite technology.

People in different locations are able to see and hear one another and thus hold a
meeting as if they were in the same room.


   10) How can these communications devices aid collaborative working?


They allow people to communicate without being in the same location. This allows
people to complete tasks together even if they are in different parts of the world.
Information can still be shared electronically quickly and easily in a matter of
seconds..




                                                                                     165
Sharing Information and online safety


  1) When working collaboratively in the workplace people often need to share
     files. Give examples of how you can make it easier for people to find and
     access the correct files.
   Give files sensible names
   Save files as different versions so people know which the most up to date one
     is.
   Use sensible folder names.

  2) How can files in a shared workspace be protected so that only certain people
     can view or alter them?

           Password protect files
           Make files read only.


  3) When working collaboratively you may share people’s personal information.
     The data protection act tells you your responsibilities regarding using and
     protecting peoples personal details (see 3.3.1 if you need reminding of these).
     Give examples of measures you could take to ensure you keep this data
     secure.
   Encrypt work
   Password protect work.
   Have firewalls on the network to deter hackers
   Keep backups of work.




                                                                                 166
Advantages and disadvantages of collaborative home working. (Grade C)


  1) What are the advantages of collaborative home working?

     Reduced travelling costs
     Protects the environment


  2) What are the disadvantages of collaborative home working?

     Limits face to face contact
     Distractions can affect work e.g. T.V, Kids, people knocking on the door,
      problems getting up
     Removes social interaction with colleagues
     Can lead to isolation.




You will now be tested on what you have learned.
Record your score in the results section of your
workbook.




                                                                                  167
  Test Scores



  Record your test scores in the table below.

Section 3.1                                    Marks A*   A    B    C    D OR    Your    Your    Incorrect
                                                                         BELOW
                                                                                 score   Grade   answers
                                                                                                 numbers
Section 1 hardware and software                19    16   14   12   10   <10
Storage devices                                28    23   20   17   14   <14
Networks                                       13    11   9    8    7    <7
Mobile technologies                            3     3    3    2    2    <2
Computer systems                               9     9    8    7    6    <6
Identify ICT problems and solve errors         3     3    3    2    2    <2
Emerging Technologies                          3     3    3    2    2    <2
Entertainment Systems                          8     8    7    6    4    <4
Reliability of sources                         14    12   10   9    7    <7
Impact of communications technology            13    11   10   9    7    <7
Section 3.2
Systems life cycle Systems life cycle part 2   6     5    5    4    3    <3
Quality of information                         14    12   10   9    7    <7
Input, Process, Output                         11    9    8    7    6    <6
Verification and Validation                    16    13   11   10   8    <8
Accuracy and Plausibility of information       7     6    5    4    4    <4
Data collection                                8     7    6    5    4    <4
RFDI and Biometrics                            12    10   9    7    6    <6
Reviewing and modifying work                   7     6    5    4    4    <4
Operating systems                              18    15   13   11   9    <9
User interface                                 6     5    5    4    3    <3
Encoding data                                  6     5    5    4    3    <3
Compression                                    3     3    3    2    2    <2
Web browsing and Email                         16    13   11   10   8    <8
Web logs and social networking                 34    28   24   21   17   <17
Data logging and control software              8     8    7    6    4    <4
Section 3.3
Data protection act                            29    23   20   17   15   <15
Computer misuse act                            7     6    5    4    4    <4
Copyright law                                  5     5    4    3    3    <3
Health and safety at work                      9     9    8    7    6    <6
Ecommerce                                      24    19   17   15   12   <12
ICT and industry                               10    8    7    6    5    <5
Acceptable ICT use                             10    8    7    6    5    <5
Abuse of email                                 10    8    7    6    5    <5
Netiquette                                     13    11   9    8    7    <7
Accessibility                                  25    20   18   15   10   <10

                                                                                           168
Sustainability and recycling            2     2    2    1    1    <1
Political and ethical issues            22    18   16   13   11   <11
ICT and the environment                 11    9    8    7    6    <6
Impact of ICT on different peoples      4     4    3    3    2    <2
Section 3.4
Collaboration and video conferencing    17    14   12   10   9    <9
Communication devices                   11    9    8    7    6    <6
Sharing information and online safety   9     9    8    7    6    <6
Advantages and disadvantages of         6     5    5    4    3    <3
collaborative home working
Mock Exams
Mock exam                               120   96   84   72   60   <60
Mock exam 1 Foundation                  90    72   63   54   45   <45
Mock exam 2 higher                      90    72   63   54   45   <45




                                                                        169
List below your weakest areas based on your test results. This will
help you see what areas you need to spend particular attention on
before your final exam.

Unit (e.g. 3.1)                    Task (e.g. input devices)




                                                                  170

				
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