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Algebra-Combining Like Terms

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					                            7th Grade Math Lesson Plan

Diverse Groups Addressed in this Lesson Plan: ELLs (the students in this class
come from ten (10) different countries of origin--USA, Mexico, Togo, El Salvador,
Pakistan, Burma, Bhutan, Vietnam, Honduras, and Nepal); Low-Income Learners;
Minority Learners; Underachieving Learners; Visual Learners; Special Needs
Learners; and Auditory Learners.


Activity         7th Grade Mathematics; 60 Minutes; Topic: Unit—Algebra, Topic--
                 Combining Like Terms


Rationale:       Students sometimes wonder if they will ever use Algebra in real-world
                 situations. Actually, Algebra is much more prevalent than students
                 believe and is an integral part of the students’ learning experience.
                 When introducing students to combining like terms, discussions of
                 real-world situations that involve objects of different types will motivate
                 students (e.g., buying adult and student tickets for a movie). Discuss
                 the fact that in real-world situations, objects of the same type can be
                 combined but different types cannot. For example: “Emilia saved
                 nickels, dimes, and quarters in a jar. When the jar was full, she
                 counted the money. She had as many quarters as dimes, but twice
                 as many nickels as dimes. If the jar had 844 coins, how much money
                 had she saved?” This lesson provides students with the skills
                 necessary to solve this, and similar, real-world problems.

Focus               1. What are “like terms”?
Questions:          2. How can you tell the difference between like terms and unlike
                       terms?
                    3. How do you solve problems with like terms?
                    4. Why do we use variables in equations?
                    5. How does knowing the meaning of a variable expression help
                       you solve word problems?


Intended         SWBAT combine like terms in order to solve algebraic expressions.
Learning
Outcomes:        Because 18 of 19 students are LEP students, in addition to the
                 content objective, we will also have a Language Objective for today’s
                 lesson: SWBAT verbally describe and write about the steps needed
                 to combine like terms in order to solve algebraic expressions.

                 Prerequisites—Students are expected to know how to evaluate
                 expressions by method of substitution, how use the Distributive
                 Property in order to remove parentheses in a mathematical
                  expression, and how to translate math into words in order to solve real
                  world problems. For example: To put parts together (Add), To put
                  equal parts together (Multiply), To find how much more (Subtract), To
                  separate into equal parts (Divide). Students must also be able to
                  demonstrate satisfactory addition, subtraction, multiplication, and
                  division skills without a calculator using the Rules of Integers.

                  In addition, students must be comfortable using new key vocabulary
                  recently introduced in this unit: term, simplify, coefficient, variable,
                  and expression.

                  Finally, by the end of today’s lesson, students will be able to:
                  -combine like terms in order to solve algebraic expressions.
                  -demonstrate at least 75% mastery on exit ticket questions.
                  -justify and describe each step of combining like terms after having
                  completed a Vocabulary Word Map.


Standards:        The learning objective is aligned with the North Carolina Standard
                  Course of Study for Middle School Mathematics (7th Grade).

                  Competency Goal 5—Algebra.

                  5.03—Use and evaluate algebraic expressions, linear equations or
                  inequalities to solve problems.


Materials &       Textbook, Promethean Board, Computer, TI-73 graphing calculator,
Equipment:        Internet access for Discovery Education video to stimulate student
                  interest, CMS Instructional Web Power Point Presentation for Guided
                  Practice, Kuta Software worksheets for Independent Practice, a
                  graphic organizer (Vocabulary Map) for Closure and Language
                  Objective, A/B/C/D index cards for assessment purposes, SIOP
                  Model 4-Corners Vocabulary Chart of “Combining Like Terms” for our
                  word wall, and Castle Learning questions for the Exit Ticket.


Classroom     This lesson is planned for the nineteen (19) students in my 3 rd Block
Demographics: Class. Every student in the class is a LEP student, with the exception
              of one African-American student who was recently added to the class
              roster because of behavior problems with another math teacher. Nine
              (9) students in this class were classified as “at risk” at the beginning of
              the school year by our administration…based primarily on prior
              inadequate academic achievement and behavior issues. The student
              population is as follows: 19 students total, 10 girls, 9 boys, 15
              Hispanic, 2 Vietnamese, 1 Somalia, and 1 African-American. Two (2)
                students have LEP Accommodations in place—for read-alouds and
                extended testing time. There are no students that have a 504 Plan or
                IEP in place; however, one (1) student previously had an IEP. One
                (1) student has been referred to the Intervention Team; and, one (1)
                student may be referred to the Intervention Team--teachers on our
                team have observed severe learning disabilities with this student. Six
                (6) of the nineteen (19) students passed their Math EOG Test last
                year, so thirteen (13) did not. Last year’s Math EOG Test scores
                ranged from a low-Level 1 to a mid-Level 3 on the EOG Test last year
                for all students. All of the students that did not pass the EOG last
                year have PEPs (Personalized Education Plans) in place. Students
                are placed in cooperative pairs and quads (groups of 4) based on
                personality and whether or not they are lower, moderate, or higher
                level-thinking students. I have conducted home-visits with the
                students/parents of twelve (12) of the nineteen (19) students. The
                relationships that I have developed with the students and their families
                have created a positive, nurturing classroom environment. This class
                overall has minor behavior problems, and I have not written a referral
                to our administration from this class all year. The length of the class is
                60 minutes.


ACTIVITIES      TIME   ACTIONS                                             RATIONALE

Lesson                                                                     ELLs/SIOP
                       Students will begin class by answering the
Opening/Bell                                                               Component:
                       following Warmup…which is a review of               Building
Ringer:         10     yesterday’s lesson and will take no longer than     Background
Warmup &        min.   five (5) minutes:                                   (p.232). Links are
Spiral Review                                                              explicitly made to
                                                                           past learning and
                                                                           new concepts.
                       Simplify each expression using the Distributive     Key vocabulary is
Warmup                                                                     emphasized (e.g.
                       Property: 1) 4(8n + 2) ; 2) −3(7n + 1) ;
                                                                           introduced,
                       3) (7 + 19b) ⋅ −15.                                 written,
                                                                           repeated, and
                       We will spend no longer than five (5) minutes       highlighted for
                       on Warmup, and this Warmup transitions well         students to see).
                       into today’s lesson. The five (5) minutes of
                       Warmup allows me enough time to circle the
                       classroom and check each student’s work.
                                                                           Underachieving
                       Also, because we are so close to the EOG            Learners/Data-
Spiral Review          Test, we will spend at most five (5) minutes on     Based Teaching
                       Spiral Review…giving students one (1)               (p. 149/282).
                       question from a previous unit that connects to      Student data is
                       skills needed for today’s lesson.                   used from
                       For example, students must be fluent in the    multiple
                       addition, subtraction, multiplication, and     indicators to
                       division of rational numbers. So, the Spiral   evaluate student
                                                                      progress and
                       Review question today is:                      growth as I strive
                                                                      to eliminate the
                       What is the value of 5 + (-12)?                achievement gap.
                                                                      Students are
                                                                      preparing to
                                                                      master the
                                                                      standards and do
                                                                      well on the NC
                                                                      EOG Test.
                       Answer:


                       The teacher will introduce students to the     All
Discuss                                                               Students/Data-
                       essential questions, the content objectives,   Based Teaching
agenda update    5
and lesson      min.   and language objective for today’s lesson.     (p. 282). All
                                                                      students are
objectives             Also, the teacher will look to engage,         notified of the
                       “hook”, and raise the level of students’       instructional
                       interest in the lesson by informing students   strategies used in
                                                                      today’s lesson to
                       they will be viewing a brief video clip on     enhance their
                       Discovery Education entitled “Combining        educational
                                                                      experience. The
                       Like Terms”.                                   video gives
                                                                      students
                                                                      something to look
                                                                      forward to; and,
                                                                      all students are
                                                                      able to easily
                                                                      follow the lesson
                                                                      and where we are
                                                                      heading.

                                                                      SIOP Component:
                                                                      Lesson
                                                                      Preparation
                                                                      (p.232). Both the
                                                                      content
                                                                      objectives and
                                                                      language
                                                                      objective are
                                                                      clearly defined,
                                                                      displayed and
                                                                      reviewed with
                                                                      students. Content
                                                                      concepts are
                                                                      appropriate for
                                                                      the age and
                                                                         educational
                                                                         background level
                                                                         of students.
                                                                         Supplementary
                                                                         materials (e.g.
                                                                         visuals, graphic
                                                                         organizers) are
                                                                         used to a high
                                                                         degree and
                                                                         meaningful
                                                                         activities (writing,
                                                                         listening, and
                                                                         speaking)
                                                                         integrate lesson
                                                                         concepts.




Introduction of   15
New Material      min.

                         During the initial portion of the lesson, the   ELLs/SIOP
Teacher Input                                                            Component:
                         teacher will introduce students to the key      Building
1: SIOP 4-
Corners                  vocabulary associated with this                 Background; SIOP
                                                                         Feature: Key
Vocabulary               lesson…already prepared and placed on the       Vocabulary
Chart                    word wall in the form of a SIOP 4-Corners       (p.232).
                                                                         Identifying key
                         Vocabulary Chart: term, coefficient, and        vocabulary is vital
                         like terms…including the following              to helping ELLs
                                                                         master both
                         expression…X – 3 + 6 – 2X. The SIOP 4-          content and the
                         Corners Vocabulary Chart has been selected      academic language
                                                                         to demonstrate
                         for the word wall to take into account that     their knowledge.
                         18 of the 19 students in the classroom are      The 4-Corners
                                                                         Vocabulary Chart
                         ELLs.                                           consists of four
                                                                         squares labeled
                                                                         Word, Definition,
                                                                         Picture, Examples.
                                                                         Visual Learners
                                                                         (p. 290).
                                                                         I always introduce
                                                                         these charts on our
                                                                         word walls (without
                                                                         exception, and the
                                                                         students expect it)
                                                                         at the initial portion
                                                                         of the lesson
                                                                         because the visual
                                                                         help students
                                                                         remember and
                                                               understand the
                                                               lessons’ most
                                                               important concepts
                                                               and presents the
                                                               vocabulary in
                                                               context.




                                                               ELLs/SIOP
Teacher Input    Also, the teacher will look to engage,        Comprehensible
2: Discovery     “hook”, and raise the level of students’      Input (p.232).
Education                                                      Because 18 of 19
Video
                 interest in the lesson by showing a brief     students in the
                 video clip on Discovery Education entitled    classroom are ELLs,
                                                               the choice of the
                 “Combining Like Terms”. The teacher will      video is important,
                 pause the video once or twice, at key         so that the students
                                                               may comprehend
                 points, to either emphasize key vocabulary    key vocabulary
                 or model/clearly explain examples             being introduced in
                                                               the video and
                 presented in the video. At the conclusion     during the lesson.
                                                               The speech of the
                 of the video the teacher will guide the       video must be
                 students through the key vocabulary and       appropriate for
                                                               ELLs’ proficiency
                 examples of the lesson, making sure they      level (e.g. slower
                 have time to copy down everything from        rate, enunciation,
                                                               and simple
                 the word wall into their notebooks.           sentence structure).
                                                               The video must also
                                                               use a variety of
                                                               techniques to make
                                                               concepts clear (e.g.
                                                               modeling, visuals,
                                                               hands-on activities,
                                                               demonstrations,
                                                               gestures, and body
                                                               language).


Teacher Input    Modeling—After having viewed the              All
3: Power Point   Discovery Education video to stimulate        Students/Data-
Presentation                                                   Based Teaching
                 student interest in the lesson, I will move   (p. 282).
                 on to Lesson Presentation, using the CMS      By the time the
                                                               Power Point
                 Instructional Web Power Point Presentation    Presentation is
                                                               finished , during the
                 for Chapter 2-9 of the textbook (Combining    Lesson Quiz, and
                 Like Terms)…projecting it on to the           later during
                                                               Independent
                 Promethean Board. At the end of the           Practice, I’m circling
                                                               the classroom and
                                                                        not just saying, “Are
                         Power Point Presentation for Chapter 2-9,      you doing your
                         there is a Lesson Quiz. By the time the        work? Are you
                                                                        getting it?” but I’m
                         Power Point slide show has finished, all       checking each
                         students must take the Lesson Quiz. I will     student’s work, and
                                                                        doing impromptu
                         not assess the quiz; but, this is the first    differentiation—
                         point at which I will look for both evidence   doing as much as I
                                                                        can to make sure
                         of student mastery and stop and check for      students are getting
                         understanding.                                 it.


                                                                        Special Needs
                         Differentiation—During this initial portion    Learners—IEPs (p.
Differentiation
                         of the Lesson--Warmup, Spiral Review,          193); Differentiated
                                                                        instruction (p. 289);
                         Video Presentation, and Power Point            Underachieving
                         Presentation--I begin to know exactly which    Learners (p. 151).
                                                                        I am paying close
                         students may get it, and which students        attention in
                         may be struggling and need continued           particular to the
                                                                        one student that
                         support as they begin to work                  previously had an
                         independently.                                 IEP and the other
                                                                        student that may
                                                                        referred to the
                                                                        Intervention Team
                                                                        this year. More
                                                                        than anything at
                                                                        this point, I’m
                                                                        concentrating on
                                                                        the objective of the
                                                                        lesson (SWBAT
                                                                        combine like terms
                                                                        in order to solve
                                                                        algebraic
                                                                        expressions), and
                                                                        whether or not
                                                                        each student is
                                                                        displaying the skills
                                                                        I’m looking for.

Guided            10
Practice          min.
                                                                        Low-income and
                         During Guided Practice, I show or model for    Minority
Teacher                  my students what they need to know for         students/Identity
Activity &                                                              development and
Student                  today’s lesson.                                teaching (p.94).
Activity                                                                Today’s curriculum
                                                                        contents are not
                                                                        wrong or
                                                                        prejudiced.
                                                                        Today’s lesson plan
                                                                        is a map…an
                                              instructional
                                              strategy and
                                              learning experience
                                              for all my students
                                              that leads them to
                                              master today’s
                                              objective (SWBAT
                                              combine like terms
                                              in order to solve
                                              algebraic
                                              expressions).

                                              SIOP Component:
                                              Strategies; SIOP
                                              Feature:
                                              Scaffolding
                                              Techniques
                                              (p.232).
                                              My approach is “I
                                              do, we do, you do”,
                                              that involves a
                                              gradual transfer of
                                              student
                                              responsibility for
                                              knowledge and
                                              skills from the
                                              teacher to the
                                              students.



                                              SIOP Component:
Because 18 of 19 students are ELLs, I will    Building
                                              Background; SIOP
continuously refer to the word wall… in the   Feature: Key
form of a SIOP 4-Corners Vocabulary Chart     Vocabulary
                                              (p.232) and Visual
(PID): term, coefficient, and like
                                              Learners (p.290).
terms…including the following                 Continuously
                                              referring to the
expression…X – 3 + 6 – 2X.                    SIOP 4-Corners
                                              Vocabulary Chart
                                              allows ELLs to see
                                              the learning
                                              objective
                                              throughout the
                                              lesson.


The Discovery Education video not only        ELLs/SIOP
introduces technology into the classroom      Comprehensible
                                              Input (p.232).
and stimulates interest in today’s lesson,    My ELL students
but allows students to both see and hear      have diverse
                                              abilities, and often
today’s learning objectives. The video will   have difficulty
                                              processing an
                                                                   inordinate amount
                     support the different learning styles among   of auditory
                     my ELL student population by presenting       information, so
                                                                   they are really
                     information and concepts in a multifaceted    aided with visual
                     manner.                                       clues.
                                                                   Visual Learners
                                                                   (p. 290) and
                                                                   Auditory
                                                                   Learners.
                                                                   The visuals
                                                                   incorporated into
                                                                   the lesson…seeing
                                                                   the word wall
                                                                   throughout the
                                                                   lesson from
                                                                   beginning to end,
                                                                   and seeing and
                                                                   hearing the
                                                                   video…will help
                                                                   ensure that my ELL
                                                                   students actually
                                                                   master today’s
                                                                   objective.



                     Students may work in pairs during the CMS     SIOP Component:
                                                                   Interaction; SIOP
                     Instructional Web Power Point Presentation    Feature:
                     for Chapter 2-9 of the textbook (Combining    Grouping
                                                                   Configurations
                     Like Terms)…that I will project on to the     (p.232) and
                     Promethean Board.                             Grouping
                                                                   dynamics for
                                                                   differentiated
                                                                   instruction
                                                                   (p.298).
                                                                   Students are seated
                                                                   in cooperative pairs
                                                                   and quads, based
                                                                   on data our math
                                                                   department uses to
                                                                   inform instruction.
                                                                   Generally, I seat
                                                                   students in pairs so
                                                                   that one student
                                                                   who can “give help”
                                                                   is paired with
                                                                   another student
                                                                   who “needs help”.
Independent   10
Practice      min.
                     During Independent practice, students will    SIOP Component:
Student                                                            Practice and
                     be instructed to work in cooperative pairs,   Application; SIOP
Activity
and complete a Combining Like Terms            Feature: Apply
                                               content and
worksheet from Kuta Software. I will model     language
1-2 problems from the worksheet on the         knowledge
                                               (p.232)
Promethean Board, then students will be        Students will be
instructed to complete as many of the 30       given adequate
                                               time to work
problems on the worksheet as possible          together, but must
during the next 10 minutes. I anticipate       stay on task.

student questions concerning Rules of          Underachieving
Integers…which is an objective we’ve           Learners-- peer-
                                               assisted learning
struggled with throughout the year. For        (152).
example, some of the problems on today’s       Students will
                                               receive assistance
worksheet: 1) -6K + 7K 2) N – 10 + 9N –        from both the
3 and 3) -4 + 7(1 – 3M) contain elements       teacher and their
                                               peers. During
of both today’s lesson (Combining Like         Independent
Terms) and Rules of Integers.                  Practice, however, I
                                               eventually expect
                                               students to work
                                               independently and
                                               demonstrate
                                               mastery of
                                               knowledge and
                                               skills on their own.




I will be a very active at this point in the   Special Needs
                                               Learners—IEPs (p.
lesson…circling the classroom and coaching     193); Differentiated
                                               Instruction (p. 289);
students through the material and checking     Underachieving
for understanding…both by drawing on           Learners (p. 151);
                                               African-American
their preexisting knowledge and presenting     Learner (p. 100).
them with key ideas of today’s lesson that     During this point in
                                               the lesson, I am
engages them in multiple opportunities to      checking for
practice.                                      understanding and
                                               doing impromptu
                                               differentiation--
                                               doing as much as I
                                               can to assist those
                                               students who may
                                               be struggling a bit
                                               with the lesson.
                  10
Closure           min.
                         Closure will focus on three (3) key elements
Language                 of today’s lesson: The Language Objective,
Objective, Exit
Ticket &                 Exit Ticket, and Homework Assignment.
Homework

                         Using a Vocabulary Word Map graphic              All Students/SIOP
Language                                                                  Component:
Objective                organizer, students will remain in               Lesson Delivery;
                         cooperative pairs for today’s Language           SIOP Feature:
                         Objective. Today’s Language Objective is:        Language
                                                                          Objective (p.232).
                         SWBAT verbally describe and write about          Because the class
                         the steps needed to combine like terms in        consists almost
                                                                          entirely of ELLs,
                         order to solve algebraic expressions.            while carefully
                                                                          planning and
                                                                          delivering the
                                                                          lesson’s content
                                                                          objective, I also
                                                                          have incorporated a
                                                                          Language Objective
                                                                          that supports
                                                                          students’ language
                                                                          development. As
                                                                          with today’s
                                                                          Content Objective,
                                                                          the Language
                                                                          Objective is clearly
                                                                          and simply stated in
                                                                          student friendly
                                                                          language on our
                                                                          whiteboard. The
                                                                          Language Objective
                                                                          is partner work…so
                                                                          that my ELLs can
                                                                          practice their
                                                                          English Language
                                                                          Development in a
                                                                          less-threatening
                                                                          setting.


                                                                          All
Exit Ticket              Upon completing the Language Objective, I        Students/Collecting
                                                                          valid assessment
                         will bring students back to whole group for      data (p. 282).
                                                                          My expectation is
                         today’s Exit Ticket which I will project on to   that all students
                                                                          must answer 3 out
                                                     of the 4 questions
the Promethean Board. The four (4)                   correctly--
questions selected will be either                    demonstrating at
                                                     least 75% mastery.
intermediate or advanced difficulty-level
questions from Castle Learning.

EXIT TICKET
1.
Simplify -2(m + 3).

     A.   2m - 6
     B.   -2m - 6
     C.   2m + 6
     D.   -2m + 6




2.
Combine like terms and simplify 16y + 9 + 4 + 4y.

     A.   20y + 12
     B.   24y + 8
     C.   20y + 13
     D.   24 + 8y

3.   Simplify the expression: 8xy - (x + 2xy) + 3x

     A.   -6xy + 3x
     B.   6xy + 3x
     C.   6xy + 2x
     D.   6xy + 2y

4.

Simplify the expression 5g + 5 - 2g + g + 5h.

     A.   5h - 4g + 5
     B.   5h + 4g + 5
     C.   5h + 4g - 5
     D.   -5h + 4g + 5

                                                     All Students/SIOP
                                                     Component:
While students begin the Exit Ticket, I will         Review and
                              be distributing A/B/C/D index cards for                  Assessment; SIOP
                                                                                       Feature: Review
                              assessment purposes. For each question on                of key content
                              the Exit Ticket, for assessment purposes, I              concepts,
                                                                                       feedback, and
                              will ask the class in whole group to hold up             assessment of
                              their index card indicating their answer to              comprehension
                              each question.                                           and learning (p.
                                                                                       232). I will know
                                                                                       the lesson was
                                                                                       successful if the
                                                                                       majority of my
                                                                                       students answer 3
                                                                                       out of 4 questions
                                                                                       correctly. If I
                                                                                       observe a problem
                                                                                       on the Exit Ticket
                                                                                       with which most
                                                                                       students struggled,
                                                                                       I will incorporate a
                                                                                       similar problem in
                                                                                       tomorrow’s Lesson
                                                                                       Plan for Warmup.




                                                                                       Homework gives
Homework                                                                               students the
                              Lastly during Closure, all students will be              opportunity to
                              reminded of their homework assignment                    review and practice
                                                                                       what was covered
                              written clearly on the white board.                      in class and what
                                                                                       they learned in the
                                                                                       classroom.




References

Hutchison, C. (2010). Teaching Diverse Learners. Charlotte, NC: Catawba Publishing.

Echevarria, J., Vogt, M., & Short, D. (2008). Making Content Comprehensible for English Learners: The
SIOP Model. Boston, MA: Pearson.

				
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