Vertebrate Classes - PowerPoint

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					Vertebrate Classes




 All in Chordate Phylum
                          1
 All vertebrates have…
 Bilateral symmetry

 Fully developed coelom with
  organs

 Closed circulatory system

 Endoskeleton with spinal cord   2
  Vertebrate Classes

 Fish
 Amphibians
 Reptiles
 Birds
 Mammals
                       3
            Orders of Fish




Lamprey and hagfish             bony fish
(jawless)




                                            4
                      Shark (cartilage)
     Lampreys/Hagfish
       Jawless Fish
 Lampreys attach to fish-parasites
 Have “round sucker like mouths”




• Hagfish are Scavengers of dead and
 dying fish on ocean bottom
  Sharks, Skates, Rays
• Jaws
• The shark’s mouth has 6 to 20 rows of
 backward-pointing teeth

• Some can detect blood from an
 injured animal as far as 500 miles
 away

• No swim bladder                         6
           Bony Fish

 Most are familiar fishes and include
  snake-like eels, salmon, trout, bass,
  herring, tallapia and lantern fish
  (most fish we eat)




                                          7
           Bony Fish

 Fishes are the most numerous of all
  vertebrates and most widespread in
  their distribution
 Ectothermic




                                        8
         Obtain Oxygen
 Fish obtain O2 through their gills

 Fish can extract 85 % of the
  oxygen passing over the gills




 Blood goes to the gills, is oxygenated and
  sent to all parts of the body

 Single loop circulation in fish              10
•Fish have a two chambered heart.
•This is efficient for the fish since it is
in water, but would not work for land
animals who need more energy.
      2 chamber heart


 The disadvantage of a 2 chambered
  heart is its slow delivery

 MUCH more energy required to move
  on land (or in air) = more O2 needed
  faster

                                         12
    Fish Reproduction

 Usually external fertilization
 Large numbers of eggs are fertilized
  during Spawning – when fish reproduce




                                          13
Sockeye Salmon




                 14
Barndoor skate (Dipturus laevis)
                                   Cartilage Fish

               Ectothermic
               Sharks, Skates and Rays fertilization
                is internal-most are born live

               Some sharks lay eggs



                                      Skate
                                                        15
Variety of Rays
           There are many
           different
            types of rays
           including
           stingrays,
            electric rays,
           butterfly rays,
           round rays,
            manta rays,
           guitarfish,
            and sawfish. 16
Early aquatic adaptations

 Teeth (everyone) – evolved from skin
  Shift from scavenging
  to predation (lampreys)



 Jaws (sharks and bony fish)
  provide biting force
                                         17
Later aquatic adaptations
 Bony fish evolve swim bladder

 This is an air bag that allows fish to
  move up and down in water-called
  buoyancy

 sharks sink when not swimming

 Swim bladder adapted to be lungs on
  land
      Transitional fish /
         amphibian?
 Tiktaalik roseae




                            19
   Amphibians




          Salamander


Frog
          Toad     20
21
22
   Amphibians on land
 Four legs are an adaptation to walk on
  land-These are adapted fish fins at
  right angles from body

 Ectotherms- Body temperature the
  same as the surrounding temperature.

 Hibernate or Estivate depending on
  climate
                                       23
         3 Chamber Heart

 2 atria – 1 from body
  (deoxygenated), 1 from
  lungs (oxygenated)
 1 ventricle – pumps
  blood to lungs and body


 O2 through lungs and
  moist skin called
  coetaneous respiration    24
      3 chamber heart

Advantage of a 3 chambered heart
 Blood getting to body cells faster
 (heart pumps directly to body)

 Disadvantage of a 3 chambered heart:
  Deoxygenated blood mixes with
  oxygenated blood in atria

                                      25
Amphibian Reproduction

 Must live near water for 2 reasons

1) External fertilization - Reproduce in water
  (lay eggs there)
   egg  tadpole  young frog  adult
   Called Metamorphosis
2) Go to water to keep skin moist
   to obtain oxygen
Bullfrogs Eat Everything




                           27
Reptiles




           28
         Reptiles




turtle               crocodile




                    snake
     Adaptation-Claws

 Strong, bony skeletons
  and toes with claws

 Claws-aid in climbing,
  digging and movement in
  various terrains


                            30
More Reptile Adaptations

 Adaptations evolved which allow
  reptiles to live totally on land.

 1) Scales to prevent water loss

 2) The most important adaptation for
 living on land is the
 amniotic egg                           31
Reptilian Scales




                   32
                Eggs

 Amniotic egg – has all the water and
  nutrients inside for embryo to survive




                                           33
    Reptile limitations

 Disadvantage of Ectothermy:
1.   Must live in warm areas
2.   Cannot be active at night




                                 34
       Regulating Body
        Temperature
 Ectotherm (“cold-blooded”) –
  animal does not maintain a constant
  body temperature


 Outside Temp = Body Temp


                                        35
Ectothermy
        •Become
        sluggish in
        very cold
        temperature


        •Bask in the
        sun or seek
        shade          36
          Ectothermy

   Advantages          Disadvantages
 No energy used to    Restricted to warm
  keep warm             climates only
                       Active only during
                        day




                                         37
              Heart
1. Heart of most Reptiles-3 chambers
2. Disadvantage: Oxygenated and
   Deoxygenated blood mixes-less
   efficient
3. Crocodiles and alligators
   have a ventricle that is totally
   separated into two pumping
   chambers-4 chambers                 38
     Circulation
Double loop circulation




                          39
Transitional bird / reptile

 Archaeopteryx




                              40
Birds




        41
                    Birds
 Adaptations for
  Flight: Feathers,
 wings, hollow bones


 Adaptation for living
  on land:
  Amniotic Egg like
  reptiles
                            42
            Endothermy
 Endotherm (“warm-blooded”)
  keeping a constant body
  temperature

Advantages:
 Can be active even in colder biomes
 Can be active at night
  (nocturnal predators)

Disadvantages:
 Requires lots of energy
  (must find food often)                43
Hummingbirds




               44
4 chamber heart

        2 atria – 1 from body
        (deoxygenated), 1
        from lungs
        (oxygenated)


        2 ventricles – 1 pumps
        to lungs , 1 pumps to
        body
                                45
      4 chamber heart

 Even more energy needed for cells
   Birds = energy for flight
   Mammals = energy for large brains


 NO mixture of blood in 4 chamber
  heart


                                        46
    Digestive and Excretory
            system
 Food passes from the
  mouth cavity straight
  to the esophagus.

 The crop stores and
  moistens food.

 Then passes through
  the gizzard, a muscular
  organ that kneads and
  crushes the food
         Respiratory System

 Air enters nostrils at base of
  beakDown trachea past
  song boxenters two primary
  bronchiito lungs

 75% bypasses the lungs and
  flows directly to posterior to
  sacssacs connect with air
  spaces in bones, filling the
  hollow bones with air.

 When bird exhales the carbon
  dioxide rich air from the
  lungs, oxygen rich air is
  forced out of the posterior air
  sacs into lungs.
  Adapations for Flight

 Air sacs allow birds to take in more
  oxygen for cellular respiration

 Hollow bones is a adaptation to decrease
  weight take in more oxygen for cellular
  respiration.


                                         49
  Transitional reptile /
       mammal
Egg-laying Mammals or Monotremes
Platypus




                    Echidna
51
52
           Evolution and
            Adaptations
Mammals belong
to the class
Mammalia,
which includes
4000 species
Most dominant
land animals on
earth.
                           53
    Circulatory System
 Mammalian
  heart has 4
  chambers
 Mammals have a
  muscle , the
  diaphragm that
  aids in lung
  breathing
                         54
 Adaptations that distinguish
 Mammals from other vertebrates:

1. Hair which helps in insulation
2. Mammary glands that produce
   milk for the young.




                                    55
          Mammals
 19 orders of mammals
 17 nourish unborn young by the
  placenta
 The others are: egg laying
  Monotremes and Marsupials




                                   56
          Marsupials
 Marsupials give birth to tiny
  immature young that crawl to a
  pouch on the mothers belly
  immediately after they are born.




                                     57
       Characteristics of
      Placental Mammals
 Placental mammals carry unborn young in the
  uterus until young can survive in the wild.
 Oxygen and nutrients are transferred from
  mother’s blood to baby’s blood




                                           58
  Placental Characteristics
 The placenta is a
  membrane providing oxygen
  and nutrients and removal
  of CO2 and waste between
  the mother and developing
  young

 Gestation period is the
  time which mammals
  develop in mother’s uterus   59
                    Mammals
Hairy Saki-Monkey

     Also endothermic
     Hair helps to insulate, maintain internal
      body temperature




                                   Paraguaian Hairy 60
   Hairy Armadillo                 Dwarf Porcupine
               Mammals
 Large brain size (learning / communicating)

 Disadvantage: longer time needed for brain
  development
 Solution: longer gestation period in mom and
  intensive parental care early on (including milk
  from mammary glands)




                                                61
The End

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