# MID-TERM EXAM REVIEW by yaofenji

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```									FINAL EXAM REVIEW DATES: May 19 and May 21, 2009 (Tuesday and Thursday)
Tuesday/Thursday Sessions AM- starts at 8:00AM Room C213
Applied Science C213
Ms. Canarelli

STUDY:

IT IS CUMULATIVE SO ALL MATERIAL COVERED FROM THE START OF THE YEAR.

-   Scientific Method: know the steps in proper order
-   1) Problem/Purpose (1st part of this process and starts as a question)
-   2) Research and gather information regarding the question
-   3) Hypothesis (written as an “if…… then statement”) It is a prediction of what
you think the outcome will be once the experiment is completed.
-   4) Experimental Design: Includes the materials needed to perform the experiment.
The procedure (specific written plan as to how the experiment is to be carried out)
and the “Control group” and “Experimental group.”
-   The control group and experimental group. (Remember the control group is the
group that is a standard for comparison- it is untouched. Subjects in the control
group would receive a “placebo” (sugar pill or other substance without chemicals)
to help compare the control group and the experimental group (this group is the
group that is tested and will receive the real substance).
-   The experimental group contains the dependent and independent variables.
-   Dependent variable is dependent on the independent variable for a change to
occur. (For example: If students drink 1 cup of orange juice daily then their
grades will improve). The independent variable is the orange juice and the
-   Dependent variables are measurable and are graphed on the “y” axis of a line
graph.
-   Independent variables are graphed on the “x” axis (on the bottom of a line graph).
-   5) Perform the Experiment
-   6) Record observations and collect data (Data can be quantitative and qualitative)
-   Quantitative: think quantity- the amounts, size in inches, feet, meters, etc.
-   Qualitative: think sensory organs- sight, smell, hear, touch, taste (only if
approved)
-   7) Organize data in the form of tables, charts and graphs.
-   8) Analyze data
support your hypothesis then what you thought would happen in the beginning
actually did after the experiment was completed.
-   If your results rejected your hypothesis then what you thought would happen did
not occur once your experiment was completed.
-   10) REPEAT THE EXPERIMENT ALWAYS (to see if you get the same results)

-   What contributes to a reliable experiment? Repeat the experiment, have both the
control group and experimental group, once the experiment is started must follow
through as the procedure stated originally to avoid BIAS (falsifying information),

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have a controlled experiment (conditions are controlled such as temperature, type
of soil, amount of sunlight exposure, amount of water, etc.)

-   Know how to interpret graphs- line graphs, bar graphs, and pie charts/graphs

-   How are graphs constructed properly? Must have a title, label x and y axes, make
sure the units are listed (Example: grams, inches, or seconds), plot points
accurately, consistent spacing and numbering on axes, connect points accurately
possibly with a ruler depending on the graph).

-   Life processes, cells, organelles
-   Taxonomy (Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species)
-   How to interpret a dichotomous key and why it is important in science.

-   NUTRITION: Food Guide Pyramid, Food Label (How to interpret), and Dietary
Guidelines.
-   Know there are “5” food groups in the food guide pyramid- Grains, Fruits,
Vegetables, Milk, Meats and Beans. Fats, Oils, and Sweets are to be
limited/avoided and are not considered to be a food group
-   Know the differences between Carbohydrates, Fats, Protein, Vitamins, Minerals,
and Water (6 basic nutrients for survival)
-   Water- 6-8 8oz. glasses per day recommended. Should be increased with
exercise and hot weather. Needed for hydration. Body made of mostly water.
-   Milk (needed for calcium and vitamin D) - get from skim, low-fat, whole milk
(watch saturated fat), yogurt, and cheese (watch saturated fat), soy milk.
-   Grains- Make half your grains whole. Replace white flour with wheat/whole grain
products to get increased fiber and B vitamins. Examples: whole wheat pasta,
carbohydrates and some carbohydrates have more fiber than others) Fiber helps
prevent colon cancer and constipation- aids in digestion. There are differences
between simple sugars and complex carbohydrates. Simple sugars are foods that
do “NOT” provide a long lasting source of energy and have a low nutritional
value- example: candy bars, soft drinks, etc. Complex carbohydrates such as
starches and fiber take longer to digest and therefore provide a longer lasting
energy source and have a greater nutritional value that is why they are better to
consume.
-   Fruits and Vegetables- choose color. Contain antioxidants (Vitamins A,C,E) -
goal total of 5 servings per day to possibly prevent cancer. Lots of vitamins and
minerals within.
-   Meats and Beans (for protein). Watch the fat contents since some meats such as
sausage, liver, pepperoni, fried foods (fat content high). Meat and beans group:
eggs, tofu, chicken, fish, pork, etc.
-   Know how to read the food label and the 20% DV or more is HIGH. 5% DV or
less is LOW. This can be good or bad depending on the nutrient.
-   Know what nutrients to limit/avoid and know what to increase.

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-   Types of macronutrients: carbohydrates (fuel for body and when broken down
(digested) turns into glucose in body), fats (secondary energy source and type of
fat should be considered but fat is necessary for the absorption of fat soluble
vitamins A, D, E, K), protein (last energy resort- mostly for growth and repair,
making enzymes, cell structure, etc.)
-   Types of micronutrients: VITAMINS (Note: antioxidants: Vitamins A, C, E help
to fight free radicals which can help prevent certain types of cancer. Antioxidants
are found in colorful fruits and vegetables- goal is to have 5 servings per day total.
Vitamins help prevent vitamin deficiency disease. Vitamin C is found in most
citrus fruits. Colorful fruits and vegetables is where vitamins are mostly found.
MINERALS are another micronutrient that includes sodium, potassium, iron,
magnesium, calcium.
-   Fats: Naturally occurring fats include the Triglycerides (fats found in food)
include “Saturated fat”- solid at room temperature since carbons are saturated
with hydrogens, comes from animal sources, has to be limited/avoided since it
leads to plaques in arteries = heart disease, “Polyunsaturated fat”- liquid at room
temperature, comes from plants, less saturated and examples include vegetable
oil, corn oil, safflower oil, “Monounsaturated fat”- liquid at room temperature,
comes from plants, least saturated and is considered the “BEST CHOICE” and
should be utilized as a substitution for the other fats. Examples include: olive oil
and canola oil. Still have to watch fat intake since intake should be ~ <30%
calories coming from fat.
-   Saturated fat and Trans fats should be avoided and substituted with other types of
fat. Monounsaturated fats are best (olive and canola oil).
-   Cholesterol is another naturally occurring fat that is produced in the liver, is a
waxy substance, and used to make hormones such as sex hormones- testosterone
(males), progesterone and estrogen (females). Must be limited because our body
makes it and it can be consumed from foods which excess can lead to plaques in
arteries = heart disease.
-   Note: Trans fats are “NOT” naturally occurring. A manufacturer takes oil and
adds hydrogen to the oil to make it a consistency that it wants. This can not only
satisfy the companies’ goal of making products with a certain consistency but also
increase the shelf life when sold in stores because it is artificial. The terms
“hydrogenated” or “partially hydrogenated” indicate a trans fat has been utilized.
Partially hydrogenated would be found in “tub margarines” which are spreadable
while “fully hydrogenated” would be found in stick margarines. PROBLEM- acts
like a saturated fat and can clog arteries = heart disease. In New York and around
the world- focus has been placed on eliminating trans fats from products since
there is already a problem with heart disease being the leading cause of death
more contribution to this problem in an artificial way should be eliminated.
-   Calories: measurement of the unit of energy found in food.
-   Think about how food is prepared- grilled versus fried, serving sizes, etc.
-   Heart disease- factors that cause, prevention, and types
-   Why is knowledge of nutrition important?
-   Diets do not work- just follow the food guide pyramid and dietary guidelines

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-   Tips are- Variety, Balance, Moderation, Physical Activity (30 minutes most days
of the week of PA may prevent health related disease, 60 minutes or more most
days of the week of PA may prevent health related disease, prevent weight gain,
and promote weight loss). Calculate Target Heart Rate.
-   Most important- every individual has individual caloric needs.
-   Organ Systems (Body Systems) - Excretory, Endocrine, Respiratory, Immune,
Digestive, Reproductive, Circulatory (Cardiovascular), Integumentary, Muscular,
Skeletal, Nervous).
-   The organs within in each body system.
-   The function of each body system.
-   Term homeostasis and how the body functions to maintain it.
-   Diagrams that were distributed (Ex: neuron, respiratory system, digestive system,
skeletal, etc.)
-   Different types of muscle tissue (skeletal, cardiac, and smooth) - know where
each is found in the body and diagrams of each. Voluntary and Involuntary.
-   Cells and blood: Solid portion and liquid portion of blood. Solid portion- red
blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Liquid portion- plasma (mostly
water).
-   Levels of cellular organization for small to large:
Cells  Tissues  Organ  Organ Systems  Organism (Tissues are made up
of cells. Organs are made up of tissues. Organ systems are made up of more than
1 organ. Organism contains all. An organism can be examples such as a plant or
animal).
-   Functions of the blood cells. Example: red blood cells contain a protein known as
hemoglobin that is a red pigment that gives it the red color. Red blood cells carry
oxygen around the body and iron is necessary to help oxygen bind to the cells.
White blood cells fight infection. Macrophages engulf (eat) pathogens (germs)
that enter the body. There are more red blood cells than white blood cells.
Platelets help blood to clot to stop bleeding when there is a wound.
-   HIV/AIDS- know what the letters stand for. Human Immunodeficiency Virus.
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. Study the signs and symptoms.
Incubation period, how HIV is contracted, how to prevent, how to treat, etc. It
weakens the immune system by attacking the T-lymphocytes a type of white
blood cell that normally fights infection in a healthy individual. There is no cure
for AIDS since it is a virus.
-   Opportunistic Infections.

STUDY ALL PowerPoint notes, hand-outs, diagrams, past tests/quizzes. This is review
sheets that list key components but do not limit yourself to the brief information on this
review sheet.
Study in advance, utilize all notes from the year, and do not cram or procrastinate.
Test yourself prior.

Good Luck!!!

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