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I would like to introduce myself briefly


									Presentation IPDA conference 2007                                   Complete

Anja Swennen

1. Introduction
I would like to introduce myself briefly. First of all: I am and have been a teacher
educator for the larger part of my career. For nine years I taught Dutch, as a mother
tongue language and second language, in primary teacher education. From 1998 I
work at the Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam at the Centre for Education, where I
started as a teacher educator for teachers in secondary education and now I am a
teacher educator for teachers in higher education. Our institute also offers several
educational services to the university and as such I support educational innovations
of faculties or groups of teachers within the faculty. In that respect I am an in-
service educator.
I am interested in my own professional group, teacher educators, and my current
research is about the development of the professional identity of teacher educators.
Although I acknowledge and experience the difference between pre service teacher
educators and in-service teacher educators I also see similarities. In this
presentation I will concentrate on the similarities between the two professions that
are so often united in one person, rather than the differences.
There is no profession for which it is more important to Teach as they Preach as
educators of teachers and my presentation is about this aspect of our work that is
so vital to who we are.
The theme of this conference is „Empowering the Educators‟. From the Dutch
equivalent of the word „educator‟ I first assumed that the word „educator‟ was meant
to indicate teachers in higher education, like in „teacher educator‟ or „in-service
educator‟ and the notion „Empowering the educators‟ referred to empowering you as
in-service educators. However, I learned that the word refers to al kind of people
who are involved in all sorts of education. For my presentation however, I will use
the word educator to indicate the educators of teacher, both the pre service teacher
educators and the in-service educators.
I shall use the word education or educate and refer to teaching in higher education
or I use the word teaching. I use both words in a broad sense, lecturing is only one
aspect of the work of teachers, supervising learning and practice, support groups of
learners, assess students etcetera are just a few other tasks that are important.


Anja Swennen, Professional Development: Teach as you Preach                   complete
IPDA conference, Belfast, 2007
2. Overview of the presentation
To understand what it means to be an educator and what it means to be an educator
in present-day complex educational context it is good to examine our history. As far
as I know there has been little to no research into teacher educators and I am quite
sure the same is true about in service educators. To become a powerful our
profession needs its own history. However after I had written this short history I
noticed that I had 45 minutes to speak and not one hour and as you can read the
history for yourself I asked Roger to put the full PowerPoint presentation and the full
text on the site.
I am interested in „us‟, the educators of teacher, and I will first talk about some of
the characteristics of our profession.
I also wanted to become familiar with today‟s audience, with you, and I decided to
perform a small informal study. I analysed the Journal of in Service Education, the
Journal of the IPDA to see what your views and approaches are, to see what you
preach and teach. I do not want to reveal too much of the results, but I can tell you
that the research about you as a professional group and about your pedagogy is
I will than discuss an approach that is specifically for the education of teachers and
which I call Congruent Education.

3. 1806 - 1936: from work place teacher education to teacher’s colleges
To understand who the teacher educators and in-service educators are it is
important to look briefly at our history. Throughout Europe, and beyond, we see
different educational developments, but if we overlook the larger historical pattern
the similarities are striking. There is a lot to say about the history of education,
teachers and educators, but for now it is enough to see that there are three main
stage, that overlap for the large part, because change in education do develop over
a long period of time and differently in different countries , cities and even schools
in cities.

Later than in many other European countries the education of primary teachers in
The Netherlands was regulated in the primary school law in 1806. Still the most
unusual way to become a primary teacher was to work in a primary school under a


Anja Swennen, Professional Development: Teach as you Preach                   complete
IPDA conference, Belfast, 2007
head teacher and learn the trade from him (primary teaching was a men‟s job).
Slowly but surely normal schools were set up and some teacher‟s colleges. The
latest, more formal way of educating primary teachers, was to become the main
stream and in the law of 1920 it was decided that in 1936 the normal schools had to
vanish or change into teacher‟s colleges. Teacher education was no longer practice
based, but subject based. The teacher educators were no longer the head of the
primary school, but a teacher with a teaching diploma for secondary education.
In the early days there was no in service education as we n\know it today. But there
was, at least in The Netherlands, a very interesting phenomenon. With some support
of the government groups of primary head teachers and teachers were formed in
„Teacher society‟. The Dutch words indicate of formal group of people who come
together for study and learning. These groups of teachers met on a regular bases to
discuss new developments in primary teaching, to study and to exchange
From 1850 on primary teachers who wanted to move on with their career studied at
teacher education institute for a diploma for lower secondary education and at large
institutes for secondary education to get a diploma for middle or higher secondary


Anja Swennen, Professional Development: Teach as you Preach               complete
IPDA conference, Belfast, 2007
4. From subject based teacher education to subject pedagogy based teacher
With the development of the teacher‟s colleges teacher education became
increasingly „academic‟ and thereby „subject based‟. Secondary teacher education
had always been subject based in the Netherlands. Teachers in grammar school had
a master diploma and primary teachers who wanted to become teachers in
secondary education studied for a teaching diploma that was exclusively subject
based. This was consistent with the view that a good teacher is someone who knows
his or (later) her subject well.
Thinking about teacher education changed after World War II and slowly but surely
the teaching of pedagogy and subject pedagogy became dominant in teacher
education. This was not to say that teacher education had to be useful for the
practice of future teachers; it was not about teaching how to teach. Good teachers
knew how to teach their subject well, but had to implement the ideas learned at the
teacher education institute when they worked as teachers.

Parallel to this development the views on teaching and learning began to change. I
will not go into these changes, for now it is enough that, as you will recognize, the
emphasis is much more on learning and a good teacher is now someone who is able
to support the learning of his or her pupils or students. In teacher education, now
often school based, teacher educators support the student teachers in their learning
to become teachers who support their pupils learning. This has many implications
for the pedagogy of teacher education.

The history of in-service educators may even more complicated compared to that of
teacher education, because in-service education often was and is ahead of
developments that will take place in education. Nevertheless, I think, at least in the
Dutch situation, we see the same large pattern as in teacher education. At the time
that teacher education was subject based, there was limited in-service education.
After World War II national and local institutes of in-service education were founded
and in-service education was blooming business. These in-service educators
developed courses about subject, education in general, but mostly about subject
pedagogy. Although teachers gathered together for such courses, the learning was
highly individual.


Anja Swennen, Professional Development: Teach as you Preach                 complete
IPDA conference, Belfast, 2007
Nowadays in-service education has changed and in-service educators develop
programs (if at all) that meet the needs of teachers, mostly as a group or as a team
and support the learning of the teachers.

All in all our work has become more complicated, because teachers still have to be
experts in their subject, know how to teach their subjects well and they have to
support the learning of their pupils and students. And in-service educators have to
support all that.

5. Teachers of teachers
The notion „second order teaching‟ is coined by a colleague of Helen Mitchell, Jean
Murray. Murray and Male (2005) make a distinction between first order teachers or
practitioners as she calls them and second order teachers, the teacher educators. It
is important to understand that the knowledge of teachers is for the greater part
tacit and cannot easily be made explicit. Moreover this knowledge is closely
connected to practice the context of the teacher‟s work as well as to their individual
views of teachers about teaching and learning. As second order practitioners teacher
educators induct their students into the practices and discourses of both school
teaching and teacher education. When teacher educators do so they have to
understand and be explicit about teaching and in particular about their own views
and practice.

6. (Teacher) educators are second order teachers
Based on what I have just overview we can argue that (Teacher) educators are
second order teachers and as such a professional group with own their views,
pedagogy and methods.

7. TASK 1
If you are second order practitioners you should be able to formulate your own view
on teaching and this brings us to the first task. I could not find the precise
translation for the Dutch word I had in mind, so I wrote down all the translations I
could find in the dictionary. Try to formulate in one or two sentences: What is the
most important idea/ notion/view/conception about good teaching that you want
teachers to embrace? Keep in mind: not good education in general (like give equal


Anja Swennen, Professional Development: Teach as you Preach                  complete
IPDA conference, Belfast, 2007
opportunities to all children), but teaching. Then write down the three most
important methods or approaches, if methods is to narrow that you think teachers
should give form to this idea? If this is not possible formulate your own idea and
methods or approaches. Keep in mind that by „teaching‟ I mean everything teachers
do to support the learning of their pupils or students.
 What do you preach?
 What is the most important idea/ notion/view/conception about good teaching
    you want to encourage in teachers?
 How do you teach?
 What are the three best methods or approaches teachers can use to give form to
    this idea?


Anja Swennen, Professional Development: Teach as you Preach               complete
IPDA conference, Belfast, 2007
8. What do you preach and teach?
The study I did of the IPDA Journal was based on three questions
 What do you preach?
 How do you teach?
 What is written about in-service educators?

9. Five volumes of the Journal of In-Service Education
I analysed the last five volumes of the IPDA Journal, a total of real 131 articles. Not
the editorial, book reviews or research notes in the volumes. 131 are a lot, but I
quite a few articles, because they did not contribute to my questions. first of all you
and your colleagues write a lot about newly qualified teachers, training schools or
professional development schools. As these require different methods and
approaches I left them out. The same is true of educating head teachers.
I also left out all the non UK articles, although some times with pain in my heart.
The number of foreign articles shows how international your journal is. You also
give a lot of space to authors from developing countries, which I was glad to notice.
Furthermore I left out articles that were evaluations, descriptions of in-service
situations and about policy. And I left out three articles that did not relate to
teachers, but for instance fire workers. That tidied up quite a lot.

10.    What do your preach= 4
Based on the titles four articles seem to discuss the views or general method of in-
service educators. Two of them are more about teachers then educators, but two
articles are about the concepts of in-service educators. They discuss various
concepts of in-service education. You will find them in the pp presentation on the
web site.

11.    How do you teach? = 19
In this overview you find the various methods and approaches that are described in
the journal. I use the word method here in a broad sense: it is your approach or your
pedagogy. Sometimes, as in Cognitive apprenticeship, the border between view and
approach is very thin.
These approaches are the part of your work that teachers can observe. There may
have been many more approaches that are mentioned in the 131 articles, but the


Anja Swennen, Professional Development: Teach as you Preach                  complete
IPDA conference, Belfast, 2007
methods I mention here were mentioned in the titles. As can be expected and based
on the latest views on teaching and learning in general collaboration and
communities are on the top of the list. Interesting is also that doing research is
more and more regarded as a means to develop. Two articles described Master
studies as a formal way of in-service education. As you will see in the historical part,
formal education either teaching diploma or a university degree were for very long
the most important ways of teachers to learn their trade and to develop. And in a
revised form this formal education for teachers is coming back.

12.    What is written in the Journal about in-service educators?
The last question was: Who are the in-service educators? Those who have counted
with me, no the answer: there are no contributions that deal specifically about in-
service educators.

13.    Why?
On the whole we can say that being a teacher educator or being an in-service
educator is not a clearly defined job that one can easily identify with, not like being
a doctor or a lawyer. We see them on television shawls all the time. All the
professions mentioned are easier to talk to on parties and have on the whole more
status. It may be appealing for different reasons to identify with teachers, teachers
in higher education or with advisors and consultants. Some authors could well be
full time researchers or prefer to identify with researchers.

14.    What does it mean for us?
I believe that it is important for educators of teachers to have a broad identity that
may include parts of the several professions mentioned. Our work is strongly related
to the work of teachers, and we may ourselves be teachers in higher education.
Some of us will also be researchers. This makes the work of educators complex and
Educator who identify with teachers, and do not acknowledge that they are second
order practioners will want to teach their subject or teach about teaching. They will
not develop methods or approaches that are suitable for adult and experience


Anja Swennen, Professional Development: Teach as you Preach                 complete
IPDA conference, Belfast, 2007
In-service educators that identify with advisors and consultants will develop
methods that belong to those groups. There is nothing wrong with that as long as
one is aware of the fact that one is educating teachers and not personnel of a
hospital. I would prefer the knowledge base of teachers and that of teacher
educators and in-service educators to be the basis of the work of educators. For
several reasons that I will explain I think that we should use all the tools and
instruments we can get, including chalk, but also use ourselves as a „tool‟ to
educator teachers.

15.    Congruent Education
One of the means to work as a second order practioners is congruent education.
Congruent education means that the view and methods of educators are consistent
with the view and teaching approach they want to encourage in teachers. The
notion of congruent Education was first coined by two in-service educators in The
Netherlands (Kok & Coonen, ***). I have experienced that trying to be congruent in
your work as educator and thinking about it can give more power to educators, but
it is not a solution to problems not an all inclusive approach to the complexity of
our work. Although I see the benefits of Congruent Education I also see that it has
its drawbacks and problems. I will not discuss these now, but you can find them in
the power point on the web site..
Sometimes people understand Congruent Education to be what I call ´playing
school´. They give their student teachers the same tasks in the same way as they
expect them to work with their pupils and students. How useful this can be at
certain moment, for example have the teachers make the final exams of the pupils.
But Congruent Education is much more then that.

16.    Congruent Education
First of all, and I will discuss these concepts in a minute, the educator has to be able
to model good teaching, to be explicit about it and legitimize it.

17.    Model
Modelling means that you show how something is done. If a teacher educator
teaches he or she always models teaching, but not always their own views or main
approaches. If you think that teachers should support the learning of pupils then


Anja Swennen, Professional Development: Teach as you Preach                  complete
IPDA conference, Belfast, 2007
support the teaching of the teachers on the level of the teachers. Congruent
education then has several levels.
I do not know if you know the work of John Loughran, but he has interesting and
challenging view on how to educate teachers. I chose this fragment because it
shows very clearly that modelling is not just „showing how to teach well‟ or
„Teaching to be imitated‟. It is also ´showing´ in constant dialogue with teachers
how your work as teacher educator and in/service educator relates to the work of
But do not underestimate the power of being able to show teachers and to let them
experience, albeit on a different level, complex approaches that you saw on the list,
like learning in a community, learning by collaboration, doing research as a means
of development. But showing is not enough. The teacher educator I studied were
very good teacher educators, but most their students told me they had never
thought about their teacher educators as models and that they had never
recognized their teachers as good teachers until I asked them about this.

18.    Be explicit
John Loughran sees dialogue as being part of modelling, while I make it a different
element of congruent education and I call it to be explicit about you teaching. Kari
smith gives a very good definition. To be explicit is different then to explain in my
understanding of the words. Educators who are explicit about their work know what
they are doing and why they are doing it. In this respect they also differ from first
order teachers whose knowledge is mostly tacit and intuitive. Only then can there be
a true dialogue about teaching that is related to the work of the educator and to that
of the teachers.

19.    Legitimize
To model complex forms of education and to be explicit is difficult enough, but I
also find it important that educators can relate their own work with teachers to
theory that is known by teachers or should be known by them. By doing that you can
build a bridge between the formal theories in the literature and the daily practice of
teachers. You can show that theory influences your work and, because you have to
be explicit about it, show teachers how you learn form theory and how it influences
your work and may help them to improve theirs or at least make them understand


Anja Swennen, Professional Development: Teach as you Preach                 complete
IPDA conference, Belfast, 2007
why they teach as they teach. The dialogue between educator and teachers, and
hopefully among teachers, can then be

20.    Task 2
Do you model consciously?
Are you explicit about your own way of working with teachers´?
Do you legitimize how you work with teachers?

21.    General results from my research?
In my former research I studied the congruent teaching of five teacher educators. I
will not go into the research. For now the general finding are important±
Sometimes the teacher educators said “I think of myself as a model when I teach,
but not often”. Hardly ever, according to themselves, they were explicit about their
own teaching. And never did they mention theory that was related to their own

22.    Third order teaching
In my view there should be more attention for the specific demands of the work of
educators to increase their skills and knowledge and to support them to relate their
work to that of teachers and to be congruent in their work with teachers and to
consciously model the views and approaches you want teachers to use.
I think it is also important to study the work of in-service educators, not only to
know more about the effects of their work on teachers, you write about that, but
also about the knowledge, skills, attitude of educators and the way they work with
teachers and how this effects the educators themselves. This can be done by the
same type of research you find useful for the development of the teachers: action
research and, I would like to add, self-study. Self-Study can be a means to carry out
small scale studies in collaboration with your colleagues and/or with teachers and to
be able to publish about your own work.


Anja Swennen, Professional Development: Teach as you Preach                 complete
IPDA conference, Belfast, 2007

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