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					                   EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT
                                                   
                                                     
                            1999                
                                                     
                                                                      2004
                                                   


                   Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Consumer Policy




     9 February 2001                                                                   PE 297.231/1-37


     AMENDMENTS 1-37

            DRAFT OPINION by Jonas Sjöstedt                                               (PE 297.231)
            THE FUTURE OF THE BIOTECHNOLOGY INDUSTRY

            Motion for a resolution


     AMENDMENT 1
     by Marit Paulsen and Karl Erik Olsson

     Paragraph 1

     1.     Believes that biotechnological industries have the potential to make a major
            contribution to human health and wellbeing. Congratulates researchers in the field
            who have made enormous strides towards finding effective genetically based
            treatments for numerous conditions. Further notes, however, that the promise of such
            techniques can be realised only if public concerns over safety, ethics and social justice
            are addressed.

                                                                                               Or. en




     AM\431245EN.doc                                                                 PE 297.231/1-37



EN                                                                                                      EN
     AMENDMENT 2
     by Francesco Fiori

     Paragraph 1a (new)

     1a.    By means of genetic modification, biotechnologists are seeking to create tastier,
            more nutritious and more economical vegetable products which require fewer
            chemical products to assist their growth and conservation. Products which are better
            able to withstand the rigours of transport and which stay fresh for a longer period of
            time are of benefit to consumers, producers and shopkeepers alike. Researchers are
            also endeavouring to breed healthier animals which are more resistant to disease
            and whose meat is tastier and more nutritious. All of this would enable genetic
            deficiencies to be compensated for and improvements to be made in growth rates,
            yield, bacteria resistance and behaviour. Biotechnologies are one of the ways of
            solving the problems of hunger in the world and may therefore be regarded as a
            means of addressing a global problem. Careful, systematic and scientifically
            rigorous research and experimentation are important and should be undertaken so
            that all avenues which may lead to the creation of new varieties and to the placing
            thereof on the market can be explored;

                                                                                            Or. it


     AMENDMENT 3
     by Robert Goodwill

     Paragraph 2

     2.     Whilst recognising the increased concentration of biotechnology research to a few
            very large corporations, calls on the public authorities at Member State, Community
            and international level to:

                                                                                           Or. en




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EN
AMENDMENT 4
by Françoise Grossetête

Paragraphe 2 (c)

(c)      Ensure the development of a strong, independent and publicly-funded research effort,
         focussing in particular on those areas which offer little potential for worthwhile short-
         or medium-term financial returns and which therefore tend to be under-researched by
         private industry, such as treatments for illnesses which mainly afflict poor people or
         children or are found predominantly in poorer countries; cures for conditions currently
         treated through expensive long-term maintenance regimes; and treatments for rare
         illnesses and for childhood illnesses,

                                                                                            Or. fr


AMENDMENT 5
by Francesco Fiori

Paragraph 2 (d)a (new)

2 (d)a    encourage the establishment of public-private partnerships which aim to carry out
          more extensive and more detailed study and research into applications which are
          of particular importance in local terms, either because they focus on specific crops
          or because they are innovative in nature;

                                                                                            Or. it


AMENDMENT 6
by Peter Liese

Paragraph 2a (new)

2a.      Is concerned at the fact that many small and medium-sized undertakings active in
         the field of ‘green’ biotechnology are pulling out of that field on account of the
         European Union’s current de facto moratorium, whilst large multinational
         concerns are continuing to develop such technology outside the European Union;

                                                                                           Or. de




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                                                                                                     EN
     AMENDMENT 7
     by Philip Bushill-Matthews

     Paragraph 3

     3.     Notes the significant opposition to GM crops in several (1 word deleted) countries,
            manifested in the demand for clearer rules by these countries within the framework of
            the Biosafety protocol; notes that developed countries could help developing
            countries by giving a more positive lead on GM issues; also notes that the use of GM
            crops could lead to a situation in which individual farmers or entire nations become
            dependent on certain large corporations; believes that unequal development must be
            counter-balanced by active technology transfer, scientific co-operation, fair rules
            governing patents and promotion of efforts to discourage the flight of expertise from
            developing countries to the north.

                                                                                           Or. en


     AMENDMENT 8
     by Francesco Fiori

     Paragraph 3

     3.     Notes that the development of biotechnologies could lead to an increase in the
            developing countries’ technological dependence on the developed world and/or on
            individual multinational groups; believes that the risk of unequal development could
            be contained by means of active technology-transfer and scientific-cooperation
            policies in the various fields in which biotechnologies are applied (medicine,
            pharmaceuticals, agriculture, the environment, etc.); believes, furthermore, that
            there is a need for international rules governing intellectual property rights which
            will enable NGOs and/or public bodies to use patents for the purpose of developing
            new products to be distributed in the developing countries on a non-profit-making
            basis;

                                                                                            Or. it




     PE 297.231/1-37                             4/13                           AM\431245EN.doc



EN
AMENDMENT 9
by Marit Paulsen and Karl Erik Olsson

Paragraph 4

4.       Urges Member States to protect individuals’ right to genetic confidentiality and ensure
         that genetic profiling is used for purposes beneficial to individual patients and society
         as a whole; considers that the use of and access to personal genetic information by
         third parties should be debated with a view to legislation, where the emphasis is
         placed on the protection of the individual´s personal integrity and the need for his
         consent.

                                                                                            Or. en


AMENDMENT 10
by Robert Goodwill

Paragraph 4

4.       Urges Member States to protect individuals' right to genetic confidentiality and ensure
         that genetic profiling is used for purposes beneficial to individual patients and society
         as a whole, and never as grounds for refusing insurance or employment or for any
         purpose which is unethical, socially divisive or otherwise undesirable. There should
         be an exception to this general principle of confidentiality where the genetic
         fingerprints held in DNA databases are used to identify and convict criminals.

                                                                                            Or. en


AMENDMENT 11
by Robert Goodwill

Paragraph 5

Delete

                                                                                            Or. en




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                                                                                                     EN
     AMENDMENT 12
     by Philip Bushill-Matthews

     Paragraph 5

     5.     Further urges these authorities to outlaw (1 word deleted) techniques involving the
            introduction of heritable characteristics into human beings, other than techniques
            which could eliminate inherited genetic disorders and are subject to regulatory
            approval and oversight.

                                                                                             Or. en


     AMENDMENT 13
     by Francesco Fiori

     Paragraph 6

     6.     Calls on the Commission and member states to support research into biotechnological
            applications offering clear social or environmental benefits, including the development
            of genetically modified micro-organisms for use in water purification, soil restoration,
            to replace dangerous chemicals currently used in industry and also in agriculture, to
            develop sustainable and relatively environmentally friendly energy sources (including
            biogas, hydrogen and ethanol);

                                                                                              Or. it


     AMENDMENT 14
     by Francesco Fiori

     Paragraph 6a (new)

     6a.    Calls on the Commission and the Member States to support research into the uses of
            biotechnology and to establish a European monitoring centre which could draw up
            a professional code of practice and a disciplinary code applicable to biotechnology
            researchers with a view to bringing a coordinated system into being;

                                                                                              Or. it




     PE 297.231/1-37                              6/13                           AM\431245EN.doc



EN
AMENDMENT 15
by Francesco Fiori

Paragraph 6b (new)

6b.      Calls on the Commission to assess carefully the phenomena, the cycles and the
         possible waste products resulting from biotechnological applications so that
         biotechnological products can be assessed at every stage, from initial research to
         actual use;

                                                                                           Or. it


AMENDMENT 16
by Francesco Fiori

Paragraph 7

Delete

                                                                                           Or. it


AMENDMENT 17
by Marit Paulsen and Karl Erik Olsson

Paragraph 7

7.       Acknowledges the right of private researchers to a degree of confidentiality necessary
         to prevent competitors from unfairly benefiting from their work, but insists that this
         right must be qualified by the interests of public health, ethics and the environment .
         Believes that systems can and must be developed which enable these (1 word deleted)
         considerations to be respected (rest deleted).

                                                                                          Or. en


AMENDMENT 18
by Francesco Fiori

Paragraph 9

Delete

                                                                                           Or. it




AM\431245EN.doc                                7/13                              PE 297.231/1-37



                                                                                                    EN
     AMENDMENT 19
     by Marit Paulsen and Karl Erik Olsson

     Paragraph 9

     9.     Acknowledges the argument of private firms in the industry that patents must be
            available in order to protect the financial interests of inventors, developers and
            innovators (75 words deleted). The Community should follow certain principles in
            international negotiations such as those regarding TRIPs; underlines its view that rules
            governing patents - both within the EU and internationally - must respect Article 15 of
            the United Nations Convention on Biodiversity, that biodiversity is a legitimate
            national resource and that the right of nations to benefit from any techniques or
            applications developed on the basis of their genetic heritage should be respected.

                                                                                              Or. en


     AMENDMENT 20
     by Peter Liese

     Paragraph 9

     9.     Accepts the argument of private firms in the industry that patents must be available in
            order to protect the financial interests of inventors, developers and innovators, but
            shares the view that patents in the biotechnology field should not be too freely
            granted and that the definition of what may be patented should be (one word deleted)
            precisely and narrowly drawn. Points out that the directive on the legal protection of
            biotechnological inventions make it clear that a gene sequence may be patented only
            in connection with the function of the gene and only if a specific commercial use is
            stated, and calls on the legislative bodies of the Member States to take this fact into
            account when transposing the directive into national law. Points out in addition that
            patents which undermine moral standards and threaten public order may not be
            granted and that in this area the directive lays down clear limits, for example the
            ban on patenting techniques designed to alter the development of human embryos or
            the ban on patenting techniques for the cloning of human beings, with no
            distinction made between therapeutic and reproductive cloning.


                                                                                              Or. de




     PE 297.231/1-37                              8/13                           AM\431245EN.doc



EN
AMENDMENT 21
by Robert Goodwill

Paragraph 9

9.       Accepts the argument of private firms in the industry that patents must be available in
         order to protect the financial interests of inventors, developers and innovators (11
         words deleted) and that in view of this the definition of what may be patented should
         be more precisely (2 words deleted) drawn. (26 words deleted) The award of patents
         which are too vague and far-reaching, can hinder research and should be avoided. The
         Community should follow these principles in international negotiations such as those
         regarding TRIPs; underlines its view that rules governing patents - both within the EU
         and internationally - must respect Article 15 of the United Nations Convention on
         Biodiversity, that biodiversity is a legitimate national resource and that the right of
         nations to benefit from any techniques or applications developed on the basis of their
         genetic heritage should be respected.

                                                                                          Or. en


AMENDMENT 22
by Francesco Fiori

Paragraph 10

Delete

                                                                                           Or. it


AMENDMENT 23
by Peter Liese

Paragraph 10

10.      Opposes the view that, in medicine, gene technology and biotechnology are
         primarily associated with opportunities, whereas in agriculture they are primarily
         associated with risks. Is much more inclined to believe that in both areas there are
         major opportunities which should be taken advantage of, but also significant risks
         which need to be reduced by means of appropriate legislation;

                                                                                          Or. de




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                                                                                                    EN
     AMENDMENT 24
     by Philip Bushill-Matthews

     Paragraph 10 (a)

     Believes that the use of biotechnology in agriculture presents different problems and
     opportunities to those raised by medical research because
     (a)    its potential benefits appear less clear, whilst at the same time it could involve the
            release of genetically-modified organisms into the wider environment, carrying
            potential risks,

                                                                                               Or. en


     AMENDMENT 25
     by Robert Goodwill

     Paragraph 10 (c)

     Delete

                                                                                               Or. en


     AMENDMENT 26
     by Philip Bushill-Matthews

     Paragraph 10 (c)

     (c)      GM crops, which require less complex cocktails of chemicals as herbicides and
              pesticides, and less frequent applications, may therefore have considerable benefits
              for wildlife and the environment,

                                                                                               Or. en


     AMENDMENT 27
     by Philip Bushill-Matthews

     Paragraph 10 (d)

     (d)      scientific evidence about GMO safety is generally positive, though some
              environmental groups remain to be convinced,

                                                                                               Or. en




     PE 297.231/1-37                              10/13                            AM\431245EN.doc



EN
AMENDMENT 28
by Robert Goodwill

Paragraph 10 (e)

(e)      consumers who wish to eat GM-free foods should be able to identify these easily by
         clear labelling.

                                                                                        Or. en


AMENDMENT 29
by Philip Bushill-Matthews

Paragraph 10 (e)

(e)      there is currently very little demand for foodstuffs from GM crops within Europe,
         although there is demand (or acceptance) in the USA and great interest in
         developing countries (e.g China).

                                                                                        Or. en


AMENDMENT 30
by Francesco Fiori

Paragraph 11

Delete

                                                                                         Or. it


AMENDMENT 31
by Philip Bushill-Matthews

Paragraph 11

Delete

                                                                                        Or. en




AM\431245EN.doc                              11/13                             PE 297.231/1-37



                                                                                                  EN
     AMENDMENT 32
     by Peter Liese

     Paragraph 11

     11.      Welcomes the outcome of the conciliation procedure relating to the revision of
              Directive 220/90 and the assurances given by the Commission in this connection
              with regard to labelling and traceability. Takes the view that there now exists a clear
              legal framework for the release of genetically modified organisms in Europe which
              provides a high degree of environmental and consumer protection without
              excluding the use of such technology in Europe.

                                                                                               Or. de


     AMENDMENT 33
     by Marit Paulsen and Karl Erik Olsson

     Paragraph 11

     11.      Underlines its view that the precautionary principle must be applied to the use of GM
              crops and that the existing EU legislation is insufficient (19 words deleted); only when
              an appropriate legal framework, such as rules on liability, labelling and traceability,
              is incorporated into their legislation should Member States consider the introduction of
              new GM crops for commercial use; insists that those who manufacture and market
              GMOs should have full, unlimited liability for any damage to private or public
              property, human, animal or plant health or the general environment and that they must
              be fully insured.

                                                                                               Or. en


     AMENDMENT 34
     by Marit Paulsen and Karl Erik Olsson

     Paragraph 12

     Delete

                                                                                               Or. en




     PE 297.231/1-37                               12/13                           AM\431245EN.doc



EN
AMENDMENT 35
by Francesco Fiori

Paragraph 12

Delete

                                                                                            Or. it


AMENDMENT 36
by Philip Bushill-Matthews

Paragraph 12

12.      Urges the authorities of the Comminity and Member States to outlaw techniques
         which could pose a threat to health or the environment, including the use of antibiotic
         resistant genes that could spread into the environment. Research on (2 words deleted)
         techniques which can be shown to offer potential social or environmental benefits, and
         have been assessed as safe in closed laboratory conditions, should undertake
         controlled field-scale trials before proceeding to full-scale commercial exploitation.

                                                                                           Or. en


AMENDMENT 37
by Philip Bushill-Matthews

Paragraph 12a (new)

12a.     Calls on Member States to ensure that farmers and others conducting legal crop
         trials are given the full protection of national law, and that self-styled eco-warriors
         disrupting such trials are recognised and treated as lawbreakers.

                                                                                           Or. en




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                                                                                                     EN

				
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