Communicating Achievement

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					Educ 3100

Grading Debate

 What elements of student learning should a
  grade convey?
   Achievement
   Aptitude
   Effort
   Compliance
   Attitude
   Grading Policies: Table Discussion
 What does a grade mean?     What is an appropriate distribution
                                  of grades (how many As, Bs, etc.)?
 What elements of student
                                 Should you allow late work?
  learning should a grade
                                 How will you count late work?
                                 Will process as well as product be
    Achievement                  part of the grade?
    Aptitude                    Will there be any group grades given
                                  or will all the grades be individually
    Effort                       determined?
    Compliance                  Will homework and/or attendance
    Attitude                     be part of the final grade?
                                 Should I hold all students to the
 Should grades be criterion-     same standard or should I adjust my
  referenced or norm-             expectations for special needs
  referenced?                     students?
 I’ve stated my objectives.
 I’ve taught the lessons.
 I made changes during the lessons based on
  my formative assessments.
 I helped students through correctives and
  gave them opportunities to extend their
 I assessed their learning of the whole unit
  using my summative assessment.

 Now what . . . . . .
What do I do with the Data?

  How do I use the information from summative

  Who uses the information I gather?

  How should I store the information?

  How should I summarize the information?
What are the uses?

 Grades
 Indicate student mastery
 Indicate teacher competence
 Criteria for continued study
 Criteria for acceptance in groups

 What if students did poorly? What do I do
How will information be stored?

 Descriptive detail
   Item analysis
 Summary judgment
 Gradebook vs. portfolio
 Who stores it?
How will the information be
 Achievement status
   Examples
 Improvement
 Mastery level

 Individual students or group
How will the information be
 Students
 Parents
 Administration
 State – CRT, AYP

 Federal
All of these elements need
 to be considered as data
about students is gathered
  and transferred into a
     reportable form

Essential Factors in Grading

 Clearly define expectations in each grading
  context for a given grading period.
 Develop sound assessments for those
 Keep careful records of student attainment of
  the achievement expectations over the
  grading period.
 The Ten Commandments of Grading
1. The grade is a report of achievement
2. The grade is based upon a number of varied, valid
3. The grading system is simple enough for all to
4. The origin of students’ grades is clearly made known
5. The students know where they stand at all times
6. If you can’t measure it, don’t count it (much)
7. Remember, all measures are estimates at best
8. The grade is not payment for something the student
   has done
9. Time to question the grade is at the beginning, not
   the end of the term
10.Surprises are for Christmas, not for report card time
Report Cards with more
 Standards-based reporting
 Narrative reporting
 Continuous progress reporting
Educ 3100

 What did you learn in Level 1 (any class)
  about education that surprised you?

 What did you wish we had done in Educ 3100
  that we didn’t do? Or what did you want to
  learn about that wasn’t covered?

 What is the purpose?
  Communicate with
    Students
    Parents
  Specify policies
  Get it in writing (legal issues)
Parts of a Disclosure
 Teacher’s name, name of course/unit, time frame
 Brief course/unit description and broad goals
 Specific course/unit objectives
 Specific course requirements
 Grading/testing policies
 Citizenship policies
 Class expectations and rules
 Standards for written work, group work, etc.
 Class resources
 Video information
 FERPA information
 Other (homework philosophy, parent involvement, special
  dates, etc)
 Parent signature
Sample Course Disclosures
 1st grade

 1st grade

 3rd grade
   5th grade

        Disclosure evaluation
Disclosure Template
 Review TWS expectations and organization

 Begin working on your course disclosure.
Educ 3100

Types of Parent – School
 Formal events
   Back to school night
   Programs
   Scheduled parent/teacher conferences
     Traditional
     Student led, portfolio centered
     Reverse conferences

 Informal communication
   Class newsletters
   Regular e-mail
   Phone calls
Back to School Night

  Be positive, energetic
  Give them an overview
  Don’t overwhelm with details
  Have any important information in
Student Programs

 Can communicate with parents before or
  after event.
 The program is also a form of communication
   What/who is important?
   What is valued?
Elementary Conferences
Prepare for the conference:
   Develop a packet for the conference, including:
          Student's goals
          Samples of work
          Reports or notes from other staff (can gather at a staff meeting).
Conduct conference with the student, parent, and teacher.
  Have a comfortable, pleasant setting, e.g. right sized chairs,
   coffee, and cookies;
  Establish a time period for the conference, e.g., 20 minutes;
  Review goals set earlier (if none, it's time to set goals);
  Review progress toward goals

                                                                       Scenario 1
Elementary Conferences

 Review progress with samples of work from learning activities;
 Review attendance and handling of responsibilities at
   Modify goals for balance of the year as necessary;
   Determine other learning activities to accomplish goals;
   Describe upcoming events and activities;
   Discuss how the home can contribute to learning;
   Parents give their thoughts on student's progress; and
   Ask parents and students for questions, ideas.

                           Scenario 2
Other Types of Conferences

 Student-led, portfolio-driven conferences
   Students prepare to show parents their progress
    using their portfolio.
     Pre-post data
     Progress
   Teacher prepare an outline of topics that the
    student needs to cover with their parents.
   Can have several going on at the same time.
Sidebar:        Portfolios

 Portfolios can help a student evaluate their
  work and see progress over time.
 Students should be in charge of their
  portfolios and what is in them within certain
 Discuss growth and improvement with
Other Types of Conferences

 Reverse parent conferences
   Conduct at the start of school
   Goal is to help teachers understand the child and become
    an advocate for their progress and interests.
     Questions:
       What is the most important thing you would like me to
        know about your child?
       What are some of your child’s talents and strengths?
       What are some areas where your child struggles?
       How does your child view school?
       What are your goals for your child this year?
       What is your child's activity schedule away from school?
Reverse Conferences
 More questions
   How do you deal with homework? Do you help your child
      with it, or check to make sure it's finished?
     What is your family routine at home? How does the family
      spend its evenings?
     How does your child solve problems at home?
     What holidays does your family celebrate? Will any of these
      celebrations affect your child's activities at school?
     Would you share a bit about your family's heritage?
     Has your child seen family members in situations in which
      they were discriminated against?
     What are some of the ways that your family has worked to
      help your child appreciate racial or ethnic differences?
Class Newsletters

 Have some sort of parent communication letter
  at least four times a year. Include
   Schedules and calendar
   Important events
   Large assignment due dates and details
   Ways parents can help
   Information about how to contact you
 Can be written by teacher or students

 PROOFREAD!!!!! and then PROOFREAD again, and then
  have a colleague PROOFREAD!!!
Class Websites




 Prepare a distribution list of parent and
  student e-mails.
 Send out a weekly, monthly, quarterly
  communication with information similar to a
 Check e-mail daily and respond the same day
  (if possible).
Phone Calls                              Scenario 3

 The first contact with a parent should be
   Call about the good things.
   Plan to call three or four parents during your planning
    time two or three times a week.
 When calling about a classroom concern, start
  with something positive, then express the
  problem as a “concern” rather than a gripe.
 Get the parents on board by creating a plan to
  work together to help the child.
                                   Scenario 4
Standardized Testing
   What Types of Testing
   Will You Likely See?
 Iowa Test of Basic Skills - ITBS
 Utah State End of Level Tests – CRT
 National Assessment of Educational Progress
   Norm-referenced
 Direct Writing Assessment - DWA
Iowa Test of Basic Skills
 Norm-referenced
 Achievement test
 Score reports
   Percentiles
   Stanines
   Grade-equivalent (not very useful)

 The raw scores of the norming population are
  put in order from lowest to highest. They are
  then split into 100 equal groups, called
  PERCENTILES. Each student’s score is then
  compared to the norming scores to see where
  it falls.
Stanines:      The percentile score is
divided into nine segments, each of which
represents a “standard nine.”
 Utah State End of Level Tests
 Criterion-referenced tests – CRT
 Criteria is the state core for the course
   Language Arts - 1st – 6th grade
   Math – 1st – 6th grade
   Science – 4th – 6th grade
 Reported in percentage correct
   Compared to class, grade, school, district
 Proficiency level also reported
   Level 4: Substantial. The student's performance indicates substantial
    understanding and application of key curriculum concepts.
   Level 3: Sufficient. The student's performance indicates sufficient
    understanding and application of key curriculum concepts
   Level 2: Partial. The student's performance indicates partial
    understanding and application of key curriculum concepts.
   Level 1: Minimal. The student's performance indicates minimal
    understanding and application of key curriculum concepts.
National Assessment of
Educational Progress - NAEP

 The Nation’s Report Card
 A national-wide norm-referenced test.
 Compares students across the country to
  assess “educational progress.”
Direct Writing Assessment -
 6th grade
 Evaluates student writing based on six traits
 Faculty Evaluation

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