Digital Technologies Symposium, 2010
Build a PC in a Day Workshop
Session 1: Initial PC setup
You will be assigned a PC and will work in pairs, The PC will have a hard disk drive which is
During this session, we hope you will be able to:
View and modify the System BIOS setup
Create and format disk partitions in order to install an operating system
Install a copy of Windows XP plus essential device drivers (motherboard, video, audio,
Set up a local area network of the PCs in the room
Install a network printer
Install a copy of Mint Linux in a dual boot configuration.
Before you start:
Assemble the parts of your system: Plug in all loose cables – video, mouse, keyboard. Speakers,
Plug in one end of your Ethernet cable into the RJ-45 network connector at the back of your PC.
Plug the other end into a spare port on the switch.
Turn your PC ON and after the initial screen display, press <F10> to enter the system BIOS set up
program. Navigate to the boot menu, and set the boot order:
o First: Removable
o Second: CD/DVD
o Third: Hard disk
o Fourth: disable
Before exiting the BIOS set up. Find your windows XP CD and place it in your DVD drive.
Now save your changes (press <F10> ) and exit.
Your PC will now reboot ...
1. Create and format a partition for Windows to install into:
1;1 Watch for the ―Press any key to boot from CD‖ message.
1.2 The Blue Windows setup screen should appear, and start to load the installation files. This
will take about 3 minutes.
1.3 When the Welcome to Setup screen appears, press <enter> to continue.
1.4 Read the End User Licence agreement displayed (English version only!), and press <F8> to
agree, and continue with the installation.
1.5 The next screen shows partition information relating to C: drive. As there is no partition on
the disk, press C, to create a new partition. Enter a partition size of 8000MB, and Press
<enter> to confirm.
1,6 On the next screen, select the first option — NTFS Quick format — and Press <enter> to
install in this partition.
2 The Installation:
2.1 After rebooting, setup continues installation and prompts you to check — and modify if
necessary — regional settings.
2.2 Click on ―Customize‖, and change ―English (United States)‖ to ―English (New Zealand)‖, and
change ―Location‖ to” New Zealand‖.
Click on ―OK‖ to accept your changes. Now click on Next> to continue.
2.3 You are now required to enter your Name and Organization.
Your Name should be: DTGnn — where ―nn” is your team number (01, 02, … 10).
Enter DTG for the Organization. Now click on Next to continue.
2.4 On the next screen, you must enter the Windows XP product key. This is located on the Win
XP CD cover.
2.5 On the next screen, enter your ―Computer Name‖. Make this the same as your User Name —
2.6 Make your administrator’s password ―admin‖. After confirming your password, click on Next
2.7 Date & Time: The current date, time, and time zone will be displayed. Check that it is
correct, and make any corrections if necessary. It should be ―GMT + 12
2.8 Click Next to continue. Setup is now installing your networking components —accept the
default settings. (only 30 minutes to go!)
2.9 Eventually Windows reboots, detects your graphics card setting, and offers to adjust the
resolution from the default. Click OK to continue. It displays a dialogue box —―Help Protect
your PC…‖ — Select the ―not right now‖ option , and click on Next >.
2.10 Windows now prompts you to enter User names. Enter your own names and click on the
green right arrow to continue. Then click on ―Finish.
3 Installing Drivers:
Although the Windows setup has completed, there is still some work to do. Every make and model of
PC has a variety of devices that Windows does not know about, or has installed default drivers which
do not make optimal use of all features. In particular, there are device drivers for components on the
motherboard, and for network, audio, and video cards. Without these, you may not get any sound,
your disk drives may run slowly, you cannot connect to a network, and you will be very limited in the
screen display settings that you can use.
3.0 Go to the start menu and open the control panel. On the left hand side of the screen, click on ―switch
to Classic View‖. Dbl click on the System icon. This opens a display of t system properties. Note the
processor, and RAM details:
Click on the Hardware tab, and then Device Manager.
Note all of the yellow exclamation marks under the Other Devices. This indicates that there are a
number of devices that Windows does not know about and has no drivers for. You need to install
device drivers to fix these problems.
3.1 Remove the Windows CD, and insert the HP DX51250 Driver CD.
3.2 Load Windows Explorer, and double click on the CD-drive icon to display the Driver Disk files.
3.3 Find the ―chipset‖ driver file, and double click on it. Follow the on-screen instructions, taking all
default options. If prompted to re-boot, do not do this – wait until all the devices drivers have been
installed, and reboot then, in order to save time.
3.4 Now find the Broadcom Gigabit Network driver file and install this driver (taking default options
3.5 Now install the ATI video driver. This time take ―Custom install‖. Make sure the ATI display driver
is ticked, and the Catalyst Control Centre is unticked.
3.6 Finally install the Realtek audio drivers. This time re-boot when prompted.
3.7 Once all drivers have been installed, go to the Control panel. Now go to the System applet, click on
the Hardware tab, and select Device Manager . Go to each section and open the hardware category
panel, by clicking in the ―+‖ sign. Note the drivers that are now installed, and verify that there are no
problems (There may be one device marked with yellow ―!‖ — probably due to not installing all of
the system drivers — we will ignore this because of the limited time available).
4. Setting up a Local Area Network:
4.1 Go to the Firewall panel, and click on ―Exceptions‖. Now tick the ―File and printer sharing‖ box, and
4.2 Now double-click on the Network Setup Wizard. Click ―Next‖ twice to get to the ―Select connection
method‖ screen. As we are not connecting to the internet today, select “other‖, and click on ―Next‖.
4.3 On the next screen, you should see your Computer Name displayed. Do NOT change this. You may
enter a ―computer Description‖ if you like. This is merely documentation, and will have no effect on
your system performance. Click on ―Next‖.
4.4 The next screen displays the Windows default Workgroup name (MSHOME). Change this to
Symposium, and click on ―Next‖.
4.5 File & Printer Sharing: On this panel, select ―Turn on file & printer sharing‖ & click ―Next‖.
4.6 Windows now displays your selections. Verify that these are correct, and then click on ―Next‖ to
apply these settings. (If not correct, go back, and reselect where necessary.)
4.7 Almost Done! Windows invites you to copy your network setting onto a disk so you can repeat the
process on other PCs in your network. As others in the class are doing this for you, skip this step.
Select ―Just finish‖ and click on ―Next‖. Click finish again to complete the task.
4.8 Windows invites to you re-start …Click on ―Yes‖ to do this now.
4.9 Once you have logged in again, go to the start|My Network Places. In the Network Tasks panel on
the left hand side of the screen, click on ―View workgroup Computers‖. You should now be able to
see yourself, and any others who have completed their set up.
5 Installing a Network Printer:
5.1 Go to start|Printers and Faxes. You may see that Windows has given you access to the Tutor’s
Printer already. If so, delete this and start again — Just for practice .
5.2 Click on ―Add a printer‖, and follow the on-screen instructions.
5.3 As you are adding a Network printer (one not directly connected to your PC), select ―Network
Printer‖ and click ―Next‖.
5.4 On the ―specify a printer‖ screen, take the ―browse‖ option and click ―Next‖. You should now be
able to see the Tutor PC. Double click on that Icon, to reveal the Tutor’s Printer. Click ―Next‖, and
then ―Finish‖, to complete the job.
5.5 Testing: Right click on the Printer icon, and select ―Properties‖. Now print a test page, and bring
it to your tutor as proof of completion of this exercise.
6 The Linux Challenge:
If you have at least 30 minutes left in your session, you should now attempt to install linux on
your hard disk as a dual-boot setup by following the procedure below.
6.1 Insert the Mint Linux DVD in to the drive and re-boot your PC so that the machine boots from the
6.2 For this part of the exercise you are on your own! Make intelligent guesses when asked for
information. But when you get stuck, Just ask for help.
6.3 When you have completed the installation, get your tutor to sign-off your task sheet.
7 Tidy Up:
7.1 Remove the driver DVD and shut down your PC.
6.4 Bring your completed task sheet, your hard disk, floppy, network cable, and CDs to your tutor for
a final sign-off.
The Mint distribution of Linux is based on anther very well known linux distribution called Ubuntu.
Ubuntu is a South African ethical ideology focusing on people's allegiances and relations with each other.
The word comes from the Zulu and Xhosa languages. Ubuntu (pronounced "oo-BOON-too") is seen as a
traditional African concept, is regarded as one of the founding principles of the new republic of South Africa
and is connected to the idea of an African Renaissance. A rough translation of the principle of Ubuntu is
"humanity towards others".
Windows 7 Note:
Windows XP will continue to exist in Microsoft’s newest O/S — Windows 7 — by installing a freely
downloadable package referred to as ―XP Mode.
If you wan tot upgrade to Win 7 from XP, you will need to do a ―clean install‖ — as we have done today.
If you are upgrading from a version of windows Vista, you may be able to upgrade without wiping out
your disk and starting from scratch.
Windows Installation Exercise
Task Sheet Score: _____/10
PC # ___________ Names: ___________________ _____________________
Step Description Verified by tutor
Enter Bios Setup and verify boot order
(Floppy/CD/Hard disk) - Show your Tutor
1 Boot from Windows XP CD; run setup
Create an NTFS partition
Start time: _______________________
Install the OS
Finish time: _______________________
2 Install drivers.
Show your Device Drivers panel to your tutor.
3 Confirm you are on the network and install
network printer. Show Test Page to your Tutor.
4 Install Mint Linux as a dual boot system and
demonstrate boot menu to you Tutor
Finish time: ________________________
Total score 10 points
-1 for each of the following infringements:
Tutor assistance to fix student-generated
Not completing tasks within time allowed
Session 2: Building a PC
Background Notes: Electrostatic Discharge (ESD)
Do you recognize this experience? You walk across a carpeted room on a day when the humidity is very
low, reach for a doorknob, and get zapped. Here’s how it happens. Electrostatic charges — also known as
static electricity — build up when two insulating materials are rubbed together. Electrons are rubbed off
of one surface and onto another. So, one surface will now have an excess of electrons and thus be
negatively charged, while the other will have a relative deficiency of electrons and be positively charged.
The magnitude of these charges is impressive—as much as tens of thousands of volts. Fortunately, the
current in the situation just mentioned is very low. Although the shock that we get when we touch a
doorknob or other conductive material is startling, it doesn’t do any damage.
Even though people aren’t harmed by such ESD incidents, transistors and the integrated circuits built
from them are extremely sensitive to minute currents and any voltages that exceed the 5 to 12 volts
from which they typically are powered.
THE UNSEEN THREAT
Manufacturers of computers and other electronic devices, such as telephones, copiers, fax machines, and
so on, take great pains to design their systems so they’re armoured against ESD hazards. In general,
they’re mostly successful in that regard. Most computers are enclosed in a grounded metal chassis that
will shield the internal electronics from any discharge. The chassis is further surrounded by an insulating
plastic outer casing. About the only vulnerable points of most computers are serial and parallel ports,
and users are unlikely to be touching these in everyday use.
The part of a computer most likely to get zapped is the one you come into contact with most frequently:
the keyboard. 3M has come up with a self-adhesive static dissipative strip that you can apply to a
keyboard, just below the space bar. It includes a ground wire that you connect to a known electrical
ground—the screw on the faceplate of a grounded AC wall outlet, for example).
By touching the grounding strip before touching anything else on your computer, you’ll dissipate any
electrostatic charge that you may have built up by walking across the carpet. Other types of keyboard
wrist rests and related devices that incorporate some type of anti-static feature are also available.
Perhaps the situation where you must take the most precautions against ESD is when you’re servicing a
computer or handling circuit boards. Electronics manufacturers are keenly aware that unmounted
integrated circuits (ICs) and circuit boards are extremely vulnerable to ESD hazards, and they take
elaborate precautions in their manufacturing operations.
Most do not install carpeting on shop floors, preferring linoleum or other floor tiles, polished with
electrically conductive floor waxes. Assembly tables are covered with conductive laminates. Workers
wear cotton anti-static shop coats and avoid nylon or other nonconductive synthetic textiles. Parts bins
and trays are moulded from special conductive plastics. And finished circuit boards are shipped in anti-
static plastic bags.
MINDING THE SHOP
A completed circuit board—a network adapter or modem, for example—is most vulnerable to ESD right
when it arrives in your shop, ready for installation in a computer. But you can eliminate ESD hazards by
taking a few simple precautions and investing in a couple of low-cost anti-static components.
A good start is to obtain conductive anti-static table mats for your service bench. These have a ground
wire for connection to a reliable ground point. It’s a good idea to place any computer that you’re going to
service on such a mat before opening it up. You can also get anti-static wrist straps. These come with a
coiled cord that connects to ground through a 1-megohm resistor. The resistance is for personal safety, in
the event you should come into contact with 220-volt power source. The coiled cord shouldn’t interfere
with your work. And, most use a snap attachment to the wrist strap, so if you need to walk away from the
bench to fetch something, it’s a simple matter to unsnap the coiled cord, then quickly snap it back onto
the wrist strap when you return.
If you need to work on a computer, but don’t have an anti-static mat and wrist strap, there are still some
precautions you can take. For example, before opening up the computer, make sure the power is turned
off, but leave the power cord plugged in. This will ensure that the computer’s chassis is grounded through
the power cord.
Alternatively, use a wire terminated with alligator clips to connect the chassis to an earth ground. Touch
some point on the metal chassis, the back panel, for example, before opening the computer. This will
drain off any static charge that may have been on your body. When you’ve opened up the system— and
before you reach in to remove any circuit boards—touch the chassis again.
Before opening the anti-static bag on any new board you’re installing, hold the board in its protective
bag in one hand while you touch the chassis with your other hand. By doing this, you’ll drain off any
static charge that may exist on the outside of the bag. You can then open the bag and remove the board.
It’s good practice to handle circuit boards by their edges or mounting brackets, and avoid touching
ICs or circuit traces. Obviously, if the board has jumpers that need to be set, you’re going to have to touch
the board. But it’s still a good idea to avoid handling circuit boards to the extent that you can.
Walking around is a good way to build a static charge, so if you need to step away from the system, make
sure you again ground yourself by touching the chassis upon your return.
By using these techniques, you can work on a system with very little likelihood of doing any ESD
damage. Clearly, though, using an anti-static wrist strap is a far more positive way to guarantee that
you aren’t harbouring a static charge.
If a circuit board arrives in an anti-static plastic bag, you should probably conclude that the component is
static-sensitive. So, don’t pull it out of the bag until you’re ready to install it in a computer. First, place
the computer and all the boards you’re going to install (still in their conductive plastic bags) on the
grounded anti-static mat. Then, put on your wrist strap before pulling any circuit boards out of their bags.
Any boards you remove should be put into conductive anti-static bags. (It’s a good idea to hang onto anti-
static bags that come with new boards.)
Handling polystyrene cups, polystyrene peanuts and packing material, and the plastic shrink-wrap film
that new software comes in can expose you to a high-voltage static field that can zap components, so keep
these things out of your server rooms, wiring closets, and service shop.
To understand why nonconductive plastics are such an ESD hazard, consider the polystyrene cup. Let’s
assume it has a high-voltage static charge on its surface. Touching the cup to a grounded electrical
conductor will drain off the charge only at the point of contact. Because the plastic in the cup acts as an
insulator, the charge that exists over the rest of the cup’s surface remains in place.
Ionized-air blowers are available for service benches. These produce a stream of ionized air (both positive
and negative ions) that neutralizes any static field that may exist on nonconductive plastic surfaces. The
blowers can be a nice insurance policy, in case nonconductive materials come into contact with sensitive
electronic components. Even if you take this precDTGion, however, it’s still good practice to have a
policy of keeping plastic cups and other materials away from the service bench.
ON THE CARPET
You’ll also want to give some attention to the type of floor covering that’s being used in your offices.
Many synthetic carpets are complete insulators and promote static build-up. If you’re outfitting a new
office or putting new carpet into an existing one, look for carpets that are conductive—either by nature of
the material they’re made of, or from some coating that’s been applied. You can also treat existing
carpeting with anti-static sprays. (Repeated carpet cleaning tends to remove anti-static treatments and
sprays, so you’ll need to periodically reapply them.)
Many people have trouble rolling their office chairs across carpeting (especially if it’s deep pile), so they
put a hard plastic or rubber chair mat on top of the carpet, to get a nice, smooth rolling surface. The only
problem with this is that most of these mats are electrical insulators, which again means there’s potential
for static charges to build up. An alternative is to buy special static-dissipative chair mats. These are made
of conductive plastic and come with a ground wire that you can connect in the same fashion as the
keyboard anti-static strip mentioned previously.
Also, avoid low humidity. Humid air conducts electricity, to a certain extent. By contrast, very dry air is
an insulator. Heaters and furnaces not only heat air, they reduce the humidity as they do so. You may
want to add a humidifier to your heating system to add moisture back into the air. Obviously, you don’t
want to go overboard with this—humidity in excess of 90 percent can result in condensation that can
short-circuit electronics. It is ultra-low humidity (15 percent or less) that you want to avoid.
HOW BAD CAN IT BE?
Are we going overboard with this ESD stuff? Somewhere between paranoia and oblivion lies a happy
medium. Some organizations don’t have much of an ESD problem. Others, particularly those in dry or
cold climates, can have severe problems. What’s so insidious about ESD is that an organization may have
a problem and not even know it. It takes fairly high voltages (up in the thousands of volts) to produce a
noticeable spark when you touch a metallic object. You can be carrying a static charge of a few hundred
volts, which is enough to damage a circuit board, and not know it, because you don’t feel the discharge
when you touch metal.
One way to determine whether hazardous ESD levels exist in your environment is to use a static field
meter. These devices, which typically sell for $300 to $500, can measure the static charge on a surface,
when placed within a few inches of the surface.
In general, it doesn’t cost a fortune to purchase the equipment and supplies needed for ESD protection.
Anti-static wrist straps cost $15 or less. Most table mats are priced at less than $20. For anti-static
materials and equipment, check out suppliers of electronic assembly equipment. If you don’t know of any
sources, here are a couple you can use as a starting point:
Dick Smith Electronics Ltd — www.dse.co.nz
Computer Dynamics Ltd — www.cdlnz.com
Surplustronics — www.surplustronics.co.nz
Digital Technologies Symposium, 2010
Build your own PC Workshop
Part 2: Putting it together
In this exercise, you will disassemble a PC, reassemble it, and add in some extra components, while
observing correct anti-static procedures.
You will be working in teams of two.
For this session you will need the following items:
A toolkit with anti-static straps, screw driver, and other bits & pieces
An anti-static mat
A floppy disk drive and cable
A check list to be signed off as each checkpoint is reached. Put your name(s) on this sheet now.
1. One team member should shut down the PC, and remove the power cable from the power socket.
S/he should clip the anti-static mat wire to the grille at the rear of the PC. The other team member
should retrieve a floppy drive and cable from the tutor’s desk.
2. Both team members should fit their anti-static wrist-straps and fasten the clip to the grille at the rear
of the PC.
3. Get your tutor to sign off check point 1.
1. You are about to dismantle a working PC. Follow the instructions below carefully. Note where
every part and cable came from, and for cables, remember their orientation (which end plugs into
the motherboard, and which way does a cable plug into its socket).
*** Checkpoint 1: Your tutor will verify that you have the correct components at your work
station, and are correctly set up to begin …
2. Note your start time on the check list sheet
3. Disconnect all other cables from the back of the PC (monitor, keyboard, mouse, ...).
4. Remove the system unit cover:
4.1 Unscrew the black plastic screw at the back of the system unit to release the lid of the case.
4.2 With both hands on the sides of the case, place both thumbs in the depressed well at the centre
of the case lid and push backwards to slide the lid from the case.
5. Remove the front panel by lifting the 3 green tabs (with curly arrows) at the front of the case.
6. Remove the DVD Drive:
6.1 Remove the DVD drive power cable and IDE data cable.
6.2 Push the spring-loaded green latch to the left of the DVD bay (with the white arrow) in the
direction of the arrow and lift the DVD drive out of the drive bay.
7. Remove the Hard disk Drive:
7.1 Pull the green handle to the left of the DVD drive Bay upwards and towards you.
7.2 Remove the SATA power and data cables from the disk drive.
7.3 Push down on the green lever on the side of the disk bay, and remove the disk by grasping it
with one hand and gently pulling backwards. Place the disk on the mat.
8. Remove all cables from the motherboard:
(Remember where these cables came from and their orientations!)
Note: You may leave the short RS232 serial cable at the back of the system unit (behind the
processor), as this is most difficult to get at.
9. Remove the RAM DIMM module and place it on the mat.
10. Remove the Processor:
10.1 Remove the fan by unscrewing the two Philips-head screws on top of the fan.
10.2 Remove the heat-sink by unscrewing the two spring-loaded screws using either a torx or small
10.3 Lift the lever at the side of the processor socket, lift the processor carefully out of the ZIF
socket, and lay it pin-down on the mat. Note the position of the small gold arrow on the
processor relative to the corner of the socket.
This completes the disassembly process. (Note the time on your task sheet)
** checkpoint 2: PC is complete disassembled — Ask your tutor to confirm before starting to re-
B: Re-assembly: (Note your starting time on your task sheet)
1. Time permitting, you may scrape the old silicone heat-sink paste off the heat-sink and processor,
and apply a new coat of paste. You may also want to clean dust out of the fan & heat sink. Ask
your tutor for a brush.
2. Re-fit the processor, heat-sink, and fan.
3. Insert the RAM module
4. Insert all power cables, USB, audio, and case interface cables.
5. Insert the hard disk drive and re-fit the SATA power and data cables
6. Re-install the DVD Drive:
6.1 Change the drive jumper from ―cable select‖ to ―master‖ (you may be able to do this if you
have small fingers and long nails — if not, ask your tutor for a pair of tweezers).
6.2 Leaving the drive bay open (vertical position), slide the DVD drive into the drive bay and re-
fit the power and IDE cables.
6.3 Insert the CD audio cable (from your toolkit) into the audio sockets in the DVD drive and the
6. Install a floppy drive:
6.1 Remove the plastic floppy drive bay cover plate from the system unit front fascia by pushing
gently from the inside at the centre of the plate. (This plate may be stored inside the case next
to the motherboard.)
6.2 Insert 4 round-head screws (from your toolkit) into appropriate holes in the sides of the floppy
6.3 Slide the floppy disk drive into the floppy disk drive bay until it clicks into place.
6.4 Insert one end of the floppy data cable into the motherboard floppy disk socket (FDD1), and
the other end into the floppy drive pins (note carefully the position of pin 1 relative to the
cable red stripe).
6.5 Fit the floppy drive power cable.
7. Close the drive bay assembly.
8. Re-fit the front fascia. But do NOT re-fit the system cover.
9. Install a Modem:
9.1 Open the modem box, and remove the modem card, placing it on the mat.
9.2 Lift the green lever at the rear of the system unit to release the expansion slot covers.
9.3 Lift out one of the slot covers exposing a PCI slot.
9.4 Insert the mode, card into the exposed PCI slot.
9.5 Connect the phone-line to the ―line‖ slot at the rear of the modem card.
10. Re-fit the keyboard, mouse, monitor, and power cord.
You have completed the re-assembly! (Note the time on your task sheet)
** Checkpoint 3 — Ask your tutor to verify that all is correctly assembled.
He will then power on the PC and verify that all is well …
All LEDs display correctly
Can boot from floppy
Can read a CD/DVD
Can boot from hard drive and load Windows/linux.
11. Time permitting, install the driver for the modem, following the manufacturer’s instructions (or
otherwise). Early finishers may also like to try installing one or more of the devices on the front
table — wireless mice, webcam, external HDD, Multi-card reader, USB hub, barcode scanner, ....
12.1 Shut your PC down
12.2 Remove the modem, and replace the expansion slot plate
12.3 Remove the floppy drive and cable, and replace the plastic drive bay cover.
12.4 re-fit the system unit cover.
12.5 Place tools etc into toolkit and return toolkit & spare parts to the tutor’s desk for final
inspection and sign-off.
Task Sheet Score: _____/10
PC # ___________ Names: ________________________ __________________________
Check Description Tutor Signature
Collect gear, set up anti-static devices, …
1 PC is off and unplugged - ready to start
Disassemble PC so that the CPU, RAM, cables, and all
peripheral & I/O devices are removed.
Start time: ______________________________
2 PC is completely disassembled as per instructions
Finish time: ____________________
Reassemble, installing floppy drive, modem ,and CD
Start time: ____________________
3 PC is re-assembled with lid off, ready for inspection &
Finish Time: _____________________
Criteria: the PC still works – can boot from hard disk,
DVD, and floppy; all LEDs are working,
4 PC has been returned to its original state
Tool kit has been pack up in the same manner that it
was received, and extra gear returned.
Total score 10 points
(less penalties and Plus bonus points - install modem
driver, web cam, barcode reader: +1 each)
-1 for each of the following infringements:
not wearing anti-static strap while working on
Tutor assistance to fix student-generated
PC not correctly assembled or configured
Tool kit not repacked correctly
Not completing tasks within time (-1 … -5)
Not following instructions (-1)
Damaging equipment (-1 - 10)
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