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									           Design
Advanced Infrastructure Design (AID), Inc.




                    Case Study:
      Role of the Falling Weight Deflectometer
        in Pavement Rehabilitation Projects
                                                     Michael Frabizzio
                                                   Vahid Ganji, Ph.D., P.E.
                                                   Kaz Tabrizi, Ph.D., P.E.

                                             Advanced Infrastructure Design, Inc.
                                                       Middlesex, NJ
           Design
Advanced Infrastructure Design (AID), Inc.
                                             Introduction

       Can Play Critical Role in Various Phases
        of Project
               • Pavement Evaluation
               • Selection of Feasible Rehab Alternatives
               • Pavement Design
               • Life-Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA)
       Case Study Project
           Design
Advanced Infrastructure Design (AID), Inc.
                                             Case Study Project (I-295)

       Pavement Improvements Project
       Route I-295 (MP 32 to 41) in New Jersey
       3 Mainline Lanes, Left & Right Shoulders
       Mainline = PCC Pavement (78’ Slab Length)
       Shoulders = AC Pavement
           Design
Advanced Infrastructure Design (AID), Inc.
                                             Pavement Evaluation

       Objectives:
               • Assess Pavement Condition
               • Sectionalize Project Area
               • Determine Estimated Repair Quantities

       Various Test Methods
       FWD
               • Complements Other Tests
               • Provides Realistic Assessment of Pavement System
           Design
Advanced Infrastructure Design (AID), Inc.
                                             Pavement Evaluation

       FWD Data Used to:
               • Backcalculate Layer Moduli & Structural Number
               • Assess Condition of Transverse Joints
               • Helps to Sectionalize Project Area
               • Provide Number & Locations of Joints Requiring
                 DBR and/or Slab Undersealing
                                             Pavement Evaluation
           Design
Advanced Infrastructure Design (AID), Inc.
                                                 Case Study
       Coring
       Compressive Strength Testing
       Gradation Analyses
       DCP Testing
       Visual Condition Survey
       FWD Testing
       Review of Ride Quality & Surface Distress Data
       Review of Geotechnical Plans & Boring Logs
       Review of Construction History Information
                                                    Pavement Evaluation
           Design
Advanced Infrastructure Design (AID), Inc.
                                                                 Case Study
                                                                  Load        Joint
                                                                                                       k
                     Segment                 Lane    Direction   Transfer   Intercept   EPCC (ksi)
                                                                                                     (pci)
                                                                   (%)        (mils)

                                         Right      Northbound     86         0.01        4700       100
                    Southern
                                             Left   Southbound     94         0.22        4300       120


                                             Left   Northbound     95         0.25        5800       100


                                        Center      Northbound     74         1.18        5500       100


                                         Right      Northbound     60         0.62        5400       120
                    Northern
                                             Left   Southbound     95         0.21        6100       100


                                        Center      Southbound     74         0.54        5600       120


                                         Right      Southbound     85         0.06        5500       120
                                             Pavement Evaluation
           Design
Advanced Infrastructure Design (AID), Inc.
                                                 Case Study

        9” PCC over 12” Subbase
        Southern: Fair-to-Poor; Northern: Good
        Southern Has More Frequent & Severe Distresses
        Southern Has Worse Condition PCC Layer*
        Relatively Weak Subgrade throughout Project*
        Top of Subgrade Better in Northern
        Southern Has Worse Subbase
        Joints in Good Condition throughout Project Area*
                                              Pavement Evaluation
           Design
Advanced Infrastructure Design (AID), Inc.
                                                       Case Study

                                                                     MR
                                    Segment     Direction   SNeff
                                                                    (psi)


                                               Northbound   3.77    4820
                                   Southern
                                               Southbound   3.02    5180


                                               Northbound   3.31    4690
                                   Northern
                                               Southbound   2.63    4990
                                             Pavement Evaluation
           Design
Advanced Infrastructure Design (AID), Inc.
                                                 Case Study

        7” AC over 5/7” Gravel Base over 12”
         Subbase


        Southern Has Slightly Higher SNeff & MR
         Values*

        Relatively Weak Subgrade throughout
         Project Area
                                             Pavement Evaluation
           Design
Advanced Infrastructure Design (AID), Inc.
                                                 Case Study

        Visual Survey Results Used to Estimate PD
         & FD Repair, Slab Replacement, Crack
         Sealing, & Joint Sealing Quantities


        FWD Joint Test Results Used to Determine
         Number & Locations of Joints Requiring
         DBR and/or Slab Undersealing
                                                                       Pavement Evaluation
           Design
Advanced Infrastructure Design (AID), Inc.
                                                                                 Case Study
                                    Dowel Bar Retrofitting
                                                                               Southern     Northern   Direction Total
                                            (No.)
                                                  Right
                                      Northbound Southbound                    Not Tested     20             2
                                                                      Center   Not Tested     75             75
                                                                       Left        2           0             20
                                                                       Total       2          95             97
                                                                       Left    Not Tested      0             0
                                                                      Center   Not Tested     88             88
                                                                       Right      27          137           164
                                                                       Total      27          225           252
                                                              Segment Total       29          320           349
                                   Slab Undersealing (No.)                     Southern     Northern   Direction Total
                                                Right                          Not Tested      2              0
                                      Southbound




                                                                      Center   Not Tested      6             6
                                                                       Left        0           0             2
                                                                       Total       0           8             8
                                                                       Left    Not Tested      0             0
                                      Northbound




                                                                      Center   Not Tested     12             12
                                                                       Right       1           0             1
                                                                       Total       1          12             13
                                                              Segment Total        1          20             21
           Design                   Selection of Feasible Rehab Alt.’s
Advanced Infrastructure Design (AID), Inc.




        Determine Which Alternatives Are Practical
         & Cost-Effective


        Consider Functional & Structural Condition
         and Other Factors


        FWD & Other Test Data Are Useful
         Resources
                                    Selection of Feasible Rehab Alt.’s
           Design                              Case Study
Advanced Infrastructure Design (AID), Inc.




        Typical Alternatives
                 • Flexible Reconstruction
                 • Rigid Reconstruction
                 • AC Overlay
        Rubblization Alternative
                 • Determine Area with Sufficient Modulus of
                   Subgrade Reaction Value
                                     Selection of Feasible Rehab Alt.’s
           Design                                       Case Study
Advanced Infrastructure Design (AID), Inc.




                             250


                             200


                             150
                   k (pci)




                                                     Recommended
                                                         Area
                             100

                                                                       Feasible Area
                              50


                               0
                               32.00         33.00   34.00         35.00         36.00   37.00
                                                         Milepost
           Design                            Pavement Design
Advanced Infrastructure Design (AID), Inc.




        All Designs
                 • MR or k-value & Other Inputs Used to Compute
                   Required Structural Capacity


        Overlay Designs
                 • Existing Structural Capacity


        FWD Data Provides MR, k, & SNeff Values
                                             Pavement Design
           Design                               Case Study
Advanced Infrastructure Design (AID), Inc.




        Backcalculated MR Value for Shoulder Was
         Used for Flexible Reconstruction &
         Rubblization Designs for Mainline Lanes
        Backcalculated k-value for Mainline
         Pavement Used for Rigid Reconstruction &
         AC Overlay Designs for Mainline Lanes
        Shoulders Designed to Match Profile of
         Mainline Lanes
                                               Pavement Design
           Design
Advanced Infrastructure Design (AID), Inc.
                                                        Case Study
                                                                                            Right
                                                        Left Shoulder     Mainline
                                Alternative   Segment                                     Shoulder
                                                            Lane           Lanes
                                                                                            Lane
                                                         13" of AC        13" of AC       13" of AC
                                Flexible    Northern &
                             Reconstruction  Southern 8" of DGABC       8" of DGABC     8" of DGABC
                                                       8" of Subbase    8" of Subbase   8" of Subbase
                                                         14" of AC       14" of PCC       14" of AC
                                 Rigid      Northern &
                             Reconstruction  Southern 8" of DGABC       8" of BSOGD     8" of DGABC
                                                       8" of Subbase    8" of Subbase   8" of Subbase
                                                         10" of AC
                                             Northern 8" of DGABC        10" of AC       10" of AC
                                                       8" of Subbase
                              AC Overlay
                                                         11" of AC
                                             Southern 8" of DGABC        11" of AC       11" of AC
                                                       8" of Subbase
                                                         12" of AC
                              Rubblization Northern &
                                             Southern 8” of DGABC
                                                                         12" of AC       12" of AC
                             w/AC Overlay
                                                       8” of Subbase
           Design                            Life-Cycle Cost Analysis
Advanced Infrastructure Design (AID), Inc.




           Provides Life-Cycle Cost Comparison
            Among Rehab Alternatives


           FWD Plays Useful, Indirect Role in LCCA
                     FWD Data Used in Various Phases of Project
                     Products of These Phases Used in LCCA
                                             Life-Cycle Cost Analysis
           Design                                   Case Study
Advanced Infrastructure Design (AID), Inc.




           Pavement Designs, Based on FWD Data,
            Used in LCCA for All Alternatives


           DBR & Slab Undersealing Quantities,
            Determined Using FWD Joint Test Data,
            Used in LCCA for AC Overlay Alternative
                                             Life-Cycle Cost Analysis
           Design
Advanced Infrastructure Design (AID), Inc.
                                                        Case Study


                                         Alternative   Southern Segment   Northern Segment


                                        Flexible
                                                         $23,994,000        $19,132,000
                                     Reconstruction


                                Rigid Reconstruction     $33,004,000        $26,357,000


                                        AC Overlay       $22,639,000        $16,166,000


                                  Rubblization w/AC
                                                         $21,026,000        $17,029,000
                                      Overlay
           Design                            Summary
Advanced Infrastructure Design (AID), Inc.




           Functions of FWD Data in Pavement Rehab
            Projects:
                    • Backcalculate Moduli & Structural Number
                    • Assess Joint Condition & Determine Joint Repair
                      Quantities
                    • Sectionalize Project Area
                    • Help Determine Feasible Rehab Alternatives
                    • Provide Pavement Design Inputs
                    • Provide Framework & Inputs for LCCA
           FWD Is Valuable Tool for These Projects

								
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