Slide 1 by CS91lK


									 Gary Spolander1, Annie Pullen-Sansfacon, Marion Brown, Blanche
                                  Pretorius, Lambert Engelbrecht

1Coventry University, England
2 Université de Montréal, Canada
3 Dalhousie University, Canada
4 Nelson Mandella Metropolitain University, South Africa
5 Stellenbosh University, South Africa
   Result of Applied Research Fellowship Grant
   Formal collaboration between 4 universities
    ◦   Coventry University, England
    ◦   Dalhousie University, Nova Scotia, Canada
    ◦   Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, RSA
    ◦   Stellenbosch University, RSA
    ◦   Université de Montréal, Canada
   Work undertaken through desktop analysis,
    institutional visits and meetings in three
   Work undertaken between January and May
   Overall shortage of qualified children's SW across
    UK (Coughlan, in Hill, 2007)
   Recruitment of overseas trained workers
   Since 1999 over 10,000 foreign trained SW have
    been given letters of verification to work in
    (Welbourne, Harrison and Ford, 2007)
   2001-2 over 25% of social worker recruits were
    trained abroad (Batty, 2003)
   Are workers are fully prepared to work on global
   RSA and Canada make up around 1/3 of all
    migrant social workers to England (GSCC 2009)
   Comparative analysis of documents based on
    qualitative content analysis
    Inclusion                         Exclusion
    Documents recognised by           Documentation from provincial
    professional association          or local bodies
    Documents produced/
                                      Unrecognised documents by
    recognised by regulator or
                                      regulator/ validating bodies
    validating body
    Documents valid in SA, Canada,    Documents specific to
    England of national scope         postgraduate programmes
    Documents produce by schools
                                      Documents from other countries
    of social work and validated by
                                      outside of the study
    Information related to Bachelor
    of Social Work or equivalent
   Comparison of documents – qualitative
    content analysis undertaken – information
    already in public sphere (Neuman, 2007)
   All 3 countries published standards &
   Qualitative content analysis – subjective
    interpretation of the content of text data
    through systematic classification process of
    coding & identifying themes/ patterns (Hsieh
    and Shannon, 2005)
   Canadian Association of Social Work Education Standard for
    Accreditation (CASWE 2008)
   Canadian Association of Social Work Social Work Code of Ethics (CASW
   Canadian Association of Social Work Education Educational Policy
    Statement (CASWE 2007)
   Requirement for the Social Work Degree (Department of Health 2002)
   Quality Assurance Agency Benchmark for Social Work (QAA 2002)
   National Occupational Standards (TOPPS UK Partnership 2002)
   General Social Care Council Code of Practice for Social Care Workers
    (GSCC 2002)
   South African Council for Social Services Profession (SACSSP) Bachelor of
    Social Work BSW NSQ Level 7 2005
   Section 17 Social services Profession Act 1978
   South Africa Qualification Authority National Qualification Framework
    Level 7
   SACSSP Code of Ethics
   Failing to develop a complete understanding
    of context, thus failing to understand key
    categories (Hsieh and Shannon, 2005)
   Limited number of studies on migration of
    social workers – often don‟t examine
    education models and curriculum
   Daley (2003) compares social work practice in
    different countries – but comparative analysis
    of social work requirements across countries
    is scarce
   Canadian system – Provincial differences
   Following categories developed:
    ◦   Systems of Accountability
    ◦   Admission to Programmes
    ◦   Practice Learning
    ◦   Suitability
    ◦   Curriculum
    ◦   Codes of Practice
    ◦   Relationship to professional body (registration of
   RSA
    ◦ Legacy of apartheid, history of inequality & human rights
    ◦ Bill of Rights
    ◦ Social Development approach directs welfare policy – focus
      “poorest of the poor”, social and economic development
    ◦ State and Industrial Social Work
   England
    ◦ Embraced models of New Public Management (Christensen
      & Laegreid, 2007)
    ◦ Market solutions seen as key in improving & delivering
      affordable services, interlined with ideas of professionals
      disabling those that they service (Illich et al, 1997)
    ◦ Risk Assessment and Case Management
   Canada
    ◦ Positive international assessment
    ◦ Conservative ideology shaping social work
    ◦ Mixture of individual, family and community intervention
   All three countries have regulatory bodies
    with whom registration is mandatory for
   Qualification
    ◦ RSA – Bachelor of Social Work (BSW) (4 years)
    ◦ Canada – either BSW or Master of SW
    ◦ England – either BSW or Masters
   All require theoretical (academic) and practice
   Academic standards vary
   Minimum generally established by regulators,
    but Universities have discretion to set
    academic levels higher than
   Police Checks – Done, but not in RSA
   Grading across three countries varies
    ◦ UK – 40%
    ◦ Canada and RSA – 50%
   England – 1500 hours (200 assessed days x
    7.5 hours)
   RSA – 1000 - 1500 hours (but varies by
    programme) currently being reviewed
   Canada – 700 hours at UG level & 450 hours
    at graduate level
   England requires 2 distinct placements (1 in
    statutory session)
   Canada & RSA – sufficient opportunity to
    observe practice
   Commonly all have agency and university
   Faculty role
    ◦ Communicate university standards & expectations
    ◦ Ensure academic regulations in respect of failure or
      professional unsuitability
   England – National Occupational Standards
   RSA – Exit Level Outcomes (Fundamental,
    core and elective components)
   Canada – course outcomes & individualised
    learning agreement
   Definitions and criteria vary in each country
   Common – candidates must demonstrate
    appropriate knowledge and skills for
   Adherence to Codes of Ethics in England &
   Canada University requirement for
    established policies and procedures – judged
    against national code of ethics
   Broadly 4 categories of theoretical
    (substantive areas of practice) input
    ◦   Policy and legislation
    ◦   Intervention
    ◦   Inequality and social inclusion
    ◦   Management, administration and supervision
    ◦   Research
   Area for further research to identify and detail
    – what is shared (common) and what is
    country specific
   Many countries have formal code covering
    profession (Banks, 2006)
   England – criminal check before start of study,
    register and maintain registration with GSCC
   RSA – public oath to uphold SACSSP Code of
    Ethics and maintain registration from 2nd year
   Canada – professional accreditation decided at
    provincial level – some variation
   All three countries – „Social Worker‟ is protected
   Prosecution for failure to abide (by Code of
   On-going migration of professionals –
    validity of understanding equivalent levels of
    qualification & education important
   But there are challenges:
    ◦ Unique systems of categorisation
    ◦ Distinct terminology
    ◦ Antecedent events, which lead to national priorities
   Tension: modernism‟s pull towards standard
    structures (applicable across time and space)
    vs. postmodernism‟s prioritising of local
    contexts & cultures
   Social work education is balanced between a
    commitment to social justice & recognition
    that requirements & expressions of this social
    justice differ across people & communities
   Implications for international definition of
    social work & for the global nature of the
   Ongoing discussion & debate is required to
    understand the universal needs and
    requirements for the profession, whilst
    recognising contextual demands differ…

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