Research Report on EFL by nuhman10

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									Class Room Research Paper
      An Exploratory Research
                                                                                                             Classroom Research Paper 2


Table of Contents
Class Room Research Paper ........................................................................................................... 1
An Exploratory Research ................................................................................................................ 1
University.....................................................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.1
Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 2
Concept and Meaning ..................................................................................................................... 3
Background Information on the Topic ............................................................................................ 3
Defense of Topic ............................................................................................................................. 3
Review of Literature ....................................................................................................................... 3
Research Question(s) ...................................................................................................................... 6
Statement of the Problem ................................................................................................................ 6
Creation of Essential Question........................................................................................................ 6
Methodology ................................................................................................................................... 6
General Design of Study ................................................................................................................. 6
Procedure ........................................................................................................................................ 6
Definition of Variables ................................................................................................................... 6
Description of Subjects ................................................................................................................... 6
Results & Discussions..................................................................................................................... 7
Examination of Study ..................................................................................................................... 7
Interpretation ................................................................................................................................... 7
Conclusion and Implication ............................................................................................................ 7




Introduction
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                                     Concept and Meaning
            EFL (English as a foreign language), specifies the usage and learning of English in a non-
    English-speaking county. Learning can be imparted either in the home country of the student or
    as part of the normal school curriculum. Apart from this, EFL can be, taught to students in an
    Anglophone country, where they reside as an educational tourist either immediately before or
    after graduating from a university. TEFL means the teaching of English as a foreign language
    and this kind of training and education can take place in any country, English-speaking or not. In
    general, EFL is, learned to either pass exams as an essential part of one's education, or for career
    development while working for an institute or business with an international focal point.


                        Background Information on the Topic
.        EFL has emerged as a standard value that determines the proficiency level of the students
    along with their expertise and commands over grammar and spoken. However, as with most of
    the secondary lingual acquisition, problems are, faced by mature students as well with primary
    level students in the acquisition of expertise level.
         According to the study conducted by Patricia L. Carrell, et.al (1996) it was tracked that the
    extent of student performance is dependant on the level of their psychological makeup and other
    social and political influences along with other influences.
         Another study by Mohammad Hossein Keshavarz and Hossein Salimi (2007) stressed on
    the determination of assorted variables by evaluating performance eon test scores and multiple
    choice questioners.


                                         Defense of Topic
       This paper attempts to evaluate the effect of classroom scenario by measuring the level of
    inter collaboration, freedom of speech, level of openness between student teacher and student-
    student. It helps in determining the individual student performance measured by class response,
    spontaneity, level of participation,


    Review of Literature
       G. A. Schauer (2006) in this study has attempted to replicate and expand the study done by
    B.Harlig and Darnyei's (1998). They examined the realistic awareness of learning English
    language by concentrating on two research queries. The first one was that, whether students of
    English as a foreign language (EFL) and English as a second language (ESL) situation show any
    disparity in their recognition and rating of practical and grammatical blunders. The second
    question was that whether ESL learners increase their pragmatic awareness during an extended
    stay in the objective environment. The data was, extracted using the questionnaire apparatus of
    B.Harlig and Darnyei. It was, adjusted by post hoc interviews. The study took 53 participants
    and included 16 German students studying at a British university. Seventeen German students
    were, enrolled in a higher education institution in Germany while 20 British English natives
    were, enrolled and observed for speaking organization. The results showed that the German EFL
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contributors were less aware of the real faults than the ESL group and that the ESL learners
increased their pragmatic consciousness appreciably during their stay in Great Britain.

         Mohammad Hossein Keshavarz and Hossein Salimi (2007) have established a significant
relationship between collocational aptitude and presentation on close tests via their article. They
conducted an empirical study on the relationship between the collocation ability of 100 Iranian
(EFL) learners and their accomplishment on open end and multiple-choice adjacent tests as an
overall measure for language proficiency. The targeted language proficiency point of the subjects
was, accounted through their presentation on a TOEFL test. The collocational competence of the
students under observation was, analyzed through their performance on a 50 points graded test
containing grammatical and lexical collocations. The data statistics and results of these analyses
illustrate that there is a noteworthy relationship between collocational competence and
production on close tests. Hence, the findings summit to the significance of improving EFL/ESL
student’s collocational expertise by presuming the close test to be an efficient measure to
improve their proficiency level in the targeted language.

        Jieun Shin and David Kellogg (2007) study has stressed on the political or social affect
along with the actual classroom discourse. Before them, previous studies of imperialism in
language and national language in EFL did not much stress on political or social issues other
than actual classroom discourse.
    This study uses a broad socio-cultural retreat and recorded database to examine the teaching
talk of an English teacher working with Korean primary-level EFL. As compared with a local
Korean teacher, her language was, noticed to be moderate in both exchange and length of
utterance, with a relatively less number of new content words and more, grammatical mistakes.
   It was, noted that the students used less Korean with her along with less usage of English.
According to the study, the English language expertise might, be re defined in concept for the
sake of teaching expertise, rather than attending to it oppositely. Hence, the primary-level EFL
might be, taken as a particular case of primary teaching of EFL for young learners.


     P. Lennon. (1990) has investigated in his paper about the various easily theoretical features
of performance that might serve as objective meter for oral expertise and fluency in English
language. He marshaled a set of variables that functioned as good indicator according to expert
judges e.g. experience of native-speaker EFL teachers.
      For the conduction of this study, a sample of spoken presentation of four advanced EFL
students was recorded (Britain) shortly after and then again in a while before departure. A panel
of 10 native-speaker teachers of EFL scored these recordings for global fluency and settled in
general that the second set was more fluent than was the first.
    This experiment helped in the construction of a set of twelve readily quantifiable
performance variables that were, asserted to be relevant to fluency. Values per subject per
recording were, also acquired, and expressed as regularity rates or as measures so, as to make
comparisons between first and second account.
    The findings of this study were that quantitative analysis can aid in identifying improvements
in fluency for individual students, and it might have the possibility to provide a sound assessment
of spoken fluency. The results also revealed two main areas of performance those are important
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for fluency. The first one is speech-pause relationship in performance whereas the second one is
the frequency of occurrence e.g. filled pauses and repetitions.
    The quantitative analysis has implications as a testing instrument as well as a diagnostic tool
for the identification of the strength of individual students. In addition, the investigation of
native-speaker performance might provide native target score on each variable for other students
to objectify.

   Patricia L. et. al (1996) has presented the results of a study which elaborates a linkage
between different personality types of English students, as a foreign language (EFL) students in
Indonesia and various measures of their educational show in a single semester course including a
number of EFL language trials.
    Students were, selected from an entering class of English majors from university of
Indonesia. They were, examined via their performance on an Integrated Course, which they were
required to pass in order to move on to the second semester or higher course.
     The students were, evaluated on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), which was,
translated into Indonesian language. Other than this, the students were, also tested based on
reading comprehension, vocabulary, grammar, and written results.
    Outcome showed that the results of the EFL students were, related to their tendencies of
extroversion and introversion, with covalent results on vocabulary and other combination course
grades. Few other direct relationships between the personality types of the students and their
performance on language were, also evaluated.

    Zhengdong Gan, Gillian Humphreys and Liz Hamp-Lyons (2004) have attempted to study the
rate of success in first language attainment. The rate of success in learning a second or foreign
language is a bit more variable. Recently, second language acquisition researchers have taken
into account more extensive research on individual disparity factors.
    Based on this, the study follows an extensive quantitative study of the relationship between
self-directedness for language learning and English language learning accomplishment among
university students in Chinese and Hong Kong. Illustrating on the findings of that study
conducted by Gan (2003), this study closely monitored two small groups of tertiary-level who
were learning English as a foreign language (EFL). The students were document how they
carried out their out-of-class English learning, as well as to involve issues that may be grave for
the understanding. The variability factor was, also observed in their English learning results.
    The data were collected through interviews, diaries, and follow-up email communication
with 9 triumphant and 9 unsuccessful EFL students of second year at 2 mainland universities of
China. The grounded theory methodology of Strauss and Corbin (1994, 1998) was, utilized. This
was, done so by constructing six groups of qualitative data: 1) conceptualizing English language
learning; 2) perceptions of the College English Course; 3) learning and practicing strategies; 4)
self-management; 5) internal drive; 6) English proficiency tests.
    The findings of the study suggest that diverse levels of achievement can be, explained by a
complicated and active interplay of internal perception and emotion, external initiatives, and
social references. The conclusions involved the need to take a complete view of variation in
language learning outcomes and to widen the extent of the current presentation for the strategical
training of the learner.
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Research Question(s)
                              Statement of the Problem
  EFL has now become a standard measure of evaluating a student’s performance on tests related
to English language. The EFL tests are given not only by, people from non English speaking
regions but they also serve as modules to examine individual proficiency in English for students
who are natives of English speaking regions. However, the treatment of any language as a
secondary language and then effort to learn it on part of the students, for proper grasp and
command is a bit difficult.


                          Creation of Essential Question
   According to P. Lennon. (1990) the level of fluency and to achieve the level of fluency in any
secondary language, grammatical perfection, sound familiarity with the composition and
adoption of reasonable pronunciations is essential.



Methodology
                               General Design of Study
     The “classroom observation” has, been used as a research methodology for this paper. The
classroom subjects i.e. teachers and students have been, observed and evaluated in terms of their
individual behavior, as well as their interactive behavior with each other. No changes were, made
in the actual practices and activities of the classroom or with the subjects of research.


                                         Procedure
   A class of 30 students was, taken under surveillance for a period of 40 days. The class
comprised of students, which were under training for improvisation of English language. The
students were a heterogeneous blend of multi ethnicities. The common factor among them was
that they all belonged to non- English native regions. The minimum age recorded was 19 years
whereas the highest age recorded was 42 years. The study sample consisted of 11 females and 19
male students.
   Learning attitudes, individual student response in terms of grammatical improvisation and
fluency of spoken English was, observed and noted for the sake of deriving concluding analysis.


                                Definition of Variables
   The variables that have been accounted by the author include individual student response,
spontaneity level, general improvisation in grades, and student teacher level of interaction and
rate of per student progress

                                Description of Subjects
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   The study sample comprise of 30 subjects. Among them, 11 are females whereas 19 are
males. All subjects are foreign nationals belonging from non-English speaking regions. Most of
the subjects were foreign students, studying at various Universities and Colleges.
   The second subject, who was, observed and studied included was two teachers. One teacher
belonged to a non-English speaking foreign mainland (Hong Kong). The teacher belonged to a
native English speaking country (USA). Both teachers conducted this class of 30 students in
constant two shifts.
   The average student response to these teachers was, noted as an individual case, wrt toe ach
teacher and accounted for the teacher student variable. It incorporated the level of efficiency on
behalf of the teacher in determining the common classroom behavior and general response on
part of the students.



Results & Discussions

                                 Examination of Study
  The study measured the common classroom behavior and student response and level of
participation on an average scale via general observation.
 It was noticed that the

                                       Interpretation
    It was observed and noticed, that the students responded more effectively and efficiently to the
teacher who demonstrated a solid accent as compared to, the other teacher who belonged to a
non English speaking region.
    Apart from this, the students were, noticed to exhibit a calm behavior and peaceful class trend
when not confronted with domestic political issues and conflicts. Social and cultural biasness,
whenever brought into class atmosphere, was, noticed to create an atmosphere of unrest and
insecurity. It was, noted to; negatively affect the performance level of students and the margin of
class participation.
  The teacher’s level of friendliness and openness had a positive effect on the margin of
performance from the students.
  The most important feature that was, tracked to bring positive result in student response was the
active engagement of them in spoken English. When the students were encourage to speak and
engage in active participation they were observe red to lead on well and productive results.
  I




Conclusion and Implication
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      The study amplifies that the learning of a secondary language is dependant on the learning
attitude of the students involved as well as the methodology adopted. The grammar and
punctuation are bound to written tests and practices.
     However, pronunciation and accent perfection are subject to the level of fluency. The level of
fluency can be, best achieved if the students are, made to participate in an open and unbiased
environment. This was also observed and tabulate din the study conducted by Jieun Shin and
David Kellogg (2007).
    In another study conducted by Hui-Tzu Min (2008), the level of fluency and direct interaction
among students in dependant on factors of self motivation, the tendency of a person being an
extrovert or introvert or the like. The psychological make up of the student undergoing a
language drill vastly effects onto his level of performance and learning skills.




                                         References
Gila A. Schauer (2006) Pragmatic Awareness in ESL and EFL Contexts: Contrast and
Development .Language Learning 56 (2)
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Hui-Tzu Min (2008) EFL Vocabulary Acquisition and Retention: Reading Plus Vocabulary
Enhancement Activities and Narrow Reading. Language Learning 58 (1)

Ji-eun Shin, David Kellogg (2007) The novice, the native, and the nature of language teacher
expertise. International Journal of Applied Linguistics 17 (2)

Mohammad Hossein Keshavarz, Hossein Salimi (2007) Collocational competence and close test
performance: a study of Iranian EFL learners .International Journal of Applied Linguistics 17 (1)

Patricia L. Carrell, Moneta S. Prince, Gusti G. Astika (1996) Personality Types and Language
Learning in an EFL Context .Language Learning 46 (1)

P. Lennon. (1990). Investigating Fluency in EFL: A Quantitative Approach. Language Learning
40 (3)

Zhengdong Gan, Gillian Humphreys, Liz Hamp-Lyons (2004) Understanding Successful and
Unsuccessful EFL Students in Chinese Universities
The Modern Language Journal 88 (2)

								
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