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7th Grade Math Lesson Plan Diverse Groups Addressed in this Lesson Plan: ELLs (the students in this class come from ten (10) different countries of origin--USA, Mexico, Togo, El Salvador, Pakistan, Burma, Bhutan, Vietnam, Honduras, and Nepal); Low-Income Learners; Minority Learners; Underachieving Learners; Visual Learners; Special Needs Learners; and Auditory Learners. Activity 7th Grade Mathematics; 60 Minutes; Topic: Unit—Algebra, Topic-- Combining Like Terms Rationale: Students sometimes wonder if they will ever use Algebra in real-world situations. Actually, Algebra is much more prevalent than students believe and is an integral part of the students’ learning experience. When introducing students to combining like terms, discussions of real-world situations that involve objects of different types will motivate students (e.g., buying adult and student tickets for a movie). Discuss the fact that in real-world situations, objects of the same type can be combined but different types cannot. For example: “Emilia saved nickels, dimes, and quarters in a jar. When the jar was full, she counted the money. She had as many quarters as dimes, but twice as many nickels as dimes. If the jar had 844 coins, how much money had she saved?” This lesson provides students with the skills necessary to solve this, and similar, real-world problems. Focus 1. What are “like terms”? Questions: 2. How can you tell the difference between like terms and unlike terms? 3. How do you solve problems with like terms? 4. Why do we use variables in equations? 5. How does knowing the meaning of a variable expression help you solve word problems? Intended SWBAT combine like terms in order to solve algebraic expressions. Learning Outcomes: Because 18 of 19 students are LEP students, in addition to the content objective, we will also have a Language Objective for today’s lesson: SWBAT verbally describe and write about the steps needed to combine like terms in order to solve algebraic expressions. Prerequisites—Students are expected to know how to evaluate expressions by method of substitution, how use the Distributive Property in order to remove parentheses in a mathematical expression, and how to translate math into words in order to solve real world problems. For example: To put parts together (Add), To put equal parts together (Multiply), To find how much more (Subtract), To separate into equal parts (Divide). Students must also be able to demonstrate satisfactory addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division skills without a calculator using the Rules of Integers. In addition, students must be comfortable using new key vocabulary recently introduced in this unit: term, simplify, coefficient, variable, and expression. Finally, by the end of today’s lesson, students will be able to: -combine like terms in order to solve algebraic expressions. -demonstrate at least 75% mastery on exit ticket questions. -justify and describe each step of combining like terms after having completed a Vocabulary Word Map. Standards: The learning objective is aligned with the North Carolina Standard Course of Study for Middle School Mathematics (7th Grade). Competency Goal 5—Algebra. 5.03—Use and evaluate algebraic expressions, linear equations or inequalities to solve problems. Materials & Textbook, Promethean Board, Computer, TI-73 graphing calculator, Equipment: Internet access for Discovery Education video to stimulate student interest, CMS Instructional Web Power Point Presentation for Guided Practice, Kuta Software worksheets for Independent Practice, a graphic organizer (Vocabulary Map) for Closure and Language Objective, A/B/C/D index cards for assessment purposes, SIOP Model 4-Corners Vocabulary Chart of “Combining Like Terms” for our word wall, and Castle Learning questions for the Exit Ticket. Classroom This lesson is planned for the nineteen (19) students in my 3 rd Block Demographics: Class. Every student in the class is a LEP student, with the exception of one African-American student who was recently added to the class roster because of behavior problems with another math teacher. Nine (9) students in this class were classified as “at risk” at the beginning of the school year by our administration…based primarily on prior inadequate academic achievement and behavior issues. The student population is as follows: 19 students total, 10 girls, 9 boys, 15 Hispanic, 2 Vietnamese, 1 Somalia, and 1 African-American. Two (2) students have LEP Accommodations in place—for read-alouds and extended testing time. There are no students that have a 504 Plan or IEP in place; however, one (1) student previously had an IEP. One (1) student has been referred to the Intervention Team; and, one (1) student may be referred to the Intervention Team--teachers on our team have observed severe learning disabilities with this student. Six (6) of the nineteen (19) students passed their Math EOG Test last year, so thirteen (13) did not. Last year’s Math EOG Test scores ranged from a low-Level 1 to a mid-Level 3 on the EOG Test last year for all students. All of the students that did not pass the EOG last year have PEPs (Personalized Education Plans) in place. Students are placed in cooperative pairs and quads (groups of 4) based on personality and whether or not they are lower, moderate, or higher level-thinking students. I have conducted home-visits with the students/parents of twelve (12) of the nineteen (19) students. The relationships that I have developed with the students and their families have created a positive, nurturing classroom environment. This class overall has minor behavior problems, and I have not written a referral to our administration from this class all year. The length of the class is 60 minutes. ACTIVITIES TIME ACTIONS RATIONALE Lesson ELLs/SIOP Students will begin class by answering the Opening/Bell Component: following Warmup…which is a review of Building Ringer: 10 yesterday’s lesson and will take no longer than Background Warmup & min. five (5) minutes: (p.232). Links are Spiral Review explicitly made to past learning and new concepts. Simplify each expression using the Distributive Key vocabulary is Warmup emphasized (e.g. Property: 1) 4(8n + 2) ; 2) −3(7n + 1) ; introduced, 3) (7 + 19b) ⋅ −15. written, repeated, and We will spend no longer than five (5) minutes highlighted for on Warmup, and this Warmup transitions well students to see). into today’s lesson. The five (5) minutes of Warmup allows me enough time to circle the classroom and check each student’s work. Underachieving Also, because we are so close to the EOG Learners/Data- Spiral Review Test, we will spend at most five (5) minutes on Based Teaching Spiral Review…giving students one (1) (p. 149/282). question from a previous unit that connects to Student data is skills needed for today’s lesson. used from For example, students must be fluent in the multiple addition, subtraction, multiplication, and indicators to division of rational numbers. So, the Spiral evaluate student progress and Review question today is: growth as I strive to eliminate the What is the value of 5 + (-12)? achievement gap. Students are preparing to master the standards and do well on the NC EOG Test. Answer: The teacher will introduce students to the All Discuss Students/Data- essential questions, the content objectives, Based Teaching agenda update 5 and lesson min. and language objective for today’s lesson. (p. 282). All students are objectives Also, the teacher will look to engage, notified of the “hook”, and raise the level of students’ instructional interest in the lesson by informing students strategies used in today’s lesson to they will be viewing a brief video clip on enhance their Discovery Education entitled “Combining educational experience. The Like Terms”. video gives students something to look forward to; and, all students are able to easily follow the lesson and where we are heading. SIOP Component: Lesson Preparation (p.232). Both the content objectives and language objective are clearly defined, displayed and reviewed with students. Content concepts are appropriate for the age and educational background level of students. Supplementary materials (e.g. visuals, graphic organizers) are used to a high degree and meaningful activities (writing, listening, and speaking) integrate lesson concepts. Introduction of 15 New Material min. During the initial portion of the lesson, the ELLs/SIOP Teacher Input Component: teacher will introduce students to the key Building 1: SIOP 4- Corners vocabulary associated with this Background; SIOP Feature: Key Vocabulary lesson…already prepared and placed on the Vocabulary Chart word wall in the form of a SIOP 4-Corners (p.232). Identifying key Vocabulary Chart: term, coefficient, and vocabulary is vital like terms…including the following to helping ELLs master both expression…X – 3 + 6 – 2X. The SIOP 4- content and the Corners Vocabulary Chart has been selected academic language to demonstrate for the word wall to take into account that their knowledge. 18 of the 19 students in the classroom are The 4-Corners Vocabulary Chart ELLs. consists of four squares labeled Word, Definition, Picture, Examples. Visual Learners (p. 290). I always introduce these charts on our word walls (without exception, and the students expect it) at the initial portion of the lesson because the visual help students remember and understand the lessons’ most important concepts and presents the vocabulary in context. ELLs/SIOP Teacher Input Also, the teacher will look to engage, Comprehensible 2: Discovery “hook”, and raise the level of students’ Input (p.232). Education Because 18 of 19 Video interest in the lesson by showing a brief students in the video clip on Discovery Education entitled classroom are ELLs, the choice of the “Combining Like Terms”. The teacher will video is important, pause the video once or twice, at key so that the students may comprehend points, to either emphasize key vocabulary key vocabulary or model/clearly explain examples being introduced in the video and presented in the video. At the conclusion during the lesson. The speech of the of the video the teacher will guide the video must be students through the key vocabulary and appropriate for ELLs’ proficiency examples of the lesson, making sure they level (e.g. slower have time to copy down everything from rate, enunciation, and simple the word wall into their notebooks. sentence structure). The video must also use a variety of techniques to make concepts clear (e.g. modeling, visuals, hands-on activities, demonstrations, gestures, and body language). Teacher Input Modeling—After having viewed the All 3: Power Point Discovery Education video to stimulate Students/Data- Presentation Based Teaching student interest in the lesson, I will move (p. 282). on to Lesson Presentation, using the CMS By the time the Power Point Instructional Web Power Point Presentation Presentation is finished , during the for Chapter 2-9 of the textbook (Combining Lesson Quiz, and Like Terms)…projecting it on to the later during Independent Promethean Board. At the end of the Practice, I’m circling the classroom and not just saying, “Are Power Point Presentation for Chapter 2-9, you doing your there is a Lesson Quiz. By the time the work? Are you getting it?” but I’m Power Point slide show has finished, all checking each students must take the Lesson Quiz. I will student’s work, and doing impromptu not assess the quiz; but, this is the first differentiation— point at which I will look for both evidence doing as much as I can to make sure of student mastery and stop and check for students are getting understanding. it. Special Needs Differentiation—During this initial portion Learners—IEPs (p. Differentiation of the Lesson--Warmup, Spiral Review, 193); Differentiated instruction (p. 289); Video Presentation, and Power Point Underachieving Presentation--I begin to know exactly which Learners (p. 151). I am paying close students may get it, and which students attention in may be struggling and need continued particular to the one student that support as they begin to work previously had an independently. IEP and the other student that may referred to the Intervention Team this year. More than anything at this point, I’m concentrating on the objective of the lesson (SWBAT combine like terms in order to solve algebraic expressions), and whether or not each student is displaying the skills I’m looking for. Guided 10 Practice min. Low-income and During Guided Practice, I show or model for Minority Teacher my students what they need to know for students/Identity Activity & development and Student today’s lesson. teaching (p.94). Activity Today’s curriculum contents are not wrong or prejudiced. Today’s lesson plan is a map…an instructional strategy and learning experience for all my students that leads them to master today’s objective (SWBAT combine like terms in order to solve algebraic expressions). SIOP Component: Strategies; SIOP Feature: Scaffolding Techniques (p.232). My approach is “I do, we do, you do”, that involves a gradual transfer of student responsibility for knowledge and skills from the teacher to the students. SIOP Component: Because 18 of 19 students are ELLs, I will Building Background; SIOP continuously refer to the word wall… in the Feature: Key form of a SIOP 4-Corners Vocabulary Chart Vocabulary (p.232) and Visual (PID): term, coefficient, and like Learners (p.290). terms…including the following Continuously referring to the expression…X – 3 + 6 – 2X. SIOP 4-Corners Vocabulary Chart allows ELLs to see the learning objective throughout the lesson. The Discovery Education video not only ELLs/SIOP introduces technology into the classroom Comprehensible Input (p.232). and stimulates interest in today’s lesson, My ELL students but allows students to both see and hear have diverse abilities, and often today’s learning objectives. The video will have difficulty processing an inordinate amount support the different learning styles among of auditory my ELL student population by presenting information, so they are really information and concepts in a multifaceted aided with visual manner. clues. Visual Learners (p. 290) and Auditory Learners. The visuals incorporated into the lesson…seeing the word wall throughout the lesson from beginning to end, and seeing and hearing the video…will help ensure that my ELL students actually master today’s objective. Students may work in pairs during the CMS SIOP Component: Interaction; SIOP Instructional Web Power Point Presentation Feature: for Chapter 2-9 of the textbook (Combining Grouping Configurations Like Terms)…that I will project on to the (p.232) and Promethean Board. Grouping dynamics for differentiated instruction (p.298). Students are seated in cooperative pairs and quads, based on data our math department uses to inform instruction. Generally, I seat students in pairs so that one student who can “give help” is paired with another student who “needs help”. Independent 10 Practice min. During Independent practice, students will SIOP Component: Student Practice and be instructed to work in cooperative pairs, Application; SIOP Activity and complete a Combining Like Terms Feature: Apply content and worksheet from Kuta Software. I will model language 1-2 problems from the worksheet on the knowledge (p.232) Promethean Board, then students will be Students will be instructed to complete as many of the 30 given adequate time to work problems on the worksheet as possible together, but must during the next 10 minutes. I anticipate stay on task. student questions concerning Rules of Underachieving Integers…which is an objective we’ve Learners-- peer- assisted learning struggled with throughout the year. For (152). example, some of the problems on today’s Students will receive assistance worksheet: 1) -6K + 7K 2) N – 10 + 9N – from both the 3 and 3) -4 + 7(1 – 3M) contain elements teacher and their peers. During of both today’s lesson (Combining Like Independent Terms) and Rules of Integers. Practice, however, I eventually expect students to work independently and demonstrate mastery of knowledge and skills on their own. I will be a very active at this point in the Special Needs Learners—IEPs (p. lesson…circling the classroom and coaching 193); Differentiated Instruction (p. 289); students through the material and checking Underachieving for understanding…both by drawing on Learners (p. 151); African-American their preexisting knowledge and presenting Learner (p. 100). them with key ideas of today’s lesson that During this point in the lesson, I am engages them in multiple opportunities to checking for practice. understanding and doing impromptu differentiation-- doing as much as I can to assist those students who may be struggling a bit with the lesson. 10 Closure min. Closure will focus on three (3) key elements Language of today’s lesson: The Language Objective, Objective, Exit Ticket & Exit Ticket, and Homework Assignment. Homework Using a Vocabulary Word Map graphic All Students/SIOP Language Component: Objective organizer, students will remain in Lesson Delivery; cooperative pairs for today’s Language SIOP Feature: Objective. Today’s Language Objective is: Language Objective (p.232). SWBAT verbally describe and write about Because the class the steps needed to combine like terms in consists almost entirely of ELLs, order to solve algebraic expressions. while carefully planning and delivering the lesson’s content objective, I also have incorporated a Language Objective that supports students’ language development. As with today’s Content Objective, the Language Objective is clearly and simply stated in student friendly language on our whiteboard. The Language Objective is partner work…so that my ELLs can practice their English Language Development in a less-threatening setting. All Exit Ticket Upon completing the Language Objective, I Students/Collecting valid assessment will bring students back to whole group for data (p. 282). My expectation is today’s Exit Ticket which I will project on to that all students must answer 3 out of the 4 questions the Promethean Board. The four (4) correctly-- questions selected will be either demonstrating at least 75% mastery. intermediate or advanced difficulty-level questions from Castle Learning. EXIT TICKET 1. Simplify -2(m + 3). A. 2m - 6 B. -2m - 6 C. 2m + 6 D. -2m + 6 2. Combine like terms and simplify 16y + 9 + 4 + 4y. A. 20y + 12 B. 24y + 8 C. 20y + 13 D. 24 + 8y 3. Simplify the expression: 8xy - (x + 2xy) + 3x A. -6xy + 3x B. 6xy + 3x C. 6xy + 2x D. 6xy + 2y 4. Simplify the expression 5g + 5 - 2g + g + 5h. A. 5h - 4g + 5 B. 5h + 4g + 5 C. 5h + 4g - 5 D. -5h + 4g + 5 All Students/SIOP Component: While students begin the Exit Ticket, I will Review and be distributing A/B/C/D index cards for Assessment; SIOP Feature: Review assessment purposes. For each question on of key content the Exit Ticket, for assessment purposes, I concepts, feedback, and will ask the class in whole group to hold up assessment of their index card indicating their answer to comprehension each question. and learning (p. 232). I will know the lesson was successful if the majority of my students answer 3 out of 4 questions correctly. If I observe a problem on the Exit Ticket with which most students struggled, I will incorporate a similar problem in tomorrow’s Lesson Plan for Warmup. Homework gives Homework students the Lastly during Closure, all students will be opportunity to reminded of their homework assignment review and practice what was covered written clearly on the white board. in class and what they learned in the classroom. References Hutchison, C. (2010). Teaching Diverse Learners. Charlotte, NC: Catawba Publishing. Echevarria, J., Vogt, M., & Short, D. (2008). Making Content Comprehensible for English Learners: The SIOP Model. Boston, MA: Pearson.