A Nation Divides by a3yruG


									A Nation Divides
      Causes of
The American Civil War
  Objective: I can understand the
 events that led up to the Civil War
• The role of the Abolitionists and the
  Underground Railroad
• Sectionalism and States’ Rights
• Westward Expansion
• Missouri and 1850 Compromises
• Dred Scott Decision
• Kansas-Nebraska Act
• A group that was
  devoted to the cause of
  ending slavery.
• Most active from the
  1830s, but various
  groups formed to
  protest slavery as early
  as 1688.
        William Lloyd Garrison
Garrison published the
anti-slavery newspaper
“The Liberator” for over
thirty years. He was
perhaps the most radical
abolitionist, and insisted
that non-political, non-
violent, not segregated
methods were needed to
fight slavery
Angelina Grimke
       Born to a slave-holding
         family in South
         Carolina, Angelina
         and her sister, Sarah,
         moved to
         Pennsylvania and
         spoke out against
         slavery. They were
         verbally attacked for
         speaking in public.
                Lucretia Mott
A Quaker minister, Mott
  sought the abolition of
  slavery and sometimes
  sheltered runaway slaves
  in her home. She refused
  to wear cotton, eat
  sugarcane, or use any
  slave-produced good. She
  was also a supporter of
  women’s rights
     Reactions to the Abolitionist
• In the South, slaveholders and non-slaveholders believed
  that abolitionism threatened their way of life.
• In the North, where the abolitionists were a small fraction
  of the population, opposition focused on the potential
  threat to the nation’s social order, the potential for a war
  with the South, and that freed slaves might take jobs away
  from Northern factory workers by working for lower pay).
• Riots, mobs, and many acts of violence (including the
  murder of Elijah Lovejoy, editor of an anti-slavery
  newspaper in Illinois). The anti-slavery headquarters in
  Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Hall, was burned to the ground.
Frederick Douglass
         Born a slave in Maryland,
           Douglass escaped, became
           a lecturer for the anti-
           slavery cause and
           published an abolitionist
           newspaper, “The North
           Star”. He also worked
           with the Underground
           Railroad and was an
           advisor to Lincoln.
 A quote from Douglass:
Believe in yourself.
Take advantage of every opportunity.
Use the power of spoken and written language
  to effect positive change for yourself and
  The Underground Railroad
The Underground Railroad was a network of routes by
  which slaves attempted to escape to free states, or as far
  north as Canada, with the aid of abolitionists. Other routes
  led to Mexico or overseas. At its height between 1810 and
  1850, an estimated 30,000 to 100,000 people escaped
  enslavement via the Underground Railroad, though census
  figures only account for 6,000.
The Underground Railroad consisted of secret routes,
  transportation, meeting points, safe houses, and other
  havens, and assistance that was maintained by abolitionist
“Underground Routes”
           Harriet Tubman
• Born a slave, but
  escaped and became a
  conductor on the
  Railroad. She took
  more than 300 slaves
  to the north.
• During the Civil War,
  Harriet was a spy for
  the Union.
   SECTIONALISM: Instead of looking at the nation as a
   whole, southerners, westerners and northerners began to
identify themselves regionally and not as Americans. So, the
 people would put the needs of their region over the needs of
                         the nation.
  What did the North and South
          disagree on?
• Slavery
• Western Expansion
• Very different lifestyles, economies, and
  political ideals.
     NORTH                        SOUTH
• More diverse              • Agriculture as basis of
  population                  economy
• Higher population         • Cash Crops: Cotton,
• Larger cities               tobacco, rice, and
• Industry and business       sugarcane
• Small farms               • Slave labor
• Groups of abolitionists   • Few factories, little
  trying to end slavery       industry
Cotton is King!
        • In 1790 (before the
          invention of the cotton
          gin) there were about 750,
          000 slaves in the south
          and 3000 bales of cotton
          produced per year.
        • By 1860, the number of
          slaves was over four
          million, who produced
          almost four million bales
          of cotton per year
              States’ Rights
• Southern states felt state
  laws carried more
  weight than federal laws
  and therefore, state laws
  should be followed first.
  In addition, they argued
  that the federal
  government only has
  limited power under the
  10th amendment.
Westward Expansion
        New Territory
• Louisiana Purchase (1803)
• Texas (1845)
• Pacific Northwest (Treaty with Britain
  signed 1846: Oregon and Washington)
• New Mexico, most of Arizona,
  California, Utah, and Nevada (1848).
United States in 1800
United States in 1850
   Free or Slave States?
      Compromise #1:
Missouri Compromise of 1820
Missouri would come in as a
 slave state
Maine would come in as a free
Banned slavery in the rest of
 the Louisiana territory above
 the 36, 30’ parallel
       Compromise #2:
Compromise of 1850:
 California would be admitted as a
  free state
 Fugitive Slave Act
 Slave trade abolished in Washington
 New Mexico territory could decide
  for itself whether to allow slavery
             Fugitive Slave Act
• Required Northerners to
  return runaway slaves to
  their masters.
• Made the Federal
  government responsible
  for catching slaves and
  trying them before
  “special commissioners”.
  The slaves could not speak
  and the commissioners
  were paid more if they
  returned the slave to the
Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854
             Slave or Free?
• Introduced by Stephen Douglas, the act
  would allow the settlers of the proposed
  states to decide by voting (popular
  sovereignty) whether it would be slave or
  free. This abandoned the Missouri
  Compromise of 1820.
• Pro-slavery and anti-slavery groups flooded
  Kansas to influence the vote.
         “Bleeding Kansas”
• Elections put BOTH anti-
  slavery AND pro-slavery
  governments in charge of
• May 1856, Kansas
  exploded in violence:
  Lawrence was attacked by
  pro-slavery groups and
  anti-slavery groups
  committed revenge
• By Fall of 1856, over 200
  people had been killed in
Dred Scott Decision
  Dred Scott v Sanford (1857)
           Dred Scott Case
• Dred Scott sued for his
  freedom on the basis that
  he lived in Illinois (a free
  state) and the Wisconsin
  Territory (free) for
• The case went before
  the Supreme Court,
  which could use the case
  to rule on slavery in the
      The Court’s Decision:
• Chief Justice Roger Taney ruled that Dred
  Scott was still a slave, therefore not a citizen,
  and not even allowed to bring a lawsuit to the
• Living on free soil did not make someone free,
  and slaves were property.
• Congress had no power to prohibit slavery in
  the U.S. territories because that would amount
  to taking away a person’s property without “due
  process of law”.
Reaction to the Dred Scott
             • Southerners were elated
               by the Supreme Court
               ruling that preventing
               slavery’s spread was
             • Republicans and other
               anti-slavery groups were
               outraged and called it “the
               greatest crime” ever
               committed. They vowed
               to win the presidency,
               appoint new justices and
               overturn the decision.
          John Brown’s Plans
An abolitionist, John
  Brown planned to raid
  the federal arsenal
  (storage place for
  weapons and
  ammunition) in Harper’s
  Ferry Virginia. He
  planned to distribute the
  weapons to enslaved
  people for rebellion.
            October 16, 1859

• John Brown and 21 men, including two of his sons,
  stormed into the arsenal and a rifle maker’s shop and
  took 60 hostages.
• Brown was wounded when Marines under Colonel
  Robert E. Lee ended the stand-off. Both of Brown’s sons
  were killed.
John Brown was tried, found
   guilty, and executed.
Click for video:
Election of 1860
           The Candidates
• John Breckinridge: of Kentucky, nominated as a
  Democratic candidate. He was the vice-
  president, and promoted the extension of
  slavery into the territories.
• Stephen A. Douglas: of Illinois, a Democratic
  candidate who opposed the spread of slavery
  and lost the support of Southern Democrats.
        More Candidates…
• Abraham Lincoln: The Republican
  candidate, also from Illinois, he was a
  moderate. His party was opposed to the
  spread of slavery.
• John Bell: of Tennessee, was the candidate
  of the Constitutional Union Party, which
  took no formal position on slavery.
Lincoln Wins!

      • Lincoln won a majority of
        the votes, even though he
        did not appear on the
        ballot in most Southern
      • He won every Northern
      • He won 180 of 303
        electoral votes, but only
        40% of the popular vote.
             Three weeks later:

• South Carolina votes to
  secede, or leave, the
  United States on
  December 20, 1860
• They were joined by
  Texas, Louisiana,
  Mississippi, Alabama,
  Florida, Georgia to form
  the Confederate States of

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