Protection of Water Quality in
Dylan Elks, Heather Beall, Roey
Rosenblith, Liz Berg, Brandt Payne, Sara
1. Introduction to Coastal Water Quality
2. Major Factors Influencing the Quality of
Coastal Waters and Impacts These Factors
have on Water Quality
3. Agencies Responsible for Maintaining Water
4. Programs in Place to Assist in Providing Clean
and Safe Waters
• Clean water is an important natural resource that is
often taken for granted
• Water Quality-determined by the solutes and gases
dissolved in the water, as well as the matter
suspended in and floating on the water surface
human activity alters the
natural water quality so
that it is no longer fit for a
use for which it had
previously been suited
Types of Recreation
• “Walking the Dog”/Pet Waste
• Oil and fuel causes Hydro Carbons in the
• Oil based paint causes Carcinogens in the
• Water based paint causes mercury in the
• Batteries causes nickel cadmium and
mercuric oxide in the water.
Hydro Carbons- From Oil and Fuel
• Oil in the water from the boat comes from the
• Hydro carbons is a group of several hundred
compounds that originally come from crude oil.
• Hydrocarbons can affect the nervous system by
causing a nerve disorder called "peripheral
neuropathy,“ that can cause numbness in the
feet and legs.
• It can also effect reproduction in a negative way.
Water and Oil Based Paint
• Paint can come from either the boat dock or over spilled
fuel can cause it to peel of the boat.
• Oil Paint contains different types of carcinogens, which
can cause cancer.
• Water based paint contains Mercury, which is a metal
that can be come trapped in the sediment in the water.
• Mercury causes nerve damage to the brain and spinal
• Mercury is especially dangerous to pregnant women, as
it can damage fetal development.
• People are exposed to mercury mostly through eating
• Boats have batteries and can get in the water by it
sinking, accidents and other ways.
• Small batteries the kinds that are found in handheld
electronics can be thrown in to or dropped in the water.
• Batteries contain nickel cadmium and mercuric oxide
which are toxic chemicals.
• Nickel cadmium can possibly be linked to cancer in
females by affecting the mammary glands and sexual
• Mercuric oxide can cause difficulty breathing, swelling of
the throat and abdominal pain.
• Cigarettes causes arsenic in the water.
• Ashes from camp fires cause turbidity in
• Detergent (Clothes and body soap) cause
an accumulation of phosphates in the
• Cigarette are on of the leading pollutants.
• Cigarette pollution comes from people.
• Arsenic is classified as a cancer causing
by the EPA.
• It also causes severe damage to
respiratory system, symptoms include
coughing, Dyspnea, and chest pain.
• Ashes can comes from the camp fire that it
is not properly extinguished.
• Ashes cause turbidity in the water.
• Turbidity causes bottom dwelling plants
and animals to receive less sunlight then
what they need to survive.
• Detergents get in to the water because people
wash themselves and clothes in the water.
• Detergents use phosphates to often water while
• To much phosphates in water can peed up the
eutrophication process (a reduction in dissolved
oxygen in water bodies caused by an increase
of mineral and organic nutrients). This causes
fish kills because of lack of oxygen and the
death of other organisms.
• It also produces a nasty look (i.e.: Greenfield
“Walking the Dog”/ Pet Waste
• The major problem that is caused by dog
waste is fecal coliform.
• The dog waste gets into the water
because of runoff.
• Is a bacteria that is found in animal waste including dogs.
• It is a well known and serious problem in this area.
• Filter-feeding nature of organisms such as oysters, clams, and
mussels can result in the bioaccumulation of bacteria, protozoa, and
viruses and because we eat them they pose a problem to humans.
• This is why many shellfish beds in NC have been closed down.
• Fecal Coliform however, has the presence of other disease-causing
bacteria, such as those that cause typhoid, dysentery, hepatitis A,
• Fecal Coliform is an indicator of disease bacteria in the water
because bacteria generally do not survive long enough in the water.
• To help reduce boat pollutants in the water just
recycle oil, use oil absorbent pads in the bilge
and report all spills if they happen to occur.
• To help reduce camping pollutants be sure to
extinguish a camp fire properly, don’t throw
cigarettes in any place but trash can or cigarette
disposal sites and don’t wash clothes or your
self in the water.
• To reduce Fecal Coliform in the water pick up
your pets waste and place it in a proper disposal
Urban Runoff and its Affects
on Water Quality
Accessing the Problem
• National Water Quality Inventory reports
that runoff from urban areas is the leading
source of impairments to surveyed
estuaries and the third largest source of
water quality impairments to surveyed
• 2010 more than half of the Nation will live
in coastal towns and cities
Why is Urban
Runoff a Problem
• Natural Landscapes have a varied and porous
terrain that decrease the flow of water from
precipitation to major estuaries and ocean inlets.
• Nonporous urban landscapes like roads,
bridges, parking lots, and buildings don't let
runoff slowly percolate into the ground. Water
remains above the surface, accumulates, and
runs off in large amounts.
This leads to:
• Increased pollutant loads in the form of :
– Sediments -> New Construction (constitute the
largest volume of pollutant loads)
– Oil, Grease, Toxic Chemicals -> Automobiles
– Nutrients and Pesticides -> Lawns and Gardens
– Viruses and Bacteria-> Failing Septic Systems
– Road Salts
– harm fish and wildlife populations
– kill native vegetation
– foul drinking water supplies
– make recreational areas unsafe.
Two Designations of Urban
Runoff: Point and Non-Point
• Two Laws that control urban runoff
• Point Source Pollution(PSP):
– National Pollution Discharge Elimination System
permit program of the Clean Water Act, which
regulates stormwater discharges
• Non-Point Source Pollution (NPS):
– Clean Water Act. In states and territories with
coastal zones, programs to protect coastal waters
from nonpoint source pollution also are required
by section 6217 of the Coastal Zone Act
Storm Water Management
• Wilmington Storm Water Management
Storm Water Management
• Sewage System in Wilmington goes to
treatment plant before being discharged
into Cape Fear River.
• But Storm Water goes straight into the
River or intercoastal water way without
• Nation's leading source of water quality
• Often the combined effects of residential
neighborhoods are far greater then
Graphic courtesy of Prince George’s County Department of Environmental Resources
• New Concept in Storm water Management
• Developed in 1990’s in Prince George’s
– site design strategy with a goal of maintaining or
replicating the predevelopment hydrologic regime
through the use of design techniques to create a
functionally equivalent hydrologic landscape.
• Grass buffer strips
– reduce runoff velocity and filter particulate matter.
• Sand bed
– provides aeration and drainage of the planting soil
and assists in the flushing of pollutants from soil
• Ponding area
– provides storage of excess runoff and facilitates
the settling of particulates and evaporation of
• Organic layer
– decomposition of organic material by providing a
medium for micro-organism growth to degrade
petroleum based pollutants.
– application is primarily along residential
streets and highways. They function as a
mechanism to reduce runoff velocity and
as filtration/infiltration devices stopping
– Nearly three times less expensive then
traditional structural water conveyance
• multilayered constructed material consisting
of a vegetative layer, media, a geotextile
layer and a synthetic drain layer.
– Actually extend roof life
– Decrease urban heating
– Decrease land needed for stormwater runoff
– Decrease urban runoff by 50 percent in temperat
Wayne Community College,
• Permeable pavements allow
stormwater to infiltrate into
underlying soils promoting
pollutant treatment and
recharge, as opposed to
producing large volumes of
rainfall runoff requiring
conveyance and treatment.
• Startup Cost is a Problem:
blocks and stones range from
$2 to $4, whereas asphalt costs
$0.50 to $1
Agencies Responsible for
Maintaining Water Quality
1.Overview of Different Regulations that
protect water quality
• Clean Water Act (1977)
• Rivers and Harbors Act(1899)
• Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries
2.Specific agencies that govern by these
– Federal and NC State
Clean Water Act (1977)
• Provides a comprehensive system for the
regulation of the U.S. with the objective of
restoring & maintaining the chemical,
physical, and biological integrity of the
• Gives federal regulations that
prohibit the discharge of any
waste from a point source
into navigable waters of the
U.S., unless a permit is
Rivers and Harbors Act (1899)
• Various sections establish permit
requirements to prevent unauthorized
obstruction or alteration of any navigable
water of the U.S.
Marine Protection, Research and
Sanctuaries Act (1972)
• Regulate the transportation for dumping
of material into ocean waters and
• Unless authorized with a permit, this Act
1. Transportation of material from the U.S. for
the purpose of ocean dumping
2. Dumping of material transported from
outside the U.S. into the territorial sea
• Sets standards for federal water quality
programs to make sure the state’s
individual programs are operating in
accordance with federal guidelines
• Under the Marine Protection, Research
and Sanctuaries Act
– EPA charged with developing ocean dumping
criteria and recommended sites for ocean
• Clean Water Act
– Authority to implement pollution control
programs such as setting wastewater
standards for industry
– Section 320
• Directed the EPA to attain and maintain water
quality in estuaries
• Includes protection of public water supplies,
wildlife, and requires new control of point and non-
point sources of pollution to supplement the
• Amendment to the CWA in 2000, gave
provisions to reduce the risk of illness to
users of the Nation’s recreational waters
– EPA authorized to award program
development grants to eligible states and
local governments to support microbiological
testing and monitoring
United States Army Corps of
• Given regulatory Authority by:
– Clean Water Act (1977)
– Rivers and Harbors Act (1899)
– Marine Protection, Research and
Sanctuaries Act (1972) http://tsc.wes.army.mil/ID_Resources_Do
• The Corps is involved in civil work, funds come
from the annual Energy and Water
• Rivers and Harbors Act (1899), Section 13
– Gives Corps authority over the dumping of trash and
sewage into navigable waters
– Corps permits the deposit of trash or sewage into
• Limits and conditions for these acts are outlined within each
• Section 10, Rivers and Harbors Act
– Covers work which would affect the course, location,
condition or capacity of navigable waters
• Actions that require Section 10 permits:
– disposal of dredging material
– modifications to waters
USACE and the CWA
• CWA- gives “Authority for the Corps of
Engineers to issue general permits on a
state, regional, or national basis for any
category of activities which are similar to
nature, will cause only minimal
environmental effects when performed”
USACE and Marine Protection,
Research and Sanctuaries Act
• Permits issued, after public hearings, to
dump dredge materials into the ocean
– If determined that the dumping will not
endanger human health, welfare, or the
• North Carolina Department of
Environmental and Natural Resources
– Classifies the state’s waters, and determines
the water quality by measuring against the
– Division of Coastal Management (DCM)
• Deals primarily with storm water
Division of Coastal Management
• Responsible for several programs including:
– Permitting and enforcement
– CAMA land-use Planning
– N.C. Coastal Resources
– Grants for marine sewage pumpout
• Work to protect, conserve and manage NC’s
coastal resources through an integrated
program of planning, permitting, education and
Programs in Place to Assist in
Providing Clean and Safe Waters
National, State, and Local
By Brandt Payne
• Marine Protection,Research and
Sanctuaries Act, which enables:
– Ocean Dump Site Monitoring
• Federal Coastal Nonpoint Program
• National Sea Grant College Program
Marine Protection, Research, and
“Ocean Dumping Act”
Ocean Dump Site Monitoring
• Ocean dump sites specifically designated
by the EPA for dredged material disposal
under section 102 of the MPRSA
• Ocean Dumping and Dredged Material
National Coastal Nonpoint Source
• By NOAA and the
• Section 6217
National Sea Grant College
• NOAA Research with
• 30 colleges involved
ocean habitats and
North Carolina Programs
• North Carolina Sea Grant Extension
• Wetlands Restoration Program
• North Carolina’s Clean Water
Management Trust Fund
• North Carolina Nonpoint Source
North Carolina Sea Grant
• Provides professional,
focused on the
Wetlands Restoration Program
• Run by the Division of Coastal
• Utilizes Geographic Information Systems
• NCWRP conservation easement
$North Carolina’s Clean Water$
$Management Trust Fund$
• Established by the General Assembly in
1996 (Article 13A; Chapter 113 of the N.C
• Minimum of $30 million
• Received approval on August 13, 2003
• Administered by the Division of Water
Quality and the Division of Coastal
Local Programs and Citizen
• Landfill Constructed Wetlands Project
• The Tidal Creeks Program
Landfill Constructed Wetlands
• Run by the
New Hanover County
• Primary purpose
The Tidal Creeks Program
• How the project began
• Primary goal
• Environmental Quality of Wilmington and New Hanover County
Watersheds 2002-2003. Michael A. Mallin, CMS Report 04-01
• Action Guide for Boaters. Joan Saxe, A publication of the Portland
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<http://www.nccoastalmanagement.net/Facts/runoff.htm>. Nov. 4, 2004.
North Carolina Water Quality. <http://surfrider.org/stateofthebeach/05-
sr/state.asp?zone=SE&state=NC&cat=wq>. Nov. 4, 2004
Introduction to the Clean Water Act.
<http://ces.ncsu.edu/whpaper/WQswine.html>. Nov. 4, 2004
FEMA, Environment & Historic. <http://www.fema.gov/ehp/cwa.shtm>. Nov.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Estuary Program.
<http://www.epa.gov/nep/>. Nov. 20, 2004.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Laws and Regulations.
<http://www.epa.gov/region5/water/cwa.htm>. Nov. 4, 2004.
Section 13, United States Code Title33.
<http://www.hudsonwatch.net/fyi.html>. Nov. 4, 2004 .
Stormwater Management Roles and Regulations. <http://www.ehnr.gov>.
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