The Human Body
Did you Know??!!
• When you sneeze all body functions stop, even your heart
• Your brain is 80% water
• A human has 60,000 miles of blood vessels in their body
• The lining of your digestive system is shed every 3 days
• More than half the bones in your body are found in your
hands and feet
• Everyone is colour blind at birth
• 1.7 litres of saliva is produced each day
• About 8 million blood cells die in the human body every
second, and the same number are born each second
1. THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM
2. THE SKELETAL SYSTEM
3. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
4. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
5. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
6. THE SENSES
1. How many muscles are there in
the human body?
• Answer: 640 Muscles
• Muscles band together to form muscle groups
which work together
• When the muscles contract, they pull on the
tendons which pull on the bones and cause our
limbs to move
• Muscles can be either voluntary or involuntary
(consider your arm vs. your heart which beats
60 to 80 beats every minute without you having
to think about it!)
• The longest muscle in the body is ___________
• Answer- The Sartorius
• The Sartorius runs from the outside of the hip, down and
across to the inside of the knee. It twists and pulls the
• The smallest muscle in the body is __________
• Answer- The Stapedius
• The Stapedius is located deep in the ear. It is only 5mm
long and thinner than cotton thread. It is involved in
• The biggest muscle in the body is __________
• Answer- The Gluteus Maximus
• The Gluteus Maximus is located in the buttock. It pulls the
leg backwards powerfully for walking and running.
There are about 60 muscles in the face.
Smiling is easier than frowning.
It takes 20 muscles to smile and over 40 to frown.
• How many bones are there in the human
• Answer: 206 Bones
• When you were born, your skeleton had
around 350 bones. By the time you become
an adult, you will only have 206 bones. This
is because, as you grow, some of the bones
join together to form one bone.
Inside a Bone-
• Our bones are alive- they have their own nerves
and blood vessels, and they do various jobs, such
as storing body minerals.
• A typical bone has an outer layer of hard or
compact bone, which is very strong, dense and
• Inside this is a layer of spongy bone, which is like
honeycomb, lighter and slightly flexible.
• In the middle of some bones is jelly-called bone
marrow, where new cells are constantly being
produced for the blood.
• The Skeleton is the name given to the
collection of bones that holds the rest of
our body up. Our skeleton is very
important to us. It does three major jobs:
1. It protects our vital organs such as the brain, the
heart and the lungs.
2. It gives us the shape that we have. Without our
skeleton, we would just be a blob of blood and
tissue on the floor.
3. It allows us to move. Because our muscles are
attached to our bones, when our muscles move,
they move the bones, and we move.
• Most of the calcium in your
body is stored in your bones
• Exercise and a good diet help
to keep bones strong
• Vitamin D helps you absorb
calcium so that your bones
can stay strong
• Sources of vitamin D include
milk, salmon, cereal, beef and
• When bones break they can
heal themselves, and they are
stronger when they heal than
they were before they were
Who discovered the X-ray?
• Wilhelm Roentgen, a physicist at the University of
Wursburg, Germany, discovered radiation “X-rays” on
November 8, 1895. This discovery altered the course
• Roentgen refused to patent his discovery or realize
financial gain from it, preferring instead that the world
benefit from his research.
• Many fields have emerged in Diagnostic Imaging
since Roentgen’s discovery. The science has
expanded to include General Imaging, CT Scan,
Nuclear Medicine, Ultrasound and MR1
• A Medical Radiologic Technologist works with a
wide range of machines, film processing units, and
accessory equipment to produce and record
images for visualizing the extent of disease or
injury to a patient.
• A radiograph (X-ray) may be a routine film of the
chest or a broken finger or it may form part of
the sophisticated examinations used in the
detection of heart, blood vessel, or brain
• Check out www.sait.ca and find out about
the different programs offered at SAIT
that focus on
– General Imaging
– CT Scan
– Nuclear Medicine
• Medical Radiologic Technologist
• TRIVIA! How many months for this diploma?
– Answer: Medical Radiologic Technology is a 21 month diploma
• Nuclear Medicine Technologist
• TRIVIA! What are the employment statistics?
– Answer: Graduates enjoyed a 100% employment rate
• Diagnostic Medical Sonographer
• TRIVIA! What are the education requirements?
– Answer: A High School Diploma, with over 60% in English 30,
Bio 30, Math 30/31, Physics 30 and Chemistry 20.
Did you know?!
The average person has 4-5 litres of blood
• The blood is the transport system by
which oxygen and nutrients reach the
body's cells, and waste materials are
• In addition, blood carries substances
called hormones, which control body
processes, and antibodies to fight
Red blood cells carry oxygen from the
lungs to all the cells of the body while
White blood cells are like soldiers
protecting the body.
• ARTERIES are vessels that carry
blood ____________ the heart.
• VEINS are vessels that carry blood
_________ the heart.
• Your heart is a muscle about the size of your clenched fist.
• It is located in the left side of your chest, behind your rib
cage and between your lungs
• It has thick muscular walls and is divided into two pumps.
• Blood from the right side pump is dark red (bluish) and low in
• This dark red blood travels along pulmonary arteries to the
lungs where it receives fresh supplies of oxygen and
becomes bright red.
• The bright red blood then flows along pulmonary veins back
to the heart's left side pump
• Blood leaves the left side of the heart and travels through
arteries which gradually divide into capillaries.
• In the capillaries, food and oxygen are released to the body
• The blood then travels in veins back to the right side of the
heart, and the whole process begins again.
Did You Know??!!
Blood is a liquid organ
The heart beats around 3 billion times in
the average person's life
• Your blood pressure is the measure of the force of blood as
it flows through the arteries of the cardiovascular system
Within a tiny droplet of blood, there are
some 5 million red blood cells, 300 000
platelets and 10 000 white cells.
• It takes about 20 seconds for a red blood cell to circle the
» Microscopic View of Blood Cells
About how many red blood
cells are there in one drop
• There are about 5,000,000 Red
Blood Cells in ONE drop of blood.
• Medical Laboratory Assistants
– Collect, Prepare and process patient specimens
• TRIVIA! What does phlebotomy mean?
– Answer: Collecting Blood
• Medical Laboratory Technologists
– Responsible for a broad spectrum of lab testing and
procedures to diagnose, treat and prevent disease
• TRIVIA! This is Canada’s ___ largest
group of health care professionals
– Answer: They are Cananda’s 3rd Largest group of health care
The Digestive System
What have you EATEN today??
• Food provides us with fuel to live, energy
to work and play, and the raw materials to
build new cells.
• All the different varieties of food we eat
are broken down by our digestive system
and transported to every part of our body
by our circulatory system.
–We eat about 500kg of
food A Year!
• The main part of the digestive system is
the digestive tract.
• This is like a long tube, some nine metres
in total, through the middle of the body.
• It starts at the mouth, where food and
drink enter the body, and finishes at the
anus, where leftover food and wastes leave
• Every day 11.5 litres of digested food,
liquids and digestive juices flow through
the digestive system, but only 100mls is
lost as waste.
• The Mouth- Teeth bite off and chew
food which mixes it with watery
saliva, from 6 salivary glands around
the mouth and face
• The Oesophagus- A muscular tube
that takes food from the mouth to
– Food moves through the oesophagus by a
muscular movement know as
» This means that even if you stand on your
head, food will still reach your stomach!
• The stomach has a thick muscular wall that contracts to mash up
• Stomach acids and enzymes begin to break down the nutrients in
the food we eat, particularly the proteins
• The liquefied contents of the stomach enter the small intestine
for further processing
• As the food is digested in the small intestine it is dissolved into
the juices from the pancreas, liver, and intestine,
• The contents of the intestine are mixed and pushed forward to
allow further digestion and absorption of nutrients by the walls of
• The waste products of this process include undigested parts of
the food, known as fiber, and older cells shed from the lining of
the stomach and intestine.
• These materials are propelled into the colon, where they remain,
usually for a day or two, until the feces are expelled by a bowel
– It takes about 20-30 hours to digest
The Respiratory System
•The primary function of the
respiratory system is to supply
the blood with oxygen.
•The respiratory system does
this through breathing.
•When we breathe, we inhale
oxygen and exhale carbon
•When we inhale oxygen, it goes
into our lungs and is absorbed by
the blood stream
• Inside each of your sponge-like lungs, tubes,
called bronchi, branch into even smaller tubes
much like the branches of a tree. At the end of
these tubes are millions of tiny bubbles or sacs
• They exchange the oxygen for waste products,
like carbon dioxide, which the cells in your body
have made and can't use.
• Once they receive the oxygen, red blood cells
turn from purple to that beautiful red color as
they start carrying the oxygen to all the cells in
your body. *The branching out
of the aleoli
surface area which
in turn allows for
more oxygen to be
• When we eat, a flap called the
________ -- flops down to cover the
windpipe so that food doesn't go
down the wrong tube.
• ANSWER- ___________