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Freud _ Psychoanalysis

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Freud _ Psychoanalysis Powered By Docstoc
					       Sigmund Freud

       Psychoanalysis

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
   Investigations of Trauma

• 1880s – 1900    “hysterical” women
• post- W W I     “shell shock”
• Post – W W II   “combat neurosis”
• post- Vietnam   P.T.S.D.
  Trauma-Induced Syndrome
• Hyperarousal:    panic & anxiety
• Intrusive re-    flashbacks
  experiencing     “acting-out” trauma
                    in disguised form
• Constriction /   dissociation
  numbing          trance; altered states;
                   (often drug-aided)
         Dialectic of Trauma
• Oscillation of re-experiencing and
  constrictive defense:
  – Fits / outbursts:   epileptic-like seizures
                        violence
  – Amnesia:            forgetting, repression
  – Paralyses:          immobility
  – Losses of voice:    silencing
                        can’t describe trauma
Discovery of the Unconscious

        1775 - 1895
           Cast of Characters
•   Fr. Johann Gassner    • Phneas Parkhurst
•   Franz Mesmer            Quimby
•   Fr. Hell              • Mary Baker Eddy
•   Freulin Oesterlin     • Jean Charcot
•   Antoin LaVoisier      • Anna O
•   Joseph Guillotin       ( Bertha Pappenheim)
•   Ben Franklin          • Joseph Breuer
•   Marquis de Puysegur   • Sigmund Freud
     Father Johann Gassner
• Swiss country
  priest –
  renowned
  exorcist
  – Public healing
    spectacles
Fr. Johann
Gassner:

exorcism
 Father Johann Gassner
• 1775 Target of Papal inquiry:
   – Ruled unorthodox
   – Banished to small parish

• Last gasp of official exorcism
Franz Mesmer
             Franz Mesmer
• Viennese physician

• Thesis on effects of planets on illnesses:
  – Universal fluid   (like “ether”)
  – Planets set up tide that affects humans
         Franz Mesmer
• 1744 Treated Freulein Oesterlin:
  – Father Hell told of efforts to cure with
    magnetism
  – Periodic violent fits & crises
  – Related to planetary motion?
  – Tried liquid with iron filings & magnets
  – Felt “evil” feelings flow away
  – Cured & married Mesmer’s son
          Mesmer’s Theory
• Scientific – similar to electricity:
• Universal energy / fluid
• Disease:       imbalance, loss of fluid
• Cure:          channeling & restoring fluid
• Crises:        re-balance fluid
            Mesmer’s Theory
• Cures not due to
  magnets alone
• Energy / fluid
  concentrated in his
  body affects patients


“Animal Magnitism”
Baquet:

like Leyden Jar,
collects & stores
animal magnetic
fluid
Magnetic Healing in Paris
Mesmer as “Quack”?
Mesmerism as scandal
Mesmerism
as scandal
Mesmerism as scandal
Mesmerism as scandal
   1784 Royal Commission




LaVoisier   Franklin   Guillotin
 1784 Royal Commission
• No evidence of magnetic fluid

• Cures due to “imagination”

• Danger in erotic ties of women
  patients to magnetizer
After Royal the
Commission


Mesmerism eclipsed
by French revolution
& Napoleonic Wars
Louis Pinel unchains the insane
      Marquis de Puysegur
• Disciple of Mesmer
• Magnetized servant:
  – Hyper-alert sleep
  – Couldn’t remember after awakening

• Cured by “suggestion” during magnetic
  sleep
Puysegur
     Puysegur’s Theory
• “Artificial somnambulism”

• Not caused by magnetic fluid

• Brought about my magnetizer’s
  will & patient’s compliance
      Puysegur’s Theory
    “The entire doctrine of Animal
Magnetism is contained in the two
words Believe and Want. I believe that I
have the power to set into action the
vital principle of my fellow men; I want
to make use of it; this is all my science
and all my means. Believe and Want,
sirs, and you will do as well as I”
        Mid- 19th century
• Study of “mental illness”
• Study of “natural” magentic states
  – Fugue states
  – Amnesia
  – Multiple personality
Spiritism & Mediumship in U.S




 Phineas Quimby   Mary Baker Eddy
Christian Science Church, Boston
1880s: Jean Charcot
                Hysteria
• Epileptic-like fits, crises, convulsions
• Sensory impairments & paralyses
• Amnesia
• Charcot discovered:
  – Symptoms don’t follow anatomy
                               “glove hysteria”
  – Hypnotic suggestion could produce
    “artificial” hysterical symptoms
Charcot Demonstrating Hysteria
 Charcot’s Theory of Hysteria
• Hypnosis is abnormal state, due to
  defect in nervous system

• Traumatic event  hypnoid state (in
 those with defect)  inadvertant
 suggestion  hysterical symptom
Studies on Hysteria

 J. Breuer & S. Freud

        1895
Joseph Breuer & Anna O
Anna O
                Anna O
   She once woke up during the night in great
anxiety about the patient, who was in a high
fever; she was under the strain of expecting
the arrival of a surgeon from Vienna who was
to operate… Anna was sitting at the bedside
with her right arm over the back of her chair.
She fell into a waking dream and saw a black
snake coming towards the sick man from the
wall to bit him…
                  Anna O

     She tried to keep the snake off, but it was
as though she was paralyzed. Her right arm,
over the back of the chair, had gone to sleep
and had become anesthetic and paretic; and
when she looked it it the fingers turned into
little snakes with death’s heads…
                 Anna O
    When the snake vanished, in terror she
tried to pray. But language failed her; she
could find no tongue in which to speak, till at
last she thought of some children’s verses in
English and then found herself able to think
and pray in that language. The whistle of the
train that was bringing the doctor whom she
expected broke the spell.
                Anna O
   Next day, in the course of a game, she
threw a quoit into some bushes; and when she
went to pick it out, a bent branch revived her
hallucination of the snake, and simultaneously
her right arm became rigidly extended.
Thenceforward the same thing invariably
occurred whenever the hallucination was
recalled by some object with a more-or-less
snake-like appearance.
    Anna O: onset of cough
   She began coughing for the first time when
once, as she was sitting at her father’s
bedside, she heard the sound of dance music
coming from a neighboring house, felt a
sudden wish to be there, and was overcome
with self-reproaches. Thereafter, throughout
the whole length of her illness she reacted to
any markedly rhythmical music with a tussis
nervosa [nervous cough].
  Anna O: onset of cough
• Wish to leave father and join friends at
  dance
• Self-reproaches
• Cough as symptom


      “Incompatible Idea”
“Anna O”

Bertha
Pappenheim
          Transference
• Transference: Anna O had fallen in
  love with Dr. Breuer

• Counter-Transference: Dr. Breuer
  had fallen in love with Anna O

• Hysterical childbirth
       Bertha Pappenheim
• Suffered relapse, hospitalized
• As “Paul Berthold” translated
  Vindication of the Rights of Women
• Wrote play, “The Rights of Women”
• Director of orphanage; destitute girls
• Saved girls from prostitution
• Founder of social work and leader of
  women’s rights
         Bertha Pappenheim
• “Silenced” as dutiful daughter in conservative
  home?
• Tension intensified by father’s illness, nursing
  role, self-reproaches?
• “Talking cure” with Breuer helped cure her?
• Found voice in women’s movement

 Hysteria as pathological reaction to
 cultural silencing + personal trauma or
 incompatible idea?
        Summary
• Trauma:      painful memory
               incompatible idea

• Symptom:     “conversion” hysteria

• Treatment:   re-experiencing
Sigmund Freud
Martha
Bernays
Freud and his mother   Freud and his daughter
Freud’s Office
Hypnosis to Free Association
 • Freud was lousy hypnotist
 • Head pressing
   – Ideas often embarrassing, immoral,
     anti-social, sexual

 • Resistance
 • Free association
   – Excavating layers of mind/memory
Freud’s Couch
Freud’s
Antiquities
Only a cigar?
Freud in
exile, early
1930s
   1896 Etiology of Hysteria
• Recent event “traumatic” because it
  reawakened childhood trauma
• 18 cases: childhood seduction or
  molestation
• “Seduction theory” of hysteria
Seduction Theory of Hysteria
       In 1895 and 1896 Freud, in listening to
his women patients, learned that something
dreadful and violent lay in their past. The
psychiatrists who had heard these stories
before Freud had accused their patients of
being hysterical liars and had dismissed their
memories as fantasy. Freud was the first
psychiatrist who believed his patients were
telling the truth…
                Jeffrey Mason, Assault on Truth
  Seduction Theory of Hysteria
       Freud announced his discovery in a paper
which he gave in April 1896 to the Society for
Psychiatry and Neurology in Vienna, his first major
public address to his peers. The paper met with
total silence. Afterwards, he was urged never to
publish it, lest his reputation be damaged beyond
repair. The silence around him deepened, as did
his loneliness. But he defied his colleagues and
published “The Aetiology of Hysteria,” an act of
great courage.
                   Jeffrey Mason, Assault on Truth
  Reaction to “Etiology” Paper

• Freud discovers that one remembered
  seduction could not have occurred

• [ Today: “false memory syndrome” ]

• Freud officially abandons seduction theory

• Develops “theory of infantile sexuality”
  Psychoanalytic Theory
• Post-1896: self-analysis
• 1900 The Interpretation of Dreams
• 1905 Theory Infantile Sexuality
• 1905 Dora case:
     tries to convince Dora she lusts
 for Herr K
        Infantile Sexuality

• Libido: desire / drive / instinct for
  sensuous pleasure

• In children: diffuse, not explicitly
  sexual
            “polymorphous perversity”
      Infantile Sexuality

• Develops through stages toward
  “normal” adult heterosexuality
    Oral  Anal  Phallic / Oedipal

• Early developments must be
  repressed & sublimated
       Oral Stage (birth – 2)
• nursing, sucking
• pleasure: lips & mouth; satiety
• anxiety: hunger, abandonment

Oral character:
• Anxiety about nurturance, separation
• Eating, smoking, drinking to calm anxiety
• Passivity & Dependency
         Anal Stage (2 – 4)
• Defecation (control of sphincter)
• Pleasure: sensation of defecating,
  making messes, defiance
• Anxiety: dirtying, loss of control, chaos,
  fear of punishment
Anal character:
• Order, control, cleanliness, neatness
• Constrictive / impulsive emotional style
 Phallic / Oedipal Stage (5 – 7)
• Attachment to mother sexualized
• Punitive father threatens attachment to /
  dependence on mother
• Threat experienced as “castration anxiety”
• Sexualized attachment to mother
  repressed
• Identification with father – “masculinity”
Boys’ Oedipal Complex
• Accept as correct?
• Reject as wrong?
• Describes psychological
  consequences of authoritarian
  fathering?
    Girls’ Oedipal Complex?
• Discovery of “castration”
• Rejection of mother + sexualized
  attachment to father (with unconscious
  “wish for penis”)
• Shift of attachment from father to man
• Wish for penis becomes wish for baby
• Re-identification with mother
 Girls’ Oedipal Complex
• Accept as correct?
• Reject as wrong?
• Describes psych. consequences
  of patriarchal power?
     Oedipal Conflict Resolution
• “polymorphous perverse” erotism repressed
     ( bisexuality, oral/anal, masturbation, etc. )

• Identification with same-sex parent
   ideal & authority internalized as conscience

• Societal authorities & prohibitions internalized
  ( God country king / premier / sultan / fuhrer )

• Personality crystallizes
  Post-Oedipal Development

• Latency:   7 – 12 sexuality repressed

• Puberty: 13 - 15 re-awakens Oedipal
  (and possibly pre-Oedipal) conflicts

  adolescent rebellion & “acting out”
       Freud: A Cultural Psychology?
       U.S. vs. 72 non-Western cultures – early 1950s

               Initial Indulgence      Age of Training              Severity

Oral                2nd lowest         2nd earliest weaning       upper quartile


Anal                3rd lowest             2nd earliest         most severe (tied)


Sex                   lowest             among earliest         most severe (tied)


Dependence     slightly below median   slightly earlier than        at median
                                             median


Aggression         near median             near median         slightly above median

				
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