SOLARIS (Opearting System)
Solaris is a Unix operating system originally developed by Sun Microsystems. It superseded
their earlier SunOS in 1993. Oracle Solaris, as it is now known, has been owned by Oracle
Corporation since Oracle's acquisition of Sun in January 2010.
Solaris is known for its scalability, especially on SPARC systems, and for originating many
innovative features such as DTrace, ZFS and Time Slider. Solaris supports SPARC-based
and x86-based workstations and servers from Sun and other vendors, with efforts underway
to port to additional platforms. Solaris is registered as compliant with the Single Unix
Solaris was historically developed as proprietary software, then in June 2005 Sun
Microsystems released most of the codebase under theCDDL license, and founded
the OpenSolaris open source project. With OpenSolaris Sun wanted to build a developer
and user community around the software. After the acquisition of Sun Microsystems in
January 2010, Oracle decided to discontinue the OpenSolaris distribution and the
development model. As a result, the OpenSolaris community forked as
the OpenIndiana project, a part of the IllumosFoundation. August 2010, Oracle discontinued
providing public updates to the source code of the Solaris Kernel, effectively turning Solaris
11 into a closed source proprietary operating system. However, through the Oracle
Technology Network (OTN), industry partners can still gain access to the in-development
Solaris source code. On September 4, 1991, Sun announced that it would replace its existing
BSD-derived Unix, SunOS 4, with one based on SVR4. This was identified internally
as SunOS 5, but a new marketing name was introduced at the same time: Solaris 2. While
SunOS 4.1.x micro releases were retroactively named Solaris 1 by Sun, the Solaris name is
almost exclusively used to refer to the SVR4-derived SunOS 5.0 and later.
A system that provides services to systems on a network. To serve diskless
clients, an OS server must have disk space set aside for each diskless Table of Contents
client's root (/) file system and swap space (/export/root, /export/swap).
The top level of a hierarchy of items. Root is the one item from which all Preface ……………………………………………………..………..... i
other items are descended. See root directory or root (/) file system.
The top-level directory from which all other directories stem.
1. Installing With the Solaris Installation Program ………………………..….. 1
Solaris DVD or CD images 2. Insert the Solaris Operating System for SPARC Platforms ………………... 2
The Solaris software that is installed on a system, which you can access on
2.1 Boot the system ………………………………………………….……….... 2
the Solaris DVDs or CDs or an install server's hard disk to which you have
copied the Solaris DVD or CD images. 3. Start the Solaris installation program………………………………………….. 3
Solaris installation program 3.1 Select the language ………………………………………………………... 3
A graphical user interface (GUI) or command-line interface (CLI) installation 4. Specify the media you are using to install. ………………………………….... 5
program that uses wizard panels to guide you step-by-step through installing
the Solaris software and third-party software. 4.1 Accept the license agreement ……………………….……………………. 5
5. Select the type of installation …………….…………………………………...... 6
A bit mask that is used to select bits from an Internet address for subnet
addressing. The mask is 32 bits long and selects the network portion of the
Internet address and 1 or more bits of the local portion. Commands …………………………………………………………….. 8
Glossary …………………………………………………….……….. 10
System configuration file
(system.conf) A text file in which you specify the locations of the sysidcfg file
and the custom Jumpstart files you want to use in a WAN boot installation.
(Uniform Resource Locator) The addressing system used by the server and
the client to request documents. A URL is often called a location. The format
of a URL is protocol://machine:port/document.
A file that contains a collection of files that were copied from a master system. The file also
contains identification information about the archive, such as a name and the date that you
created the archive. After you install an archive on a system, the system contains the exact
configuration of the master system.
Core Software Group
A software group that contains the minimum software that is required to boot and run the
Solaris OS on a system. Core includes some networking software and the drivers that are
required to run the Common Desktop Environment (CDE) desktop. Core does not include the
Developer Solaris Software Group
A software group that contains the End User Solaris Software Group plus the libraries,
include files, man pages, and programming tools for developing software.
A server that provides the Solaris DVD or CD images from which other systems on a network
can install Solaris (also called a media server). You can create an install server by copying
the Solaris DVD or CD images to the server's hard disk.
A virtualized operating system environment created within a single instance of the Solaris
Operating System. One or more applications can run in a non-global zone without interacting
with the rest of the system. Non-global zones are also called zones. See also Solaris Zones
and global zone.
subject in section number # 1. Installing With the Solaris Installation Program
man -s# Intro Show introductory man page for
essages to people around the world. BEFORE YOU BEGIN Perform the following tasks before you begin your installation.
- Ensure that you have the following media.
- For a DVD installation, the Solaris Operating System for SPARC Platforms DVD
- For a CD installation:
cd dir1 —- Change to directory dir1
- Solaris Software CDs.
ls —- List files in directory
- Solaris Languages for SPARC Platforms CD
ls -l —- List files in detail
mkdir dir1 —- Create new directory dir1
Note – If you want to upgrade a system that has non-global zones installed, you
rmdir dir1 —- Remove directory dir1
cp f1 f2 —- Copy file f1 to f2
use the Solaris Software CDs. You must use the Solaris Operating.
mv dir1 dir2 —- Rename directory dir1 as dir2
rm filename Delete —- (remove) file filename
ln file1 name —- Create a hard link to file1 called name - Verify that your system meets the minimum requirements.
ln -s file1 name —- Create a soft link to file1 called name Your system should meet the following requirements.
pwd —- Show path to current directory - Memory – 128Mbytes or greater
- Disk space – 6.8Gbytes or greater
File types and Listing - Processor speed – 200 MHz or greater
file filename —- Classify the file For detailed information about system requirements, see “System
strings filename —- Show any ASCII strings in a file Requirements and
cat filename —- Display contents of file to STDOUT Recommendations” on page 9.
more filename —- Display contents of file one screenful at a time - Gather the information you need to install the Solaris OS.
head filename Display first 10 lines of file - For a nonnetworked system, gather the following information.
head -n filename —- Display first n lines of file - Host name of the system that you are installing
tail filename —- Display last 10 lines of file - Language and locales that you intend to use on the system
tail -n filename —- Display last n lines of file - For a networked system, gather the following information.
tail -f filename —- Recursively display last 10 lines of file
cut —- Extract character or fields from text
wc filename —- Count lines, words and characters in file
diff f1 f2—- Find differences between two files
diff3 f1 f2 f3 —- Find differences between 3 files
sort filename —- Sort file alphabetically by first letter
uniq —- Report or filter out repeated line
Note – Starting with the Solaris 10 11/06 release, you have the option during an initial If you are prompted, answer any additional configuration questions.
installation to change the network security settings so that all network services,
When you have provided the information that is required to install the system, the Ready to
Shell, are disabled or restricted to respond to local requests only. This security
option is only screen is displayed.
available during an initial installation, not during an upgrade. An upgrade maintains
previously set services. If necessary, you can restrict network services after an
using the netservices command. See “Planning Network Security” in Solaris 10
Installation Guide: Planning for Installation and Upgrade.
The network services can be enabled after installation by using the netservices
open or by
enabling individual services by using SMF commands. See “Revising Security
Installation” in Solaris 10 11/06 Installation Guide: Planning for Installation and
Click InstallNowto install the Solaris software. Follow the instructions on the screen to
install the Solaris software.
- Host name of the system that you are installing
When the Solaris installation program finishes installing the Solaris software, the system
- Language and locales that you intend to use on the system reboots Automatically or prompts you to reboot manually. If you are installing additional
- Host IP address products, you are prompted to insert the DVD or CD for those products. For installation
- Subnet mask procedures, refer to the appropriate installation documentation.
- Type of naming service (for example, DNS, NIS, or NIS+) After the installation is finished, installation logs are saved in a file. You can find the
- Domain name installation logs in the /var/sadm/system/logs and /var/sadm/install/logs directories.
- Host name of the name server
- Host IP address of the name server - If you are performing an initial installation, the installation is complete.
- Root password - If you are upgrading the Solaris software, you might need to correct some local
2. Insert the Solaris Operating System for SPARC Platforms DVD or Solaris Software modifications that were not preserved.
for SPARC Platforms a. Review the contents of the /a/var/sadm/system/data/upgrade_cleanup file to determine
- 1 CD. whether you need to correct local modifications that the Solaris installation
2.1 Boot the system.
If the system is new, out-of-the-box, turn on the system.
b. Correct any local modifications that were not preserved.
If you want to install a system that is currently running, shut down the system.
The ok prompt is displayed.
Decide if you want to perform an initial installation or an upgrade. Click Next.
If you are upgrading a system that has non-global zones installed, follow these steps. 3. Start the Solaris installation program.
a. When you are prompted to select initial installation or upgrade, choose Upgrade. - To boot from the local DVD or CD and start the Solaris installation GUI in a desktop
Click Next. session, type
b. If your system has multiple root (/) partitions, select the partition that you want to the following command.
upgrade on ok boot cdro
Select Version to Upgrade panel.
The Solaris installation program displays a message that indicates that you cannot - Toboot from the local DVD or CD and start the text installer in a desktop session, type
your upgrade. The Solaris installation program analyzes your system to determine if the following command.
ok boot cdrom - text
can be upgraded. The Ready to Upgrade panel is displayed.
text Speciﬁes to run the text installer in a desktop session. Use this option to override
If your system has only one root partition, the Solaris installation program does not prompt the
default GUI installer.
to select a partition to upgrade. The partition is automatically selected.
For detailed information about the Solaris installation GUI and text installer, see “Solaris
c. If you want to continue the upgrade, click InstallNowon the Ready to Upgrade Installation
Program GUI or Text Installer Requirements” on page 10.
The Solaris installation program begins to upgrade your system. After the upgrade is
The installation begins. The installation program prompts you to select a language to
use during the
you might need to correct some local modifications that were not preserved. For more
information, go to Step a in Step 12.
3.1 Select the language you want to use during the installation, and press Enter.
If you do not want to continue the upgrade, click Back to perform an initial installation.
After a few seconds, the Solaris Installation Program Welcome screen appears.
5. Select the type of installation you want to perform. Click Next.
Select Default Install to install the Entire Solaris Software Group.
Select Custom Install if you want to perform the following tasks.
Install a specific software group
Install additional software
Install specific software packages
Note – The text installer does not prompt you to select a Default or Custom Installation. To
default installation, accept the default values that are provided in the text installer. To
custom installation, edit the values in the text installer screens.
Solaris GUI Installation Program Welcome Screen
You can safely select “No” as any services can be enabled after installation. For further
information about these options, see “Planning Network Security” in Solaris 10 11/06
Installation Guide: Planning for Installation and Upgrade.
The network services can be enabled after installation by using the netservices open
command or by enabling individual services by using SMF commands. See “Revising
Security Settings After Installation” in Solaris 10 11/06 Installation Guide: Planning for
Installation and Upgrade.
Solaris Text InstallerWelcome Screen
Click Next to begin the installation. If you are prompted, answer the system
- If you preconfigured all of the system information, the installation program does not prompt
to enter any configuration information. See Chapter 2, “Preconfiguring System
Information (Tasks),” in Solaris 10 11/06 Installation Guide: Network-Based Installations for
- If you did not preconfigure all the system information, the installation program prompts you Decide if you want to reboot the system automatically and if you want to automatically
for eject the disc.
this information on several screens. Use the “Checklist for Installation” on page 15 to help Click Next.
you The Specify Media screen appears.
answer the configuration questions. 4. Specify the media you are using to install. Click Next.
The License panel appears.
- One configuration question asks you whether you want to enable network services for use
by 4.1 Accept the license agreement to continue the installation. Click Next.
remote clients. The default response is “Yes, I would like to enable network services for use The Solaris installation program then determines if the system can be upgraded. To
by upgrade, the system must have an existing Solaris root (/) file system. The Solaris installation
Remote clients.” program detects the necessary conditions and then upgrades the system.
Selecting “No” provides a more secure configuration in which Secure Shell is the only
service provided to remote clients. Selecting “Yes” enables a larger set of services as in