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					                                                 Winter 2008/09

                               TEL AVIV UNIVERSITY REVIEW

Treeless Paper
Globalizing Mideast Studies
Subatomic Sensations
                              of the nation
                                                   Officers of Tel Aviv University

                                                   Robert Goldberg
                                                   Chairman of the Board of Governors
                                                   Dov Lautman
                                                   Chairman of the Executive Council
                                                   Prof. Zvi Galil
                                                   Prof. Dany Leviatan
                                                   Mordehai Kohn
                                                   Prof. Ehud Gazit
                                                   Vice President for Research and Development

                                                   Dr. Gary Sussman
                                                   Vice President for Development and Public Affairs

                                                   Yehiel Ben-Zvi

                                                   Vice President

                                                   Dr. Raymond R. Sackler,
                                                   Michael H. Steinhardt
                                                   Honorary Chairpersons of the Board of Governors
                                                   Dr. h.c. Karl Heinz-Kipp,

 TAU Exhibits at GA                                Deputy Chairman of the Board of Governors
                                                   Dr. h.c. Josef Buchmann,
                                                   Stewart M. Colton, François Heilbronn,
 TAU’s booth at the General Assembly (GA) of       Dr. h.c. Raya Jaglom, John Landerer CBE AM,
 the United Jewish Communities, which took         Adolfo Smolarz, Melvin S. Taub
                                                   Vice Chairpersons of the Board of Governors
 place in Jerusalem this November, showcased
 the university’s overseas programs. The GA        Prof. Raanan Rein
                                                   Vice Rector
 was attended by 3,500 professional and lay        Prof. Shimon Yankielowicz
 community leaders, mainly from the United         Prof. Hannah Naveh
 States. During the event, TAU President Zvi       Dean of the Yolanda and David Katz
                                                   Faculty of the Arts
 Galil took part in a panel on higher education.   Prof. Ehud Heyman
 Two delegations from the GA visited TAU           Dean of the Iby and Aladar Fleischman
                                                   Faculty of Engineering
 including one from the South Palm Beach           Prof. Haim J. Wolfson

 Florida Federation. They visited TAU’s            Dean of the Raymond and Beverly Sackler
                                                   Faculty of Exact Sciences
 Faculty of Management—Leon Recanati               Prof. Shlomo Biderman
                                                   Dean of the Lester and Sally Entin
 Graduate School of Business Administration,       Faculty of Humanities
 heard presentations on nanoscience and            Prof. Hanoch Dagan
                                                   Dean of the Buchmann Faculty of Law
 nanotechnology at TAU, and met with young         Prof. Yoel Kloog
 researchers, students and TAU officials.          Dean of the George S. Wise
                                                   Faculty of Life Sciences
                                                   Prof. Asher Tishler
                                                   Dean of the Faculty of Management—Leon
                                                   Recanati Graduate School of Business
                                                   Prof. Yoseph Mekori
                                                   Dean of the Sackler Faculty of Medicine
                                                   Prof. Noah Lewin-Epstein
                                                   Dean of the Gershon H. Gordon
                                                   Faculty of Social Sciences
                                                   Prof. Yoav Ariel
                                                   Dean of Students
                                                   Prof. David Menashri
                                                   Dean for Special Programs
                                                         Cover Story:
                                                         Lifting the Veil
                                                         of secrecy       2                    Taking Refuge
                                                         With 64 projects being funded         behind the Gates 14
                                                         by Israeli and US defense             The growing popularity in gated
                                                         agencies, TAU is playing              housing complexes reflects a desire
                                                         a major role in enhancing             by elite groups to withdraw from
                                                         Israel’s security capabilities        the rest of society, finds a TAU
                                                         and military edge.                    conference.
                                     Winter 2008/09

                                                       Seeing the Forest
                                                       for the Trees     13
                                                       TAU scientists are pioneering a new
                                                       way of producing paper that saves
Issued by the Marketing and Donor Relations Dept.
Development and Public Affairs Division
Tel Aviv University

                                                                                               Middle East
Ramat Aviv 69978
Tel Aviv, Israel
Tel: +972 3 6408249
Fax: + 972 3 6407080
                                                                                               Immersion                      16
E-mail:                                                                The world’s future Middle East
                                                                                               specialists experience the region
Website:                                                                         first-hand in TAU’s international
                                                                                               master’s degree program in Middle
                                                                                               Eastern history.
Editorial staff for TAU Review and Insider
Editor: Louise Shalev
Contributors: Rava Eleasari, Talma Agron,
Pauline Reich, Ruti Ziv, Karin Kloosterman,
Ilana Teitelbaum, Gil Zohar, Michael Green,
Shoshana Kordova
Graphic Design: Dalit Pessach Dio’olamot
Graphics: TAU Graphics Design Studio/
Michal Semo-Kovetz
Photography: Development and Public Affairs Division
Photography Department/Michal Roche Ben Ami,
Michal Kidron                                          innovations                        18
Additional Photography: Yoram Reshef; Noah Shachar
Cover photo courtesy of the IDF Spokesperson's Unit
Illustrations: Raffael Blumenberg                      digest                             24
Administrative Coordinator: Pauline Reich
Administrative Assistants: Roy Polad, Shani Shaflan
Translation Services: Sagir Translations               newsmakers                         28
Printing: Eli Meir Printing
                                                                     s  e
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 In th tell do        ts at t tely defe d potenti
  who only hi
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    TAU ios both

    Prof. Leonid
  and his former
PhD student, Dr.
 Barak Fishbain,
       their video
  technology for
      civilian and
     military use.
          Winter 2008/09   TEL AVIV UNIVERSITY REVIEW

                                                        By Gil Zohar
     ng Veil
   ti e
 if h
L t         y
       cr ec
   S e
    Remember Q, who provides James Program and the Tel Aviv Workshop                        Molecular explosives
    Bond with laser beam watches and for Science, Technology and Security.                  detection
    other futuristic gadgets that keep An expert on Iran’s nuclear program,
    007’s enemies at bay? In real life his work has the highest security clear-                While military R&D often results in ci-

    there’s no such glamor in what today ance. Besides his academic creden-                 vilian spin-offs, Prof. Doron Shabat’s ci-
    is called national security research tials, Ben-Israel serves as a Member of            vilian research has shown converse po-
    and development. In the rough and Knesset and was a former director of                  tential for military applications. Shabat,
    tumble reality of the Middle East, Tel MAFAT. He holds the rank of Major                of the Raymond and Beverly Sackler
    Aviv University is at the front line of General (res.) in the Israel Defense            School of Chemistry, Raymond and
    the critical work to maintain Israel’s Forces.                                          Beverly   Sackler    Faculty   of   Exact
    military and technological edge.             “Military R&D in Israel would not          Sciences, has been working on novel
       While much of that research re- exist without the universities. They                 drug-delivery biomolecules that ferry
    mains classified, several facts illumi- carry out all the basic scientific investi-     cancer-killing doses of medication di-
    nate the role of the university. MAFAT, gation, which is then developed either
                                                                                            rectly to tumor tissue. Using the same
    a Hebrew acronym meaning the by defense industries or the army,”
                                                                                            technology, Shabat has made a break-
    R&D Directorate of                                              says Ben-Israel.
                                                                                            through in explosives detection. By in-
    the Israel Ministry of                                          TAU’s Security
    Defense, is currently                                           Studies Program         stalling a sensor unit at the head of his

    funding 55 projects           People are just not               currently      has      carefully engineered molecules, he can
    at TAU. Nine other            aware of how important            an enrollment           use his system to identify explosives
    projects are being            university research is            of 170 mas-             such as triacetone triperoxide (TATP).
    funded by DARPA                                                 ter’s students.            TATP has become an illicit explosive
    –     the      Defense
                                  in general and how                Ben-Israel’s Tel        of choice due to its straightforward syn-
    Advanced Research             much TAU contributes              Aviv Workshop           thesis using readily available chemicals
    Projects Agency of            to Israel’s security in           for       Science,      such as acetone and hydrogen per-
    the US Department             particular.                       Technology and          oxide. Shabat is able to trace minute
    of Defense. Seven                                               Security       has      amounts of TATP’s chemical signature
    highly-coveted Israel                                           been running
                                                                                            without any special pre-treatment of
    National Security Prizes have been six to eight workshops a year since it
                                                                                            the sample, e.g., in real field conditions
    awarded in recent years to mem- was established in 2002. The work-
                                                                                            such as at an airport check-in counter.
    bers of TAU’s Blavatnik School of shop’s goal, implemented through the
    Computer Science – more than any publication of books, position papers
    other institution in the country. For and conference proceedings, is to               projects, and they won’t talk about
    security reasons, the recipients cannot promote public discourse on security          it,” matter-of-factly notes Dr. Michael
    be named.                                 technologies and create interaction         Gozin, an expert in organic chemistry
       “People are just not aware of how between academia, security experts               and explosives detection, who himself
    important university research is in and defense industries.                           chooses words carefully to describe
    general, and how much TAU contrib-           In 2004 TAU hosted the First             his work.
    utes to Israel’s security in particular,” International Homeland Security
    says TAU President Zvi Galil. “I my- Conference, organized by the Israel              Anti-missile
    self am awed by the magnitude and National Security Council to-
    scientific creativity of the work being gether with the Israel Export and
    done behind the scenes at TAU that International Cooperation Institute                    Prof. Ady Arie remembers well
    enhances the country’s civilian de- and Globes business newspaper.                    what nearly happened on November
    fense capabilities and military edge,”       Not surprisingly, much of the            28, 2002, in Mombassa, Kenya. As
    Professor Galil says.                     defense-related research at TAU re-         three suicide bombers crashed a SUV
       Unlike in the United States where mains hush-hush, conducted in                    into a seaside resort killing 13 and in-
    research is conducted at national labs, rooms and laboratories protected by           juring 18, almost simultaneously two
    Israel has no such equivalent institu- barred windows, multiple locks and             surface-to-air missiles were fired at
    tions, explains Prof. Isaac Ben-Israel, office safes. “There are people in this       an Israeli charter plane as it took off
    who heads TAU’s Security Studies university dealing with very secret                  from Moi International Airport.
                                                                                                         Winter 2008/09     TEL AVIV UNIVERSITY REVIEW

    The shoulder-launched Strela 2
(SA-7) missiles narrowly missed their
target – a Boeing 757 airliner owned
by Tel Aviv-based Arkia Airlines car-
rying 271 vacationers back home from
African safaris and Indian Ocean
beaches. American intelligence of-
ficials reported that another six live
missiles were found at the scene.
    For two years Arie, who heads the
Max and Betty Kranzberg Research
Institute for Electronic Devices at
TAU’s Iby and Aladar Fleischman
Faculty of Engineering, has been
tasked with designing systems to pro-
tect aircraft from missiles. “I think it
was luck,” he says simply of the near
miss in Mombassa.
    Arie and Dr. Ofer Gayer, a post-
doctoral fellow, are at the forefront of
the cat-and-mouse game of keeping
ahead of missile engineers and terror-
ist scientists.                             to fit on a commercial aircraft, he           Prof. Abraham Katzir, Head of the
    Their defense, based on non-linear      adds.“The market is huge,” he says.        Applied Physics Group at the Raymond
optics, is to use an intense light source   “Eventually you’ll have such a system      and Beverly Sackler School of Physics                             Prof.
to blind and deceive an incoming            on every commercial aircraft.” Citing      and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly                                Katzir
missile. These weapons hone in on a         the restrictions of classified informa-    Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, is also
jet engine which emits light at a cer-      tion – a recurrent theme in researching    working on a laser-based countermeas-
tain wavelength. Arie’s solution – be-      this article – Arie is unable to discuss   ure system against shoulder-launched
ing developed in partnership with El        his project’s budget or the cost of in-    surface-to-air missiles (SAMs). Such
Op, part of Elbit, which makes elec-        stalling an anti-missile defense laser     a system will protect civilian aircraft,
trical optic defense systems, and with      on board an aircraft. “Nothing that        particularly at smaller airports where
support from the Chief Scientists of        goes on an aircraft is cheap,” he says     one could drive to within close prox-
the Ministry of Industry, Trade and         obliquely.                                 imity of the runway, jump out of a
Commerce – is to take a light source           But then, how much are the lives of     vehicle, aim and fire off a missile be-
from a near infra-red laser and convert     an entire plane’s passengers and crew      fore security could react. Thousands
it into a wavelength which the missile      worth?                                     of American-manufactured missiles
is sensitive to. The defense laser he’s                                                were given to Afghani mujahideen
developed must be compact enough                              ❖                        fighting the Soviet invasion of their
                                                                                                       country in 1978. Used
                                                                                                       to great effect against
                                                                                                       Red Army helicop-
                                                                                                       ters, a large number of
                                                                                                       those unused weapons
                                                                                                       fell into the hands of
                                                                                                       rogue states and ter-
                                                                                                       rorist organizations.
                                                                                                           “It is assumed that
                                                                                                       al-Qaeda has 20,000
                                                                                                       of them. Some farmer

    could carry it on his shoulder,” Prof.      and the incumbent of the Bernard
    Katzir says of the deadly two-meter         L. Schwartz Chair in Nano-Scale
    long weapon. “It’s a disaster waiting       Information Technology. “But it’s a
    to happen.”                                 real and immediate danger. It’s not
        Such missiles hone in on the in-        speculation.”
    frared light emitted by a jet’s tailpipe.      “The issue of water takes on a
    Besides the uncomplicated weapon’s          special resonance,” Shaham contin-
    infrared detection system, it includes      ues, “in our arid Middle East, and
    a rocket engine and an explosive            also in the historical context of anti-
    charge. An unskilled operator only          Semitism, when it was the Jews who
    need point the missile in the general       had to fight off accusations in the
    direction of the target and squeeze         Middle Ages that they were poisoning
    the trigger.                                wells and spreading the plague.”
        “Our goal is to develop a coun-            “From a scientific standpoint, the
    termeasure system. Radar systems            major question is ‘Is the water safe?’
    aboard a civilian plane can detect the      We want to answer this fundamen-
    incoming missile and the counter-           tal question. We won’t accept ‘I don’t
    measure system must be able to dis-         know’ as an answer.”
    able the missile in seconds – before it        To provide that answer, Prof.
    hits the plane,” says Katzir.               Shacham, in collaboration with Prof.
        Katzir and his team are develop-        Shimshon Belkin of the Hebrew
    ing fiber lasers, based on optical fib-     University of Jerusalem, developed
    ers made out of silver halides – once       a technique using genetically engi-
    used in photographic film. When a           neered microbes that generate light
    missile is detected, the laser emits a      when they encounter toxic water and
    high intensity infrared laser beam in       “feel ill.” Optics is used to measure
    the direction of the incoming missile       the microbes’ wellbeing.
    and blinds it. The misled missile then         Microbe-based technology is the
    continues flying without being able to      basis for a range of practical, portable,
    hone in on the tailpipe of the plane,       low-cost and field-deployable systems.
    chasing ghost airplanes as it were, un-     “We developed something that you
    til it runs out of fuel, and then plum-     can give to every soldier or civil de-      accidents. For example in the rural
    mets to the earth or the sea, explod-       fense person to put in their canteen,”      community of Walkerton, Canada,
    ing with minimal damage.                    says Shacham.                               unusually heavy spring runoff in May
        “There is a race all over the world                                                 2000 together with criminally neg-
    to develop a defense against shoulder-                                                  ligent monitoring of the E. coli level
    launched SAMs. We have made sig-                                                        resulted in seven deaths and hundreds
    nificant progress, and we’re close,”                                                    sickened with diarrhea, cramps and
    says Katzir.                                                                            nausea. Many of the survivors will ex-
                                                                                            perience severe intestinal pain for the
    Testing the waters                                                                      remainder of their lives.
                                                                                               Closer to home, an ammonia leak
       Another threat of entirely differ-                                                   at a filtration station in central Israel
    ent dimensions is the poisoning of a                                                    poisoned the local water supply before
    water supply – either by accident or                                                    the Mekorot water authority detected
    terrorism.                                                                              and resolved the problem. Hundreds
       “Water poisoning is like something                                                   of afflicted people flooded Tel Aviv
    out of a John le Carré novel,” begins          Given that herbicides and pesti-         area hospitals. “You don’t want hos-
    Prof. Yosi Shacham-Diamand, the             cides are water soluble, the chance of      pitals to be sensors for toxicity. That’s
    former head of the TAU Center for           accidental poisoning is real, he contin-    too late,” warns Shacham.
    Nanoscience and Nanotechnology              ues, as are industrial negligence and          The $3-million research grant for
                                                                                                                      Winter 2008/09          TEL AVIV UNIVERSITY REVIEW

Four-legged surveillance
   At the Center for Applied Animal Behavior for Security Purposes at TAU, headed by Prof. Joseph Terkel of the Zoology Department,
scientists are testing the suitability of various animals to carry out security-related tasks. Some of their findings are now being suc-
cessfully applied in the field by security forces.
   Most defense and security research today exploits sophisticated modern technology. Terkel and his team, in contrast, utilize
what millions of years of evolution have led to: survival of the fittest in the animal world, with different species having evolved unique
senses specific to their survival needs. Each four-legged animal’s abilities and constraints can be used for the benefit of two-legged
security personnel. Indeed, there are some tasks that animals are much better equipped to carry out.
   It is widely accepted today that no artificial nose can compete with a dog’s super-sensitive nose, which is able to sniff and detect
one in a million parts of a substance it has been trained to recognize, such as explosives. A dog, cannot, however, both sniff and
pant at the same time. When overheated from the effort involved in working, it will pant to cool itself down, which impairs its ability to
sniff out an explosive. The dog’s handler must be able to determine that the dog is really sniffing when it moves ahead of a patrol.
   This problem is being addressed through the doctoral research of Terkel’s student Irit Gazit, in collaboration with the IDF’s Canine
Unit, where Terkel heads R&D. Gazit has developed a device that, when attached to a dog’s muzzle, transmits sounds back to its
handler via a portable receiver, enabling the handler to know – even at a distance – whether the dog is actively sniffing and search-
ing, or just panting. If the dog is panting, the handler can redirect it back to that specific area to sniff again, thereby ensuring that a
hidden explosive is not missed.
   In a separate project that is funded by DARPA, Terkel is focusing on the natural advantage of birds – their superb eyesight. He is
training birds to respond to visual stimuli for various missions. The advantage of a bird over a mini drone for surveillance purposes is
that birds are unobtrusive. Alert enemy forces can spot an unmanned aerial vehicle but will not be alarmed by a bird flying by. In the
project, birds are being trained to cover a large area or to remain within a particular site; when the “target” they have been taught to
                                                                                                                                                                           Prof. Joseph
locate appears in their vision, they respond as trained.                                                                                                                   Terkel

portable water toxicity detection that           ill. “Toxic agents, either in gas or in              His nightmare scenario is that
Shacham received from DARPA in                   water, should be detected at very low            a terrorist will poison the National
collaboration with Prof. Belkin has              levels before they cause any damage,”            Water Carrier, the hydraulic system
proven to be money well-spent. In                says Shacham.                                    of canals and pipelines bringing wa-
April, the two founded Canarious                                                                  ter pumped from the Sea of Galilee
Ltd. to produce and market the sys-              Sounding the                                     south to the center of the country
tem they developed, the first of which
will be delivered to clients around
                                                 alarm                                            and the Negev, with a commercial
                                                                                                  pesticide. Highly toxic substances
April 2009.                                         Detecting toxicity in a major wa-             like Parathion, DDVP and Atrazine
    Having developed an “artificial              ter supply is another research area of           (the latter is banned in the European
tongue” to detect poisoned water, the            Abraham Katzir, who holds the Carol              Union) are all available in Israel for as
next challenge is to develop an “arti-           and Melvin S. Taub Chair in Applied              little as $10 a liter, and can be bought
ficial nose” that can sense toxic gases          Medical Physics and was recently ap-             without any identification or license.
in the air.                                      pointed director of TAU’s Abramson               One part per million of any of these
    Shacham cites the Japanese dooms-            Center for Medical Physics. Rather               substances would sicken an adult, or
day cult Aum Shinri Kyo (Aum                     than removing samples of water peri-             kill a baby or a senior, Katzir warns.
Supreme Truth) which released sarin              odically and examining their quality,                “You don’t need to kill hundreds
gas on five crowded subway trains                as is done by most agencies around the           or thousands of people,” he says. “It’s
in Tokyo in 1995, killing 12 com-                world, Katzir and his team are seeking           enough to kill 10 and there will be
muters and leaving more than 5,300               to monitor water quality on-line.                mass panic.”
       A variation on the nationwide poi-      concludes Katzir, who is currently          wireless communications systems are
    soning scenario is the placing of toxic    looking for funding. “In the US and         ideal for protecting security sensitive
    materials in a Tel Aviv skyscraper or      in Israel, many of the water distribu-      facilities, as well as airports and pris-
    shopping mall. In such large com-          tion centers are not well protected. It’s   ons. The potential uses are so mani-
    plexes, the water inlet is well protect-   scary. But we’re working on it.”            fold that Shapira simply says “Leave it
    ed but the outlet is often vulnerable to                                               to the readers’ imagination.”
    the introduction of foreign substanc-
    es, Katzir explains.
                                               Treading carefully                              How small are Shapira’s dew
                                                                                           drops? “Microscopic is stretching it,
       “Our idea is to use infra-red spec-        While Prof. Katzir is concerned          but we’re talking about millimeters –
    troscopy, which measures color in          about monitoring water quality, for         or about one tenth of an inch. They
    the infrared light range. Many fluids      the last four years Prof. Yoram Shapira,    are sturdy enough to be dropped from
    like water, alcohol and acetone are        incumbent of the Henry and Dina             an airplane.”
    clear and cannot be distinguished          Krongold Chair in Microelectronics,             The drops issue a signal every few
    from one another by the human eye          has been obsessed with the covert           seconds, allowing an almost instant
    or by instruments that measure vis-        surveillance of just about everything.      identification of an intruder, whether
    ible light. But in infra-red, each of      He’s developed “smart dew” – the                    mechanical, human or simply
    these materials looks different,”                                                               a bird flying by.
    says Katzir. “In the same way,                                                                      “Each droplet has its own
    there is a significant difference                                                               micro-battery. The sophisti-
    between the infra-red ‘color’                                                                    cated communication proto-
    of pure water and that of pol-                                                                   col allows the whole system
    luted water.”                                                                                     to remain asleep most of the
       The system developed by                                                                        time, thus conserving ener-
    Katzir and the Applied Physics                                                                     gy. Its lifetime can be several
    Group makes it possible to con-                                                                    months.”
    tinuously monitor water quality                                                                        Shapira’s team has com-
    in a lake, river or water reservoir                                                                 pleted designing and build-
    – or even a large building. The                                                                     ing a prototype, and “now
    system will sound an alarm if                                                                        is the right time to transfer
    toxic substances such as poison-                                                                     the technology to a com-
    ous chemicals appear in minute                                                                        mercial company that can
    concentrations.                                                                                       put it into a product,” he
       Tested in laboratory condi-                                                                       says.
    tions, the system has proved ef-                                                                       The best part? The sys-
    fective in detecting pesticides and        Israeli version of “smart dust,” which      tem will be low cost, with each drop-
    herbicides in concentrations smaller       truly seems like an invention from          let costing about 25 cents.
    than one part per million. The system      Q’s legendary arsenal.
    has been used in Florida, where blue          The size of dew drops, Shapira’s         Picking up the
    algae blooms caused by phosphorous
    tainted the water supply. Similarly, in
                                               tiny sensors can be scattered across an
                                               enclosed space or around the perim-
    Californian water, Katzir’s system de-     eter of an area to detect any intrusion        “I’m not free to talk about
    tected tiny amounts of toxic carbon        within a range of five to 50 meters.        things funded by the Ministry of
    tetrachloride, formerly widely used        Each “droplet” in this early warning        Defense, naturally,” begins Prof.
    in fire extinguishers and for washing      system is sensitive to a single param-      Anthony Weiss, Head of the School
    airplanes.                                 eter, such as noise, magnetic fields        of Electrical Engineering at TAU’s
       “My goal is to create a system          produced by metal in cars or tanks,         Fleischman Faculty of Engineering.
    both for environmental protection          vibrations, carbon monoxide emis-           But Weiss is prepared to discuss his
    – against accidental poisoning of          sions or light. The droplets communi-       work on tracking down the loca-
    water by industry, and for national        cate via radio frequency to a base sta-     tion of transmissions, whether com-
    security – against intentional poison-     tion that analyzes the data and issues      ing from cell phones, smugglers or
    ing of drinking water by terrorists,       an alarm if warranted. Such tiny and        submarines. The titles of his recent
                                                                                                             Winter 2008/09     TEL AVIV UNIVERSITY REVIEW

articles in academic journals, such
as “Localization of Narrowband                  Sharpening                                 motion,” he says, as I fail to detect a
                                                                                           person walking by on screen.
Radio Emitters Based on Doppler                 the focus                                     Yaroslavsky’s algorithms filter out
Frequency Shifts” or “Maximum                                                              the visual “noise” to produce a stable
                                                   Like Prof. Weiss, Prof. Leonid
Likelihood Position Estimation                                                             scene with enhanced resolution of the
                                                Yaroslavsky of the School of Electrical
of Network Nodes Using Range                                                               significant elements. Thus in the ci-
                                                Engineering and his former PhD stu-
Measurements” suggest why Israel’s                                                         vilian traffic application on which he
                                                dent, Dr. Barak Fishbain, are also
defense establishment is interested in                                                     is now working, the background of
                                                interested in intelligence gathering.
his specialized research.                                                                  the highway will be removed to focus
                                                In 2007 the pair completed a three-
   Weiss uses a variety of techniques                                                      exclusively on the movement of the
                                                year project initiated by the IDF
to pinpoint distant transmissions –                                                        vehicles.
                                                Intelligence Corps on how to enhance
to within 50 meters – including in-                                                           ELOP, a daughter corporation of
                                                and stabilize video images shot from
tercepting signals at multiple points,                                                     Elbit, recently licensed the technology
                                                a long distance, about a dozen kilom-
and measuring signal strength as it                                                        from Ramot, the technology transfer
                                                eters (seven miles) or more.
attenuates while passing through the                                                       arm of TAU. Yaroslavsky predicts his
                                                   As anyone who has hiked in the
atmosphere. All his techniques are                                                         optical enhancement system will be-
                                                desert on a summer day can attest,
passive, he notes, making it impossi-                                                      come a standard feature in consumer
                                                heat “bends” light, causing a rippling
ble for the party transmitting to know                                                     electronics in the coming years.
                                                visual effect for far-away objects. This
they’ve been detected. Moreover, his
techniques work with equal efficacy
                                                turbulence effect rapidly becomes
                                                fatiguing for someone viewing and
in the air or water.
   What about counter-intelligence
                                                monitoring video transmissions.            out the truth
                                                Illustrating his point, Yaroslavsky            Research by Dr. Michael Gozin
methods to mask the point of trans-
                                                shows a wavy clip of military footage      is also likely to be widely adopted in
                                                shot from 15 kilometers distance.          the coming years, if not commercially
   “I’m not sure I can say anything
                                                   “If you watch this for a long time,     then certainly by police and intel-
about that,” Weiss clams up.
                                                your eyes become insensitive to real       ligence agencies. The Belarus-born
                                                                                           Gozin is researching enhanced iden-
                                                                                           tification techniques based on perspi-
   Mining For suspicious activity                                                          ration.
                                                                                               “A lot of organizations, including
      With implications for intelligence gathering, Prof. Oded Maimon of
                                                                                           the FBI, are looking at sweat residue
   the Fleischman Faculty of Engineering mines cyberspace in a project
                                                                                           as an alternative to fingerprint identifi-
   funded by the European Union, Israel’s Ministry of Science, and General
                                                                                           cation. Sweat contains a very complex
                                                                                           mixture of small, organic molecules
      Using sophisticated algorithms, Maimon reads millions of e-mails
                                                                                           and larger bio-molecules – proteins
   and identifies those that are suspicious or important. His data mining
                                                                                           and peptides. It is possible that these
   software identifies 98 out of 100 hits that are relevant to search criteria,
                                                                                           proteins and peptides are specific to
   whereas other search engines yield only a small portion of the really
                                                                                           every individual,” Gozin explains.
   interesting messages. Maimon, the author of 10 books on data mining,
                                                                                               “An advanced biochemical analysis
   is the winner of the Israel Government Prize and the incumbent of the
                                                                                           could create a sweat pattern unique to
   Chair in Industrial Engineering.
                                                                                           an individual,” he theorizes.
      Dr. Ran Bachrach, a new faculty member at the Department of
                                                                                               Moreover, unlike a fingerprint
   Geophysics and Planetary Sciences, Raymond and Beverly Sackler
                                                                                           which might be useless if incomplete,
   Faculty of Exact Sciences, is engaged in a different kind of mining. An
                                                                                           a miniscule residue of sweat could
   expert on tunnel detection technology, he uses seismic waves and re-
                                                                                           provide personal identification with a
   mote sensing technologies. His non-destructive seismic wave testing
                                                                                           very high percentage of certainty, he
   techniques work for subsurface monitoring of near surface tunnels. It’s
   the type of research that may finally stop the flourishing underground
                                                                                               A dog can distinguish between the
   trade between Gaza and Egypt, and protect IDF border units from being
                                                                                           scents of different individuals, but
   ambushed by tunnel-digging terrorists.
                                                                                           there is currently no scientific way
                to measure that. Looking over the                                                      to match the development of novel
                horizon, Gozin envisions devices at                                                    explosives and propellants with the
Prof. Michael   airports and other strategic locations                                                 development of appropriate detection
                that recognize scents and identify sus-                                                technologies, so that if these materi-
                pects.                                                                                 als should ever make their way to the
                   Those future devices will likely be                                                 market – and they will – we’ll be able
                based on advanced mass spectrom-                                                       to detect them, and not be stuck with
                eters capable of analyzing a person’s                                                  unanswered questions,” Gozin says.
                sweat biomolecules and identifying            “In contrast to what we’ve ex-
                him.                                       perienced until now in Judea and            Emulating the
                   If that project sounds like some-
                thing out of The Matrix, Gozin
                                                           Samaria,” he explains, “the Second
                                                           Lebanon War clearly showed that we
                continues in this futuristic vein by       need to have superior technology both          Prof. Avi Seifert leads a team that
                describing – elliptically – his other      on the ground and in the air.               is performing novel experiments with
                research projects funded by MAFAT.            “The creation of new chemistries is      wind tunnels for civil and security
                Characteristically, MAFAT denied           extremely important for the techno-         applications, including for improved
                Gozin permission to speak in all but       logical superiority of our troops. Yet at   aerodynamics of drones.
                generalities about his research into the   the same time, whatever is developed           Seeking, for instance, to improve
                detection of “green explosives” – next     for the military market will ultimately     the range and flying time for un-
                generation munitions based on multi-       end up in the hands of terrorists. So,      manned aerial vehicles (UAVs), which
                ple nitrogen atoms in the molecule.        we need to be ready. We would like          are often used for intelligence gath-
                                                                                                            Winter 2008/09     TEL AVIV UNIVERSITY REVIEW

ering, he is investigating the flight         new checkpoint                                  Sharan is interested in how emerg-
                                                                                          ing technologies still not integrated
mechanism of dragonfly wings, the
odd shape of which generates vortex-
                                              institute For                               into everyday life could be exploited
es that enhance lift and reduce drag          inForMation security                        by terrorists, for example nanotech-
at small sizes and low flight speeds.            New faculty recruit Prof. Ran Canetti,   nology, robotics and brain research à
Together with his PhD student                 brought from Boston’s MIT, will head        la the Manchurian Candidate.
David-Elie Levy, Seifert, of the TAU          TAU’s newly launched Check Point                This interest has resulted in a se-
School of Mechanical Engineering,             Institute for Information Security at its   ries of recommendations for counter-
seeks engineering solutions that will         Blavatnik School of Computer Science.       measures and defense policies, as well
integrate the positive aspects of drag-       The institute will research all areas of    as cooperation with the EU Security
onfly aerodynamics but without the            cryptography and information security,      Research Program involving broad
typical wing flapping of small insects        including theoretical foundations, cryp-    technology forecasting and future
and birds.                                    tographic algorithms and protocols,         threats scenarios. The center has also
    An additional study conducted             the building of secure systems and          advised the Pentagon on the potential
at TAU’s Meadow Aerodynamics                  applications, information privacy, and      threats of terrorism.
Laboratory has yielded a new control          economic, social and legal aspects of           Sharan is not free to discuss his cur-
mechanism which, when placed on               information security. The institute was     rent work with Israeli defense agen-
regular UAVs, work at least ten times         established by Check Point Software         cies including MAFAT, the counter-
faster than conventional ones, reduc-         Technologies Ltd., the California-based     terrorism unit in the Prime Minister’s
ing turbulence.                               giant in Internet security, whose CEO       Office (MALAL), the Ministry of
    Mimicking the “hingeless maneu-           and Chairman of the Board is Israeli Gil    Defense and the police.
verability” of dragonfly wings, the           Shwed, a TAU Governor and the recipi-
new control system produces a UAV’s           ent of TAU’s Hugo Ramniceanu Prize in
yaw, pitch and roll motions (the three        Economics.
possible axes of movement), without                                                           If Dr. Sharan’s work seems opaque,
utilizing flaps, allowing for remote        edge of research in the fields of un-         it’s almost transparent compared to the
intelligence gathering in gusty con-        derwater acoustics and sonar technol-         quantum computing and encryption
ditions. Very recently, the system          ogy. With the participation of TAU’s          work being done by Dr. Julia Kempe,
was tested during three successful          former Vice President of Research             Prof. Oded Regev and Prof. Amnon
flights. In one of them, a drone was        and Development Prof. Hagit Messer-           Ta-Shma of the Blavatnik School of
landed solely by the new system, a          Yaron, Dean of Engineering Prof.              Computer Science, Raymond and
first in aviation history.                  Ehud Heyman and Prof. Gregory                 Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact
    “Minimizing turbulence and pas-         Zilman of Engineering, the research           Sciences. Their work is theoretical
senger discomfort has obvious bene-         center supports applicative industrial        since a quantum computer doesn’t ex-
fits for military and civilian aircraft,”   research and development, and trains          ist yet, and it may take a decade for
Seifert says.                               qualified manpower to join industry           reality to catch up with theory.
                                            in the field of underwater acoustics.             The basic principle of quantum
                    ❖                                                                     computing is that quantum properties
                                            Predicting new                                can be used to represent and structure
   What Seifert’s research is to
the skies, Prof. Touvia Miloh is to         trends                                        data and that quantum mechanisms
                                                                                          can be devised and built to perform
Poseidon’s realm. His Underwater                Dr. Yair Sharan, Director of              operations with this data.
Studies Research Center is a joint          TAU’s Interdisciplinary Center for                Along with many national govern-
initiative of MAFAT and the Israeli         Technology Analysis and Forecasting           ment and military funding agencies,
Navy. Miloh, a member of the                (ICTAF), has perhaps the most ho-             Kempe and Regev are interested in
Department of Fluid Mechanics               listic view of anyone about the na-           quantum computing because, though
and Heat Transfer at the Fleischman         tional security and defense projects          still in its infancy, such a computer
Faculty of Engineering, the former          involving TAU. The center’s studies           will revolutionize cryptanalysis.
dean of the faculty and the incum-          of novel technologies form the basis              “If this beast is built, it will break
bent of the Lazarus Brothers Chair          for numerous defense R&D projects             every cipher and code in use today,”
of Aerodynamics, is at the cutting          in Israeli industry.                          Kempe predicts of a radical new
            keeping the skies saFe
               Senior officers in the Israel Air Force
            (IAF) estimate that Dr. Yossi Leshem of the
            Department of Zoology, George. S. Wise
            Faculty of Life Sciences, has saved the
            State of Israel $760 million and reduced
            collisions between IAF jets and birds by
            76 percent since he started his TAU doc-
            toral studies on bird migrations in 1984.
            In the decade before Israel’s 1982 with-
            drawal from the Sinai Peninsula – which
            served as the main training zone of the
            IAF after 1967 – five aircraft were lost and
            one pilot killed due to birds, while 35 se-
            vere collisions cost over $1 million each,
Dr. Yossi
            he notes.
               Israel, situated between the sea and
            desert, is a busy hub for birds on their migration route between summer nesting grounds in Europe and Asia, and winter territory
            in Africa. Twice a year, some 500 million migrating birds crowd into Israel’s skies, to the delight of bird watchers – and the dismay
            of every pilot.
               Leshem has flown with the migrating flocks in a motorized glider for 272 days, and sent up UAVs to monitor them – “the first time
            ever in the world that drones were used for a positive purpose.” The Russian-built radar station that Leshem has set up at Latrun,
            operated by Dr. Leonid Dinevich, a new immigrant scientist, provides pilots with real-time warning of the location of migrating flocks
            so that they can alter their course or change training flight plans.
               At Leshem’s behest, a second radar station was set up by the IAF in the Negev in 1992. Leshem hopes to establish a network
            of such bird migration monitoring radar stations across the Middle East.
               “Migrating birds know no political boundaries,” he smiles.
               The data are shared with scientists from Russia, the US, Turkey and Jordan, he notes. The success of TAU research applied by
            the IAF has become a case study taught in many air force academies around the globe.
               “If you say safety is too costly, try an accident,” concludes the Bird Man of Israel.

            technology which, though hardly yet             industries, as well as taking in 85               TAU Vice President of Research
            practical, is becoming too interesting          students a year in the Israel Defense          and Development Ehud Gazit con-
            to ignore.                                      Forces Academic Reserve Program.               cludes: “We now understand that
                                                            This program, which trains extremely           investing in our universities is crucial
                                                            bright undergraduate students prior to         for Israel’s economic development and
               In addition to defense-related re-           their regular military service, supplies       national security. A thriving academia
            search throughout the TAU campus,               them with an open-minded academ-               will result in a stronger and more se-
            TAU is intensively engaged in prepar-           ic approach, skill set, and expertise          cure State of Israel.”
            ing young scientists for the field, em-         for key research posts in the army,”
            phasizes Prof. Haim Wolfson, Dean               Wolfson says. “In addition, dozens of
            of Exact Sciences.                              MSc and PhD students graduating
               “One of our great contributions              each year from our labs form the back-
            to defense and national security is in          bone of the Israeli high-tech defense
            training skilled manpower for these             industry.”
                                                                                                    Winter 2008/09     TEL AVIV UNIVERSITY REVIEW

Sometimes a revolution can                deactivated after a time so that the     are required to convert wood into
                                          fibers don’t grow very long. The TAU     pulp. And unlike wood-based paper,

take a form as innocuous as a roomful
of plants – in this case a small labo-    researchers revealed the sequence of     which is bleached with chemicals
ratory filled with the fibrous kenaf      the kenaf gene that deactivates the      that include chlorine, the production
plant. Professors Roni Aloni and Adi      hormone. Once the gene is silenced,      of kenaf paper doesn’t require these
Avni together with Aloni’s gradu-         the gibberellin continues to be active   chemicals.
ate student Jonathan Dayan of the         resulting in a substantial increase in      Aloni says that the kenaf plant
Department of Plant Sciences, George      fiber yield and activity.                could also serve as a source for biofuel.
S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, hope       This process of genetic engineer-     He explains that while the outer fib-
to replace trees with kenaf as a viable   ing is environmentally friendly and      ers of kenaf are longer and therefore
source of pulp for paper.                 doesn’t require the use of sprays.       excellent for paper-making, the core
   Billions of trees are cut down         “Normally gibberellins are sprayed       fibers are shorter and less important
every year worldwide. Even if forests     on the plants,” says Dayan. “With        for paper. “So we have suggested that

                                                                                                                                                    By Ilana Teitelbaum
                                                                                   companies use the outer fibers for

Seeing the Forest                                                                  paper and the core fibers to produce
                                                                                   ethanol for biofuel,” says Aloni.

for the Trees
                                                                                      Multinational companies like
                                                                                   Gap and J.C. Penney are already us-
                                                                                   ing kenaf paper for their catalogues,
                                                                                   and US farmers consider its fibers to
The fast-growing kenaf plant could help save trees by                              be the best in the world. Until now,
providing pulp for the paper industry

are planted anew, they take decades
to grow, and the natural habitats of
many species of plants and animals
are destroyed in the meantime.
    The solution to this dilemma may
lie in kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) –
an exotic plant with origins in Africa
and Asia that is now in the running
as an alternative to wood pulp for the
manufacture of paper and other prod-
ucts. Aloni, Avni and Dayan have dis-
covered a way to grow kenaf so that it
produces 50% more fibers per crop –
and those fibers are longer and thicker
than before. The technology has been
patented by Ramot, TAU’s technol-
ogy transfer arm.
    The major advantage of kenaf is
that it takes only up to six months
to grow before it is ready to be har-
vested for pulp. Trees, on the other      our new technology, we don’t need to     kenaf paper has been more expensive                                 Prof. Roni
                                                                                                                                                       Aloni and
hand, take 20 to 30 years to grow.        spray anything.”                         than wood-based paper because it is                                 Jonathan
Economically it may make sense to            The production of kenaf paper is      rarely grown. But now that a kenaf                                  Dayan
use kenaf, which is a far more renew-     also more environmentally friendly       crop has the potential to double the
able resource than trees.                 than the manufacture of wood-based       yield with higher quality fibers, the
    The growth of kenaf fibers is fa-     paper. Wood pulp factories are noto-     commercialization of kenaf as a wood
cilitated by the hormone gibberellin,     rious for their pollution, a result of   alternative might be just around the
but in nature this hormone is usually     the massive amounts of energy that       corner, notes Aloni.
                          The gated housing complexes

                          that are springing up in Israel’s major
                          cities reflect the desire of a particu-             The Piazza
                                                                              del Duomo
                          lar group – usually the affluent – to             in the center
                          “barricade” itself off from the rest of            of Milan is a
                          the community,” says architect Hillel                  for large
                          Schocken, former head of TAU’s                        numbers
                                                                                of people
                          Azrieli School of Architecture. “The                 heading in
                          gated community turns it back on the                   different
                          city and its residents and denies them
                          access to public space,” he says.
                              To Schocken this phenomenon
                          breaches the basic right to human
                          survival. “Human survival depends

                          on social interaction,” says Schocken.      anonymous.” Public open spaces such
                          “The key to building relationships          as streets, squares and parks should
                          depends on the extent to which our          be designed to promote human in-

                          immediate environment facilitates           teraction. Their physical dimensions
                          chance encounters between stran-            should be determined according to
                          gers,” he says. “Access to public spaces    the number of people expected to pass
                                                                      through them randomly, he says.

                          is a major factor in the exercise of this
                          human right.”                                  Schocken illustrates his idea by
                              Schocken is the author of the           comparing two sites in Milan, Italy:
                          original urban theory of “intimate          the Piazza del Duomo and the main

                                                                                                                 the Gates
          Schocken of     anonymity,” according to which a            plaza at the new University of Milano-
          TAU’s Azrieli   successful city is “a human habitat         Bicocca by Italian architect Vittorio
            School of
          Architecture    allowing human beings to form rela-         Gregotti. The Piazza del Duomo is
                          tionships with others at various levels     located in the center of town and is
                          of intimacy while remaining entirely        at a point of intersection for large
                                                                      numbers of people headed in differ-        them; and second, that the design
                                                                      ent directions. The Bicocca Plaza on       of a space or architectural structure
                                                                      the other hand, is on the outskirts of     is never neutral, but rather reflects
                                                                      town and attracts few random visi-         the power relations – gender, social,
                                                                      tors. The Bicocca Plaza’s large spaces,    economic and cultural – in a given
                                                                      says Schocken, are therefore empty of      society, whether at the level of neigh-
                                                                      people and life. The result is a campus    borhood, street, city block, or the city
                                                                      that excludes “undesirable popula-         itself.
                                                                      tions” from a community of identical          Dr. Neta Ziv, Director of the Elga
                                                                      people.                                    Cegla Clinical Education Program
                                                                                                                 at the Buchmann Faculty, said that
                                                                      Spatial planning is never neutral          gated communities represent the de-
                                                                         Schocken presented his position         sire of a group of people to segregate
                                                                      on gated communities at a confer-          itself into a separate sub-community.
                                                                      ence of TAU’s Azrieli School and           A gated community may be for a de-
                                                                      Minerva Center for Human Rights            fined population determined by an
                                                                      of the Buchmann Faculty of Law.            admissions committee or a municipal
                                                                      The discussion flowed from two basic       project offering privileges to “locals,”
                                                                      premises: first, with regard to human      she noted.
                                                                      rights, there is always a clear-cut dis-      According to Ziv, critics of gated
                                                                      tinction between those who enjoy hu-       communities are condemning the
                                                                      man rights and those who are denied        trend toward voluntary segregation.
The phenomenon of the gated residential                                                the proliferation of gated technology
                                                                                       parks. In one example, the Malha
community reflects an increasing polarization                                          Industrial Park in Jerusalem, which           The Bicocca
                                                                                                                                     Plaza, Milan,
between rich and poor and the erosion of                                               houses high-tech firms and private            is on the
                                                                                                                                     outskirts of
                                                                                       consultants and attorneys, the site’s
social solidarity in the West, finds a TAU                                             public space is full of outdoor sculp-
                                                                                                                                     town and
                                                                                                                                     attracts few
conference on architecture and human rights.                                           tures but “devoid of human life,” says        random
Those inside the gates generally want to                                               Schocken. Another planned residen-
                                                                                       tial community in Tel Aviv will con-
prevent outsiders from entering, while those                                           sist of two 30-storey towers for high-

                                                                                                                                   By Talma Agron
on the outside question the right of insiders to                                       tech personnel only. “It’s not enough
determine who may enter and who may not.                                               for them and their offspring to spend
                                                                                       their daytime hours in an exclusive
                                                                                       club; even after work and school they
                                                                                       have to segregate themselves in an
“In a healthy society it is not accept-    nities began with the old ‘tower and        enclosed residential setting,” protests
able for the strong or for majority        stockade’ settlements and kibbutzim         Schocken.
groups to ‘flee’ the problems afflicting   that were built as strongholds to with-         “This trend is the result of the ero-
the entire system and come up with         stand Arab attacks,” says Schocken.         sion of social solidarity in the West,
private solutions,” said Ziv. “Gated       “Some claim, and with a certain degree      the growing polarization between
communities are segregationist solu-       of justice, that the separation fence is    rich and poor, the weakening of mu-
tions with a strong emphasis on the        turning the entire State of Israel into a   tual responsibility, and the tendency
private dimension. They call into          gated community,” he adds.                  of governments to transfer their re-
question issues of social solidarity,”        Schocken believes that Israel’s          sponsibilities to nongovernmental
she said.                                  academic institutions are also forms        organizations,” says Schocken. “The
                                           of gated communities, albeit mainly         result is that people feel threatened
Walled cities not new                      for security reasons. He points to the      and are seeking solutions that will
   According to Schocken the roots of      examples of New York University in          improve their sense of personal se-
gated communities lie in the ancient       Manhattan and the Sorbonne in Paris         curity − within the warm enclave of
walled cities of Israel and elsewhere;     – universities whose buildings are          the gated community.” He cautions
over the last fifty years the trend has    scattered throughout the city – as suc-     that this is a false sense of security.
spread to the West and to the US           cessful examples of universities “that      “By gathering together in these pre-
in particular. He notes that in the        enrich the fabric of communal life.”        defined communities, people deprive
Netherlands an entire neighborhood                                                     both themselves and others of the
for politicians was built to resemble      Public spaces devoid of human life          right to public space. Their very afflu-
an ancient fortress with a moat.              The phenomenon is also spread-           ence is depriving those less fortunate
   “In modern Israel gated commu-          ing to the high-tech sector through         of the basic right to exist.”
                 Middle               TAU’s English-language
int’l program

                                      master’s program in Middle
                                      Eastern history brings together

                                      some of the best experts in the
                                      field with the firsthand experience
                                      of life behind the headlines

                                                        Zhyi Zhu, an ambitious 25-year-
                                                        old from Beijing, knows Chinese,
                                                        English, Arabic and Hebrew, and is
                                                        studying Persian. He is in the proc-
                                                        ess of completing a master’s degree
                                                        in Middle Eastern history at TAU’s
                                                        School for Overseas Students, and he
                                                        has big plans for the future: Zhu wants
                                                        to get a job with China’s foreign min-
                                                        istry and play a role in formulating
                                                        Chinese policy on the Middle East.
                                                            Zhu hopes to expand Sino-Israeli
                                                        ties and to get more students from the
                                                        Far East to study in Israel, just as he
                                                        is doing.
                                                            “This is a very good program, with
                                                        a lot of expertise and knowledge from
                                                        all aspects of this region,” says Zhu,
                                                         who had never met any Jews before
                                                         beginning his studies at TAU in
                                                         2006. “If you want to know this re-
                                                          gion, Tel Aviv is a good place to live
                                                          and a good place to learn about it.”
                                                              The TAU master’s in Middle
                                                           Eastern history is a two-year pro-
                                                           gram taught in English that enables
                                                           students from around the globe to
                                                           study with leading authorities in
                                                            the field as well as experience life
                                                             in the Middle East firsthand.
                                                                Students study Hebrew and
                                                            Arabic, write a thesis and take com-
                                                          pulsory seminars on the modern his-
                                                        tory of the Middle East, Islamic his-
                           From left: Zhyi Zhu, Katya
                        Salganick and Jason Hillman
                                                        tory and the history of the Ottoman
                                                                                                       Winter 2008/09     TEL AVIV UNIVERSITY REVIEW

   “It has become a very important        dents,” says Rabi, who saw the differ-          Master’s student Katya Salganick,

                                                                                                                                                       By Shoshana Kordova
program, well-known in the world,”        ence firsthand when he taught at an         26, who plans to study international
says Prof. David Menashri, Dean of        American university as a visiting pro-      peace and conflict in law school in
Special Programs. An internationally      fessor in 2004-05.                          the United States, is convinced that
recognized expert on modern Iran                                                      firsthand exposure to other cultures
who directs TAU’s Center for Iranian      Behind the headlines                        is truly necessary. The San Diego resi-
Studies, Menashri has been a visiting        The master’s program can be par-         dent’s time in Israel has made her more
Fulbright scholar at Princeton and        ticularly useful for students interested    aware of how she views others and has
Cornell Universities and lectured in      in pursuing careers in government,          led her to recognize that “religion and
numerous universities worldwide.          diplomacy, international business,          culture are a little more complicated
   Menashri is one of several lectur-     academia or the media – although            than what they’re made out to be.”
ers at the overseas school who are        some have other fields in mind, like
also research fellows at TAU’s Moshe      26-year-old Alon Lyons from Toronto,        Grappling with complex issues
Dayan Center for Middle Eastern           who plans to work as a tour guide in            A trip to the Golan Heights made
and African Studies, which the            Israel. The studies help the master’s       Jason Hillman, a Lebanese Christian
Philadelphia-based Foreign Policy         students – of whom there will be 40         from Nebraska who began the master’s
and Research Institution has ranked       next academic year – understand the         program in 2006, realize that while
in the top five percent of the world’s    deeper background behind the day’s          politicians may blithely talk about
think tanks. Some of the center’s         breaking news, says Rabi.                   Israeli-Syrian peace, returning the
teachers and alumni are actively in-         For instance, while newspapers           Golan is not as easy as it might sound.
volved in briefing government lead-       talk about international sanctions on           “I realize now that the academic
ers, making policy and conducting         Iran in an effort to keep Tehran from       world and the actual real world are
diplomatic negotiations, and include      pursuing its nuclear program, the           not always congruent,” says Hillman,
former ambassadors to Jordan, Egypt,      master’s students delve deeper than         24, who is considering working as a
Turkey and the United States.             the present-day fracas. They examine        research assistant in Egypt next year.
                                          the history of Iran and the difference      “When we talk about border delinea-
Middle East’s largest archive             between the Islamic republic and the        tion in the Israeli-Arab conflict, this
   The lecturers’ affiliation with the    pre-revolutionary leadership, “and          involves real people, and real popula-
Dayan Center also means they have         then we try to understand what’s hap-       tions are going to have to move.
easy access to its extensive database     pening now within the greater histor-           “I was up in the Golan recently,
and archive, which include the region’s   ical and cultural context,” says Rabi.      and you see these towns that are estab-
largest collection of press and journal                                               lished, and nobody looks like they’re
clippings in Middle Eastern languag-      Beyond the classroom                        going to go anywhere, but they will
es. In addition, the center publishes        From the vantage point of Tel Aviv,      have to if this peace deal is going to be
particularly high-quality master’s the-   where the city’s bars and dance clubs       done,” he says. “And you just have to
ses coming out of the overseas mas-       rub up against the ancient Jaffa port,      wonder after a while: Is it really going
ter’s program, says Dr. Meir Litvak,      students can grasp the mix of past and      to happen? It will take some serious
a Dayan Center research fellow who        present that helps make the Middle          changes on the ground.”
also teaches in the program.              East such an intriguing and contra-             Hillman, who studied history as
   Dr. Uzi Rabi, who teaches about        dictory region.                             an undergraduate in Iowa and the
Iran and the Persian Gulf and is             TAU’s location in the center of the      Netherlands and spent last summer
the incoming chairperson of TAU’s         country also makes it easy to get a         in Egypt studying Arabic, notes that
Department of Middle Eastern and          closer look at the reality that hides be-   for all that his courses and his read-
African History, says that “studying      hind terms like “peace talks” and “the      ing have taught him, book learning is
the Middle East at TAU is vastly dif-     territories” that are so readily ban-       inherently limited.
ferent from learning about the region     died about. The overseas school offers          “I’ve been to the territories, seen
from afar.                                guided trips to the Negev, the Galilee      the complexity of everything, and
   “Being here in Israel, where you       and Golan, and Jerusalem, allowing          it’s not so black and white to me any-
can feel the pulse of the Middle          students to see the region’s complex        more,” he says. “There’s a lot of gray
East from up close, is something          human and geographical mosaic with          area in Israel, and I think you only see
unique that greatly enriches the stu-     their own eyes.                             that once you come here.”
                     Birds do it, bees do it, but mushroom    male to female and vice versa. During        Loya compares the sex change
                     stony corals do it both ways, accord-    the fourth and final year of the study,   phenomenon in mushroom corals
                     ing to TAU ecologist Prof. Yossi Loya.   80% of the specimens reverted to          to that of certain types of plants, for
                     The corals switch sexes repeatedly in    their original sex.                       example orchids, which change sex
                     order to maximize their reproductive        The bi-directional sex changes help    when switched from shady (stressed)
                     capacity throughout their lives.         the species maximize its potential        to sunny (favorable) areas and vice
                        The findings were the result of a     number of offspring, believes Loya.       versa. “This is an important study for
                     study by Loya and his Japanese col-      “This was a major discovery for ecolo-    understanding sex change in general
                     league Prof. Kazuhiko Sakai fol-         gy and evolutionary science,” he says.    in both flora and fauna in response to
                     lowing their discovery in 2004 that      “During the last 40 years, the repro-     environmental constraints,” he says.
                     mushroom corals in the reefs of          ductive cycles of over 500 species of     He further suggests that long-term
                     Okinawa, Japan, had amazing sur-         corals have been studied, but the sex     studies of sex-changing animals will
                     vival capabilities. In the summer of     change phenomenon was not discov-         show that they employ a greater va-
                     1998, some 85% of other coral species    ered until now.”                          riety of sex-allocation strategies than
                     in the region had been destroyed by         The scientists found a correlation     has previously been recognized.

                                    The Amazing
                                Sex Life of Corals
                       In a breakthrough for coral research, a TAU scientist found
Prof. Yossi Loya          that repeated sex changes of the mushroom stony coral
 holding one of
       the corals
                                allow it to adapt to harsh environmental conditions

                                                              between a coral’s size and weight and
                                                              its sexual identity. Apparently, the
                                                              corals only switch sexes until they
                                                              reach a particular size, and from then
                                                              on they remain female for the rest of
                                                              their lives. This allows the mushroom
                                                              coral to conserve energy resources
                                                              because the female reproductive sys-
                                                              tem requires far more energy than
                                                              the male one, says Loya. “A middle-
                                                              sized coral on a growth spurt appar-
                                                              ently requires far too much energy to
                     an unprecedented rise in the world’s     maintain itself as female. Therefore,
                     surface sea temperatures, but the        to continue growing, it switches to
              The    mushroom corals had prevailed.
                                                              the male sex to conserve energy until
      stony coral       Suspecting that the secret to the     its next reproductive season, when it
       during the
       release of
                     corals’ survival lay in the species’     turns back into a female. Mushroom
        eggs that    reproductive strategy, the scientists    corals appear to change their sex re-
     takes place
         after the
                     identified the sex of, and individu-     peatedly until they reach a size where
        full moon    ally tagged, two hundred specimens.      their growth rate decreases signifi-
   from June to
                     Over the next three years, the team      cantly. At this point they can afford        The research was published in the
                     was astonished to find that many of      the energy needed to remain female,       British journal, Proceedings of the
                     the corals made a sex switch from        he explains.                              Royal Society of Biological Science.
                                                                                                          Winter 2008/09    TEL AVIV UNIVERSITY REVIEW

Dimming the Sun’s Rays
Human activity in urban areas blocks solar radiation, say
TAU scientists
A direct correlation between the ex- tionship established between the hu-
tent of people’s activity in urban areas     man factor and the process of global
and the intensity of solar radiation has     dimming.
been found by TAU scientists Prof.              The researchers examined the level
Pinhas Alpert and Dr. Pavel Kishcha          of radiation penetrating the atmos-
of the Department of Geophysics              phere at 317 measurement points
and Planetary Sciences, Raymond              around the world. Data gathered
and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact         in large cities, including Tel Aviv,
Sciences.                                    Shanghai, Hong Kong, Cairo and
   While studying the phenomenon             Caracas, showed that solar intensity        warming, Alpert, who heads TAU’s
known as global dimming – a de-              was 8% lower there than in rural areas.     Porter School of Environmental
crease over the years in the amount of       “This illustrates the impact of human       Studies, believes that the reduction in
radiation reaching the Earth from the        pursuits on the Earth’s climate and the     the intensity of solar radiation is not
sun caused by the accumulation of            fact that we are moving further away        sufficient to affect the Earth’s warm-
aerosols in the atmosphere from pol-         from our natural environment,” notes        ing or to keep ice caps from melting.
lution – the scientists discovered that      Alpert. However, he clarified that the      He believes, rather, that the general
this was a local, rather than global         dimming has only been observed in           rise in temperatures can be expected
trend, characteristic of urban areas.        certain regions, covering about 10%         to continue and notes one negative
   The innovation in their research,         of the Earth’s total area.                  aspect of global dimming: a drop in
which was published in Geophysical              Whereas experts have argued that         land surface evaporation in urban ar-
Research Letters, lies in the direct rela-   global dimming may help offset global       eas that may result in less rainfall.

Common sleeping pills help people
fall asleep at night but can result in
                                               Targeting                                 continuously secreted through the
                                                                                         night and acts as a “signal of darkness”
poor functioning and grogginess dur-
ing waking hours, and an increased
                                             Quality of Sleep                            in humans. However, the natural pro-
                                                                                         duction of melatonin declines in peo-
risk of memory blackouts, falls and                                                      ple age 55 or over. The TAU-developed
driving accidents. Now, a unique                                                         drug corrects this deficiency, mimick-
treatment that can both enhance                                                          ing the physiological pattern of mela-
quality of sleep and improve daytime                                                     tonin excretion during the night and
functioning is being brought to the                                                      helping synchronize the biological
marketplace based on the research of                                                     clock with the day/night cycle.
a TAU scientist.                                                                            The new drug improves quality
   The pill, Circadin, which was de-                                                     of sleep without impairing morning
veloped by Prof. Nava Zisapel of the          A sleeping pill with double                alertness, driving performance and
Department of Neurobiochemistry,               action – improving both                   memory, notes Zisapel. “Moreover,
George S. Wise Faculty of Life               quality of sleep and daytime                whereas traditional treatments can
Sciences, and marketed globally by              functioning – has been                   cause drug dependency, Circadin
the multinational pharmaceuticals                                                        has no discernible withdrawal symp-
                                             developed by a TAU scientist
companies H. Lundbeck, Nycomed                                                           toms,” she notes.
and Teva, is the first treatment of its      longed release of melatonin, a natural-        The EU approval concludes 15
kind to be granted marketing approv-         ly occurring hormone that plays a piv-      years of basic preclinical and clinical
al by the European Union for patients        otal role in the regulation of a person’s   research. TAU will receive royalties
age 55 years or older.                       circadian rhythm, the 24-hour activity      on the sales of the product through its
   The drug works through the pro-           cycle that includes sleep. Melatonin is     technology transfer arm, Ramot.
                                                                                                      proach associated with western cul-
                                                                                                      tures. For the Israelis, trust was based
                                                                                                      solely on the Jordanians’ performance
                                                                                                      and whether they met production
                                                                                                         In contrast, their Arab colleagues
                                                                                                      displayed “normative trust” – typical
                                                                                                      of more traditional societies and based
                                                                                                      on honor, informality, and a blurred
                                                                                                      boundary between work and play.
                                                                                                      This included inviting the Israelis to
                                                                                                      family celebrations and touring the
                                                                                                      country with them. For the Jordanian
                                                                                                      plant manager E’yad, who was inter-
                                                                                                      viewed for the study, trust is heartfelt:
                                                                                                      “When I offer my friendship and hos-
                                                                                                      pitality, I have strong feelings for you,
                                                                                                      and my heart tells me to trust you.
                                                                                                      Sometimes I know that I shouldn’t,
                                                                                                      but nevertheless I trust my Israeli

                   Building Trust Across
By Michael Green

                                                                                                      Reversal of roles
                   the Israeli-Arab Divide                                                               These bonds were put to the test
                                                                                                      midway through the study, howev-
                                                                                                      er, with the outbreak of the Second
                   A TAU study examines how Jordanian and Israeli                                     Intifada in October 2000. According
                   business partners build trust despite former enmities                              to Mizrachi, the roles of the Israeli
                                                                                                      and Jordanians became “completely
                   What makes people trust each other? the Second Intifada during the course          reversed.” The Israeli managers’ three-
                   This is a vexing question at the best    of the research, the researchers were     hour drive to the factory in northern
                   of times, but much more so when          able to expand their aims to include an   Jordan became a perilous task due
                   dealing with former enemies in the       examination of how trust fluctuates in    to heightened tensions in the region,
                   Middle East. Yet it was trust – some-    direct response to political unrest.      and they were forced to transfer many
                   times pushed to its limits – that kept      “Trust, always tenuous in mul-         of their responsibilities to their col-
                   the politically-charged environment      tinational corporations, posed for-       leagues across the border. “The Israelis
                   of a joint Jewish-Arab business ven-     midable challenges to the frag-           basically lost control over the produc-
                   ture from the brink of collapse, ac-     ile relationship between former           tion process. It was the Jordanians
                   cording to an award-winning TAU          enemies,” says Mizrachi, a member         who now talked in terms of efficien-
                   study.                                   of the Department of Sociology and        cy,” says Mizrachi.
                      The study, which was published in     Anthropology, Gordon Faculty of              The Israelis turned to forms of nor-
                   the American Sociological Review and     Social Sciences.                          mative trust as their power was de-
                   won the Clifford Geertz Prize for the                                              volved to the Jordanians whom they
                   best article in cultural sociology for   Calculative vs. normative trust           now depended upon for both econom-
                   2008, was conducted by a team of            In the early days of the business      ic and personal security. “The Israelis
                   TAU researchers led by Prof. Nissim      venture, during a period of relative      played the role of the Arabs, relying
                   Mizrachi. They explored the trust re-    calm in the region, both nationalities    on the values of honor, friendship and
                   lations between Israeli and Jordanian    conformed to cultural stereotypes.        tradition,” explains Mizrachi.
                   managers at the Jordanian plants of      The Israelis’ trust-building was based       As for the Jordanians, they went
                   the Israeli-owned textile company,       on what sociologists call “calculative    from extending hospitality to the
                   GlobeWear. Due to the outbreak of        trust” – a rational, professional ap-     Israelis to behaving much more for-
                                                                                                       Winter 2008/09     TEL AVIV UNIVERSITY REVIEW

mally and recoiling from the personal      social liability as growing anger in the   cal assumptions about trust behav-
friendships they had cultivated dur-       Arab world led to calls for the plants     ior. The study showed that instead of
ing the period of “normalization,”         to be closed. Staff members were ex-       conforming to cultural stereotypes,
effectively mimicking their Israeli        pelled from the Jordanian Engineers        the multi-ethnic staff at GlobeWear
counterparts’ calculative trust. The       Association and one manager, Shaher,       actively switched between modes of
Jordanians’ approach became “purely        living in a Palestinian refugee camp,      trust according to the needs of the sit-
professional, just about business,” says   was urged to quit his job by family        uation. That both the Jordanians and
Mizrachi.                                  and neighbors. Facing rising pressure      Israelis could shift between forms of
                                           against normalization with Israel, cal-    trust and neither side was tied to cul-
Rising tensions                            culative trust became the Jordanians’      tural modes demonstrates the study’s
   The previously warm relations           tool for depoliticizing their work.        finding that individuals can pull out
the Jordanians cultivated with their          According to Mizrachi, the TAU          different types of trust from their cul-
Israeli counterparts rapidly became a      study challenges widely held theoreti-     tural toolkit.

Amdocs, Teva, Ormat and Israel nies such as Teva or Amdocs to the a change in this trend with the inter-
Chemicals, four of the largest multina-    economy of the parent country and          national activity of companies from
tional enterprises in Israel, are among    not just to stockholders.”                 other countries, including Israel, ex-
the fastest growing in the world, grab-       Only 15 firms were included in          panding considerably. The findings
bing the slot filled until recently by     the survey. Combined, these firms          make it possible to evaluate the in-
US and Japanese companies.                 employed 63,000 persons abroad,            volvement of Israeli firms in this fas-
   The finding appears in a com-           their international sales exceeded         cinating process.”
parative international study of the        $21 billion and their foreign held as-        The fifteen Israeli companies that
economic and business activity of          sets reached $7.5 billion. Four firms,     were part of the survey included
Israeli companies, conducted by            Amdocs, Teva, Ormat and Israel             Strauss-Elite, Ness Technologies, Elbit
TAU’s Faculty of Management—
Leon Recanati Graduate School of
Business Administration, the Israel
Manufacturers Association, the                Bucking a
                                           Global Trend
Hebrew University of Jerusalem and
Columbia University.
   The goal of the survey is to moni-
tor the international business activ-             Israeli multinationals
ity of firms from countries defined             are growing at a faster
as “emerging economies,” examine              rate than the world’s 25
their integration in the globalization
                                             largest companies, finds
process and provide researchers and
policy makers in participating coun-           an international survey
tries with comparative findings. Data      conducted jointly with TAU
were initially published on Russia,
Slovenia, Brazil and Israel and will
soon be available on India, South          Chemicals, controlled 77% of all           and Delta Galil. Most of the compa-
Korea and Singapore.                       foreign assets held by the 15 firms in-    nies are public corporations who is-
   Prof. Seev Hirsch of TAU’s Faculty      cluded in the study.                       sued at least part of their share capital
of Management says that the survey,           Until recently, Hirsch says, “it was    in stock exchanges abroad, mainly on
which he coordinates, “makes it pos-       mainly companies from industrial-          the NASDAQ index. Most of their
sible to evaluate the contribution of      ized countries that participated in the    senior executives are Israelis. These
local companies to the globalization       globalization process, headed by the       firms comprise 305 branches, mainly
process, for example, the benefit of       US, EU countries and Japan,” says          in Europe and North America, and are
international investments by compa-        Hirsch. “In recent times, there’s been     gradually spreading to Asia as well.
                      Researchers at TAU’s Raymond and             The research also found that when     of how some of the nucleons get to be
By Shoshana Kordova

                      Beverly Sackler School of Physics and     it comes to pairing off in the nucle-    so fast.
                      Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly            us, like does not seek like. Protons        “We’ve known for a long time
                      Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, are    and neutrons create the most preva-      that there are nucleons that move
                      bringing the mysteries of the universe    lent pairs, leaving proton-proton and    very quickly in the nucleus. It’s a
                      down to earth. Instead of using as-       neutron-neutron pairs behind in the      kind of puzzle in nuclear physics,
                      tronomy to learn about densely packed     dust.                                    how these fast nucleons acquire their
                      neutron stars – the remains of massive       “It shows, for the first time in a    high velocity,” said Piasetzky. “The
                      stars that have exploded – they are       very clear and unambiguous way,          experiments show that the high-
                      studying the components of ordinary       the fact that the rapidly-moving nu-     velocity nucleons in nuclei are due to
                                                                                                         the short-range correlation,” he said,

                      Reaching for the
                                                                                                         referring to the brief pairing between
                                                                                                         the nucleons. “The fact that two get

                      Neutron Stars
                                                                                                         close is the main reason for achieving
                                                                                                         high-momentum nucleons in nuclei.”
                                                                                                            These findings help scientists
                                                                                                         understand not only the atomic nuclei
                      TAU physicists are learning about the remains                                      they are studying in the lab, but also
                      of exploded stars by studying                                                        what remains of massive stars that
                                                                                                                  have exploded, which they
                      the ordinary atom
                                                                                                                     cannot access quite as
                                                                                                                          “When the nucleons are
                                                                                                                        close, the matter density
                                                                                                                        is high, comparable to
                                                                                                                        the matter density in the
                                                                                                                        core of neutron stars,”
                                                                                                                      said Piasetzky. “We can
                                                                                                                    learn about the interaction
                                                                                                              of nucleons at high density from
                                                                                                         these experiments. Our findings
                                                                                                         should be relevant for understanding
                                                                                                         neutron stars that we cannot approach
                                                                                                         and study directly.”
                                                                                                            The nuclear matter found in the
                      atomic nuclei, which approximate the      cleons in nuclei are coming in pairs,”   core of neutron stars is so condensed
                      density found in the core of a neutron    said Piasetzky. “And they’re coming      that if you could put it in a matchbox,
                      star when the protons and neutrons        mainly in proton-neutron pairs.”         it would weigh about as much as
                      briefly come together.                       TAU researchers helped design         the Eiffel Tower, said Ran Shneor,
                         Like bumper cars that collide and      the experiment and built some of         a TAU doctoral student involved
                      rapidly bounce back apart, protons        the detectors – a type of camera         in conducting the experiment
                      and neutrons in the nucleus – known       used to capture the protons and          and analyzing the results, under
                      collectively as nucleons – briefly pair   neutrons. The detectors were shipped     Piasetzky’s supervision.
                      up and split apart, a process that re-    to the Thomas Jefferson National            “Our research helps explain how
                      sults in nucleons zooming around          Accelerator Facility in Virginia where   matter behaves in neutron stars and
                      the nucleus at high velocity. Prof. Eli   the experiment, which was based on a     how, in turn, these stars function,”
                      Piasetzky, along with colleagues from     theoretical prediction by TAU’s Prof.    said Shneor. He said it could also help
                      TAU and 30 other institutions, found      Leonid Frankfurt and Penn State’s        scientists resolve yet another mystery
                      a way to study these pairs in an ex-      Prof. Mark Strikman, took place.         of the heavens: why some stars be-
                      periment that was recently published         The research has helped physicists    come neutron stars while others turn
                      in Science magazine.                      resolve the longstanding conundrum       into black holes.
                                                                                                   Winter 2008/09     TEL AVIV UNIVERSITY REVIEW

                                                                                  collisions that take place every second
                                                                                  in the collider. “There is no storage
                                                                                                                                                   The big
                                                                                  disk space in the world big enough to                            wheel of
                                                                                  hold all the data, making the trigger                            the ATLAS
                                                                                                                                                   detector, one
                                                                                  system a key component in the suc-                               of six built
                                                                                  cess of the LHC,” says Etzion.                                   through a
                                                                                     The collider, which is the world’s                            Chinese-
                                                                                  most powerful atom-smasher, was de-                              Israeli
                                                                                  signed to explore the tiniest particles,
                                                                                  to improve our understanding of the
                                                                                  fundamental forces and interactions
                                                                                  between particles of matter, and to
                                                                                  explore new physics signals beyond
                                                                                  current knowledge. “For many years
                                                                                  our understanding of the universe
                                                                                  was limited by the energy accelera-
                                                                                  tion reached by previous particle ac-
                                                                                  celerators,” says Etzion. “The LHC’s
                                                                                  increased acceleration will bring us
                                                                                  closer to reenacting the Big Bang, the
                                                                                  colossal explosion accepted as the ori-
                                                                                  gin of the universe.”
                                                                                     The Israeli scientists were part of
                                                                                  one of the greatest collaborative efforts
                                                                                  ever attempted in the physical sciences
                                                                                  – the result of more than a decade
                                                                                  of work and $8 billion in finding –
                                                                                  which included over 6,000 scientists
                                                                                  from over 80 countries, and half of the
                                                                                  world’s particle physics researchers.
                                                                                     It will take much work to analyze
                                                                                                                                                   The TAU
                                                                                  the data collected by the LHC’s par-                             team at
                                                                                  ticle detectors, so producing scientific                         CERN: From
                                                                                                                                                   left: Dr. Yan
                                                                                  results will take months and in some                             Benhammou,
                                                                                  cases years. Nonetheless, the ultimate                           Dr. Jony
                                                                                                                                                   Ginzburg, Dr.
                                                                                  hope is that the findings will help                              Meny Ben-

TAU Makes Big Bang
                                                                                  explain the foundations of particle                              Moshe and
                                                                                                                                                   Prof. Erez
                                                                                  physics and shed new light on the                                Etzion
                                                                                  basic forces and building blocks of
Scientists from Tel Aviv University    Prof. Erez Etzion, has been working
made a huge contribution to the suc-   together with scientists from other
cess of the experiment to simulate     Israeli universities for the past ten
the Big Bang that took place at the    years as part of the ATLAS team. The
Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the     team has designed and constructed
European Organization for Nuclear      trigger chambers – which quickly
Research (CERN) in Switzerland         measure the paths of particles – for
recently. A team of seven physicists   the giant detector. These critical piec-
and 12 graduate students from the      es of the detector determine what on-
Raymond and Beverly Sackler School     line data to record and what data to
of Physics and Astronomy, led by       discard from the 1 billion subatomic
                                                                  Passage to India
                          A TAU workshop plays a key role in strengthening India-Israel economic relations
                     TAU’s Harold Hartog School of                    Israeli ambassador to India Mark          tional initiatives and PhD and post-
                  Government and Policy joined forces              Sofer said the Israeli delegation to         doctoral studies. He urged Indian and
                  with the Confederation of Indian                 the forum was the highest ranking of         Israeli entrepreneurs to work jointly to
                  Industry to hold a two-day workshop              its kind to visit India. He noted that       develop suitable and affordable tech-
                  in New Delhi aimed at strengthening              bilateral trade between the two coun-        nologies for the Indian market.
                  trade ties between India and Israel.             tries, which is currently at $3.5 billion,      Prof. Gadi Ariav, Director of the Max
                  Leading Israeli and Indian govern-               could increase to $12.5 billion in four      Perlman Center for Global Business
                  ment officials, diplomats, academics             years should the countries enter a           at TAU’s Faculty of Management—
                  and businesspeople gave presenta-                financial trade agreement. India is the
                  tions at the workshop on bilateral               second biggest purchaser of defense
          Kiran   cooperation in high technology, water            equipment from Israel, added Sofer.
                  and waste management, medicine
       Director   and health care, academia, telecom-              Mutual admiration
      General,    munications and life sciences, among                Sofer said that one of the reasons
      of Indian   other sectors.                                   behind the improvement in relations
      Industry,      Stanley Bergman, CEO and Chair                between the two countries is the fact
     and Gary
Sussman, TAU      of Henry Schein Inc. and Chairman                that admiration in India for Israeli
Vice President    of the Board of the Hartog School,               advances is matched only by the awe
                  expressed hope that the forum would              in Israel for all things Indian – culture,   Leon Recanati Graduate School of
                  become an annual event.                          mentality, depth of thought and mod-         Business Administration, said Israel’s
                                                                   ernization.                                  strength in production innovation and
                                                                      Rajendra Abhyankar, former Indian         India’s strength in process innovation
                                                                   Ambassador to the EU, said that              would bring formidable results when
                                                                   promising areas of cooperation for In-       combined.
                                                                   dia and Israel are clean technologies,         The forum was co-chaired by
                                                                   defense, space applications, software        Stanley Bergman; Aharon Fogel,
                                                                   development, pharmacology, and               Chair of the Board, Ness Technol-
                                                                   medical devices, among others.               ogy and Migdal Insurance; Jamshyd
                                                                                                                N. Godrej, Chairman and Managing
                                                                   Academic exchange                            Director, Godrej & Boyce Manufactur-
                                                                      Prof. Nili Cohen of the Buchmann          ing Ltd.; and Tarun Das, Chief Mentor,
                  Stanley Bergman (left) and Indian Minister of    Faculty of Law, a former TAU Rector,         Confederation of Indian Industry.
                  State for Industry Ashwani Kumar                 emphasized the need to set up a bi-          Also attending was Amos Shapira,
                                                                   lateral fund to promote the exchange         President and CEO of Cellcom and
                     TAU Vice President Dr. Gary Suss-             of academics and students between            President of the Israeli Friends As-
                  man, co-organizer of the workshop,               the two countries.                           sociation of TAU.
                  envisages the gathering as the pre-                 This was reiterated by Kapil Sibal,         The event was supported by the
                  cursor to greater engagement of TAU              Indian Minister for Science and              Pears Foundation, Gilad Hayeem,
                  with India.                                      Technology and Earth Sciences, who           Berwin Leighton Paisner LLP, the
                     The forum was addressed by Indian             promised ministry support for educa-         Aimwell Trust and the Godrej Group.
                  Minister of State for Industry Ash-
                  wani Kumar, who said that India and
                  Israel have been on the same side of               Professorship Launched
                  the global order for quite some time,                 The Department of South East Asian Studies at TAU’s Entin Faculty of
                  even before formal diplomatic ties                 Humanities has signed an agreement with the Indian Embassy to establish
                  were established in 1992. Noting that              a visiting professorship in Indian studies at TAU. The professorship will
                  both countries celebrate democratic                bring an eminent professor from India each year to give courses in the hu-
                  traditions and pluralism, he said the              manities and social sciences. Department chair Prof. Zvika Serper said that
                  forum would strengthen bilateral col-              Indian studies were increasingly popular at TAU and noted that the univer-
                  laborative efforts of the two growing              sity has the largest number of students learning Hindi and Sanskrit in Israel.
                                                                                                        Winter 2008/09     TEL AVIV UNIVERSITY REVIEW

                                          provides insight into the demographic        degree in mathematics and master’s
                                          history of early humans before they          degree in statistics at TAU before go-
  new faculty recruit                     moved out of Africa. “These early            ing on to PhD studies at Stanford Uni-
                                          human populations were small and             versity. His father is a recently retired
   Dr. Saharon Rosset, a young faculty    isolated from each other for many            mathematics professor from TAU.
member at TAU’s Raymond and Bev-          tens of thousands of years,” he says.          Rosset says that when he and his
erly Sackler School of Mathematical         Researchers believe that about             wife made a decision to return to Is-
Sciences, has two passions: statistics    60,000 years ago, modern humans              rael, he also decided on a career path
and genetics. He began combining          started their epic journeys to populate      that would lead him from industry to
the two while working at the IBM
Research Center in New York, but the
academic freedom he now enjoys at
                                          Mining Both Worlds
TAU is allowing him to explore the        A new faculty member at the Department of Statistics
field in new and exciting ways.           is using his expertise in data mining and genetics to
   His study of ancient human migra-      predict how the ancient world was populated                                                                   Dr. Saharon
tion patterns led to the discovery
that the human race was divided into      the world. Until now, this time period       academia. “It was a natural step for
separate groups within Africa for as      has been the primary focus of anthro-        me to join TAU,” he says.
long as 100,000 years. The reasons        pological genetic research; however,            Now, at the end of his first year at
for the separation are climate change,    relatively little was known about the        TAU, Rosset says he enjoys teaching
reduction in populations and harsh        demographic history of our species           students and is proud to be part of a
conditions. Rosset crunched num-          over the previous 140,000 years in           school of mathematical sciences that
bers and did the essential statistical    Africa. The current study returns the        is one of the top twenty in the world.
analysis of African DNA for the study     focus to Africa and thereby refines the      The two-time winner of the presti-
together with Doron Behar of the          understanding of early modern Homo           gious KKD Data Mining Cup says he
Rambam Medical Center.                    sapiens history, says Rosset.                is now looking forward to exploring
   Rosset says the study, which was                                                    problems in genetics that combine
carried out within the framework of       Second generation in TAU                     interesting questions about human
the National Geographic Society’s            Rosset, who was born in the United        history with statistical challenges.
Genographic Project, a worldwide          States but grew up in Israel, is TAU         Among these is a study of the genetic
study of human genetic diversity,         trained: he completed his bachelor’s         ancestry of the Jewish Diaspora.

                     Art Goes DiGitAl                                                   Boost for Biophysics
                                          able students and faculty members
                                                                                           The Raymond and Beverly
                                          to access online images of works of
                                                                                        Sackler Institute of Biophysics,
                                          art via the internet. It will also be used
                                                                                        Raymond and Beverly Sackler Fac-
                                          to help faculty members build course
                                                                                        ulty of Exact Sciences, received a
                                                                                        donation toward the purchase of a
                                            Dean of Arts Hannah Naveh says,
                                                                                        nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)
                                          “The digitization of visual materials
                                                                                        instrument from the Raymond and
                                          greatly enhances the learning experi-
                                                                                        Beverly Sackler Foundation. The
                                          ence and is therefore a very high
                                                                                        NMR spectrometer will be used
                                          priority of the Katz Faculty.”
                                                                                        to study the structure and dynam-
                                            The project was established by
Reuven Rubin, Tiberias, 1926.                                                           ics of proteins and other complex
                                          Fred Simmons of Los Angeles, a
                                                                                        biological systems that will ben-
   TAU’s collection of 130,000 slides     lawyer by profession and a poet
                                                                                        efit the pharmaceutical industry,
of visual works of art from prehistoric   and playwright by avocation whose
                                                                                        medical community and structural
to postmodern times – the largest in      support for TAU includes projects in
                                                                                        biologists. The instrument will be
Israel – is now being digitized through   biblical archaeology, poetry, theater
                                                                                        supervised by Head of the Sackler
the Fred Simmons, Trustee, Digitiza-      arts and film.
                                                                                        Biophysics Institute Prof. Yoram
tion Arts Project at the Department         The computational aspect of the
                                                                                        Cohen, together with Dr. Amir Gold-
of Art History, Yolanda and David         project is supervised by Rose Feld-
                                                                                        bourt of the Raymond and Beverly
Katz Faculty of the Arts. The project,    man, head of the computer team at
                                                                                        Sackler School of Chemistry.
headed by Jeanne Palevski, will en-       the Katz Faculty.
                 Elie Wiesel Joins Roth Institute’s Public Council                                                 As a measure of its
                    Nobel Peace laureate Prof. Elie Wie-        Addressing the event was Isaac                  research excellence, TAU
                 sel was appointed Honorary President        Herzog, Minister of Welfare and                    was ranked 21st place in the
                 of the Public Council of the Roth In-       Social Services and Minister of the                world by The Times Higher
                 stitute for the Study of Contemporary       Diaspora, Society and the Fight                    Education Survey in the
                 Anti-Semitism and Racism, joining 19        against Anti-Semitism. He lauded                   number of article citations
                                      other members in-      the Roth Institute for its pivotal role            per faculty member, tying for
                                      cluding human rights   in combating anti-Semitism and said                the spot with Yale University
                                      lawyer and Cana-       the Israeli government is active in                and the University of Ge-
                                      dian parliamentarian   formulating international agreements               neva, Switzerland. Citations,
                                      Prof. Irwin Cottler    and treaties and attempting to intro-              evaluated to take into ac-
                                      and TAU Governor       duce the topic of anti-Semitism into               count the size of an institu-
   Prof. Dina    and honorary doctor Dan David. Prof.        countries’ study curricula. “There are             tion, are the best understood
   Porat and
    Prof. Elie
                 Wiesel, a leading spokesman against         far too many people who remain igno-               and most widely accepted
                 anti-Semitism, was awarded a TAU            rant of the facts,” said Herzog, who
                                                                                                         Getting Ahead
      Wiesel                                                                                                                          mea-
                 honorary doctorate at the 2008 Board        recalled the historic moment in the                                      sure of
                 of Governors meeting.
                    In a separate event, the Roth Insti-
                                                             1970s when his father, Chaim Herzog,
                                                             then Israeli ambassador to the UN,
                                                                                                          in the World                research
                 tute celebrated its 10th anniversary, as    tore up the notorious UN resolution                   In a separate survey, the
                 well as the 15th anniversary of TAU’s       equating Zionism with racism.                      university was cited as the
                 influential publication, Anti-Semitism         Head of the Institute, Prof. Dina Po-           most sought after institution
                 Worldwide. The event also concluded         rat, gave a lecture on “Anti-Semitism              in Israel, with 11,514 admis-
                 the Institute’s 9th International Semi-     as a Worldview Revisited.” In her lec-             sions applications, out of
                 nar, a biannual workshop that brings        ture, Porat spoke of the strong impact             which 4,421 were accepted.
                 together experts in anti-Semitism           of negative depictions of Jewish pro-
                 from around the world.                      tagonists in novels by great authors.

                                                                           Prizewinning Student Essays
                                prizes                                     Focus on Danish-Israeli ties
                                                                Four TAU graduate students              economies in science and technol-
                 oUtstANDiNG reseArCH                        participated in a ten-day study tour       ogy. He said the prize represented an
                 PoteNtiAl AWArDeD                           of Denmark as part of the prizes           opportunity for Israeli and Danish stu-
                                      Prof. Karen Avra-      they won in an essay competition           dents to interact and hoped the TAU
                                    ham of the Depart-       sponsored by the Danish Embassy in         students would become goodwill
                                    ment of Human            Israel. The competition, entitled “How     ambassadors for Denmark in Israel.
                                    Molecular Genetics       Small Countries Globalize:
                                    and Biochemistry,        Denmark and Israel,” was
                                    Sackler Faculty of       open to students at TAU’s
                                    Medicine, received       Gordon Faculty of Social
                                    the Michael Bruno        Sciences and was run in
                 Karen Avraham      Memorial Award for       cooperation with faculty
                 young, promising researchers from           Dean Noah Lewin-Epstein.
                 the Rothschild Foundation for her              In their essays, the stu-
                 pioneering work in the genetics of          dents – Olena Bagno, Shay
    From left:   hearing disorders. Her research has         Gurion, Dan Sobovitz and Einat Weiss          In his prizewinning essay, Dan
                 led to the identification of several        – compared Israel and Denmark,             Sobovitz wrote: “Both Denmark and
 Einat Weiss,    genes responsible for human hearing         focusing on the question of how            Israel have proven throughout history
Ambassador       loss. In the past, Avraham’s scientific     small countries handle the challenges      how passionate and uncompromising
  A. Carsten
 Daamsgard,      collaboration with Palestinian profes-      posed by globalization.                    we are in standing up to defend our
Olena Bagno      sor Moien Kanaan of Bethlehem                  Then Danish ambassador to Israel,       values from external threats. Never-
    and Shay
       Gurion    University led to the establishment of      A. Carsten Damsgaard, said at the          theless, being small makes us weak
                 a graduate program in genomics for          award ceremony that Denmark                in the global village and obliges us to
                 Palestinian students at TAU.                and Israel were both leading small         support one another.”
                                                                                                      Winter 2008/09    TEL AVIV UNIVERSITY REVIEW

Prize Recognizes Excellence in Brain Research                                        ic innovations in the 2008 Better World
                                                                                     Report on technology transfer by the
   Anat Frydman-Marom, a PhD student       that causes neuronal                      Association of University Technology
in the laboratory of Prof. Ehud Gazit of   cell destruction in                       Managers and was published in Ang-
the Department of Molecular Micro-         Alzheimer’s disease.                      ewandte Chemie, one of the leading
biology and Biotechnology at TAU’s         The team success-                         journals in chemistry.                                          Anat
George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sci-        fully used the method                        Frydman-Marom has won numer-                                 Frydman-
ences, has won a prize from the Swiss      to improve cognitive                      ous prizes including scholarships
Empiris Foundation for her contribution    functioning in labora-                    from TAU’s Center for Nanoscience
to Alzheimer’s disease research.           tory models with                          and Nanotechnology, Marian Gertner
   Working together with Prof. Ga-         Alzheimer’s genes.                        Institute for Medical Nanosystems,
zit and his team, Frydman-Marom               The research was                       Joan and Jaime Constantiner Institute
discovered a method of inhibiting the      cited as one of the                       for Molecular Genetics and Manna
defective protein folding mechanism        100 leading academ-                       Center for Plant Sciences.

         community                                                                                 people

A NEW TRACk To SuCCESS                                                               Pharmaceutical delegation
   A highly successful admissions pro-     Buchmann Faculty of Law by then             A high profile delegation from the
gram for students from outlying cities     Dean Prof. Ariel Porat. Since then        global pharmaceutical company
and towns in Israel has been expand-       several of the students have ranked       Bristol Myers Squibb was hosted at
ed from the TAU law school to the          among the top in their class, notes       TAU. Dr. Elliott Sigal, Executive Vice
entire university. The Legacy Heritage     Porat.                                    President, Chief Scientific Officer and
Scholars Program takes promising              The majority of the students receive   President of R&D; and Dr. Jeremy
students from the country’s geo-           full living and tuition scholarships as   Levin, Senior Vice President of Exter-
graphic periphery and admits them          well as tutoring and psychological        nal Science, Technology and Licens-
to academic studies based solely on        and career counseling. According to       ing, were greeted by TAU President
their high school performance rather       TAU Academic Secretary Sara Kinel,        Zvi Galil and heard presentations on
than on the results of nationwide          students in the program represent a       technology transfer at TAU.
psychometric tests.                        cross-section of Israeli society, in-
   Regular university admissions           cluding minorities, the ultra-Orthodox
criteria place students from Israel’s      and new immigrants. “The goal of this
economically distressed communities        program is not only to admit stu-
at a disadvantage in comparison with       dents to university, but to guide them
                                                                                      at TAu
students from the wealthier central        through their studies and ensure their
region of the country. By contrast, the    future success by helping them find
Legacy Heritage Scholars Program           work,” says Kinel.                            TAU Honorary Doctor Dr.
recognizes pupils’ achievements               Despite this, she notes that the        Santiago Calatrava SA, who
relative to peers in their own high        program has strict requirements:           designed the recently completed
schools.                                   students must achieve a higher than        “Bridge of Strings” in Jerusalem,
   The program offers hope and in-         average GPA each year, take courses        delivered a lecture on his working
centive to students whose chance of        in Jewish heritage and take part in        methods to a packed audience at
gaining admission to university, and       social involvement activities. “We         TAU’s Azrieli School of Architec-
to the most sought after departments       expect no less of them than of their       ture. He also gave a presentation
in particular, would otherwise be low.     fellow students,” says Kinel. “We          to students while at the school.
As such, the program sends a clear         monitor them and support them so           The Spanish-born architect, artist,
message: pupils who excel scholasti-       they don’t fall by the wayside. Most of    sculptor and engineer created the
cally despite an unsupportive environ-     them succeed, and some prove to be         Athens Olympic Sports Complex
ment should be nurtured through the        outstanding students.”                     and was designated by Time
higher education system.                      The program is funded in part by        Magazine as one of the 100 most
   The periphery admissions program        TAU’s Amiram Sivan Center for Com-         influential people in the world.
was first established in 2005 at TAU’s     munity Initiative.
                  Prof. Ehud Gazit Appointed                                                  EMET Prizes
                  Vice President for Research                                         Prof. Joshua Jortner, Raymond and Beverly
                        and Development

                                                                                   Sackler School of Chemistry, Raymond and
                                                                                   Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences;
                                       Professor of Biotechnology at the           Prof. Sasson Somekh, Department of Arabic
                                    Department of Molecular Microbiology           Language and Literature, Lester and Sally Entin
                                    and Biotechnology, George S. Wise              Faculty of Humanities; and Prof. (Emeritus)
                                    Faculty of Life Sciences, Ehud Gazit,          Yitzhak Sadai, Buchmann-Mehta School of
                                    has been appointed Vice President for          Music, Yolanda and David Katz Faculty of the
                                    Research and Development. Prof. Gazit          Arts, are the recipients of the 2008 EMET Prize
                                    is also a member of the managing board         sponsored by the AMN Foundation for the ad-
                  of the TAU Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology.            vancement of Science, Art and Culture in Israel.
                  He has been a faculty member at TAU since 2000, after            The prestigious national prize is given annually
                  completing his postdoctoral studies at MIT, where he still       by the Israeli Prime Minister’s office for excel-
                  holds a visiting appointment.                                    lence in academic and professional achievements
                      Gazit is the recipient of numerous awards and grants,        that have far-reaching influence and significant
                  and his technology transfer achievement in the area of           contribution to society.
                  Alzheimer’s disease was recently acknowledged in the
                  Association of University Technology Managers’ 2008
                  list of top 100 innovations worldwide. His research is
                  directed toward the study of protein folding, misfolding
                  and self-assembly.
                      Among other international roles, Prof. Gazit serves as
                  a Strategic Research Program (SRP) Leader of the EU
                                                                                      Prof. Joshua      Prof. Sasson     Prof. Yitzhak
                  Nano2Life Network of Excellence. He is on the edito-                      Jortner          Somekh             Sadai
                  rial board of several journals including the Journal of
                  Bionanoscience, Nanomedicine, PLoS ONE, Amyloid and
                  Current Chemical Biology.
                                                                               Appointments: Dr. Nurit Guttmann, Social Sciences,
                  Prof. Thalma Lobel Elected                                   Head of the Chaim Herzog Institute for Media, Politics
                                                                               and Society • Prof. Marcelo Dascal, Humanities, in-
                     to Executive Council                                      cumbent of the Laura Schwarz-Kipp Chair of Modern
                                                                               Philosophy • Prof. Jonathan Gershoni, Life Sciences, in-
                                   Prof. Thalma Lobel of TAU’s                 cumbent of the David Furman Chair in the Immunology
                                Department of Psychology, Gershon H.           of Cancer • Prof. Abraham Hefetz, Life Sciences, incum-
                                Gordon Faculty of Social Sciences, has         bent of the Norman and Rose Lederer Chair of Biology
                                been elected a member of the University’s      • Prof. Martin Kupiec, Life Sciences, incumbent of
                                Executive Council. Prof. Lobel served          the Gol Family Chair for Applied Microbiology • Prof.
                                as Chairperson of the Psychology               Zvi Naor, Life Sciences, incumbent of the Abraham E.
                                Department and is a former Dean of             Kazan Chair in Structural Biology • Prof. Reuven Stein,
                  Students who took charge of many social involvement          Life Sciences, incumbent of the Harry and Abe Sherman
                  programs aimed at reducing the gaps in Israeli society.      Chair of Neurobiochemistry

                  Honors: Lifetime Achievement Award for Environmental Protection, Prof. Amotz Zahavi and Dr. Yossi Leshem, Life
                  Sciences • ERC Advanced Grant 2008, Prof. Abraham Nitzan and Prof. Noga Alon, Exact Sciences • ECS Henry B.
                  Linford Award for Distinguished Teaching, Prof. (Emeritus) Eliezer Gileadi, Exact Sciences • 2006 Rosabeth Moss
                  Kanter International Award for Research Excellence in Families and Work, Prof. Moshe Semyonov, Social Sciences •
                  ISH Stevo Julius Award supported by Novartis for 2008, Prof. Talma Rosenthal, Medicine • Bialik Prize for signifi-
                  cant accomplishments in Hebrew literature, Prof. David Vital, Humanities
ARGENTINA                                              Canadian Friends of Tel Aviv University – Toronto   SWITZERLAND
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 Worldwide                                         President
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                                                   ISR AEL

 ARGENTINA                                         Amos Shapira
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                                                   Tel Aviv University Trust in Great Britain
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