Animal Roles in Medical Discoveries

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					Animal Roles in Medical Discoveries
A look at the Nobel Prizes for Medicine and Physiology awarded from 1901 to the present shows that animal research played a key role in these important discoveries. Animal research must continue for similar medical advances to occur in the future.

1901 1902 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1910 1912 1913 1919 1920 1922 1923 1924 1928 1929 1932 1934 1935 1936 1938 1939 1943 1944 1945 1947 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1957 1960 1961 1963 1964 1966 1967 1968 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1979 1981 1982 1984 1986 1987 1989 1990 1991 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Ross Pavlov Koch

von Behring

Animal(s) Used
Guinea pig n Pigeon Dog Cow, sheep Dog, horse Bird Bird, fish, guinea pig Bird Dog Dog, rabbit Guinea pig, horse, rabbit Frog Frog Dog, rabbit, fish Dog Monkey, guinea pig, rat, mouse Chicken Dog, cat Dog Newt, frog Cat, frog, bird, reptile Dog Mouse, rabbit Rat, dog, chick, mouse Cat Mouse g Frog, toad, dog Cat Cow e Monkey, mouse Guinea pig Pigeon Monkey, mouse Horse it t Dog, rabbit Rabbit g Guinea pig id b Cat, frog, squid, crab Rat Rat, rabbit, hen Chicken, rabbit, fish, crab Rat Cat, rat Mammalian liver it Guinea pig, rabbit Bee, bird, fish i Chicken, guinea pig, rat Monkey, horse, chicken, mouse Chimpanzee Sheep, pig Pig Cat, monkey Rat, rabbit, guinea pig Mouse Mouse, chick, snake ryo Mouse embryo Chicken Dog Frog Fruit fly Mouse Mouse, hamster Rabbit Mouse, rat, dog Sea slug, mouse og Sea urchin, frog Roundworm t Clam, mouse, dog rat dog, rat, chimpanzee, pig, rabbit, frog Mouse Rabbit, cat, pig, ferret, mink, mouse, gerbil Roundworm Mouse Dog, rabbit
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Contributions Made
Development of diphtheria antiserum Understanding of malaria life cycle Animal responses to various stimuli Studies of pathogenesis of tuberculosis Characterization of the central nervous system Role of protozoa as cause of disease Immune reactions and functions of phagocytes Knowledge of cell chemistry through work on proteins, including nuclear substances Surgical advances in the suture and grafting of blood vessels Mechanisms of anaphylaxis Mechanisms of immunity Discovery of capillary motor regulating mechanism Consumption of oxygen and lactic acid metabolism in muscle es Discovery of insulin and mechanism of diabetes Mechanism of the electrocardiogram Pathogenesis of typhus ing vitamins i Discovery of antineuritic and growth stimulating vitamins Functions of neurons Liver therapy for anemia Organizer effect in embryonic development Chemical transmission of nerve impulses Role of the sinus and aortic mechanisms in regulation of respiration Antibacterial effects of prontosil Discovery of function of Vitamin K Specific functions of nerve cells e ario s Discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases Catalytic conversion glycogen; role of pituitary in sugar metabolism Functional organization of the brain as a coordinator of internal organs Antiarthritic role of adrenal hormones Development of yellow fever vaccine tic effective f Discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis Characterization of the citric acid cycle Culture of poliovirus that led to development of vaccine Nature and mode of action of oxidation enzymes Production of synthetic compounds and their action on the vascular system and skeletal muscles Understanding of acquired immunological tolerance Physical mechanism of stimulation in the cochlea Ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane Regulation of cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism Tumor-inducing viruses and hormonal treatment of cancer Primary physiological and chemical processes of vision Interpretation of genetic code and its role in protein synthesis Mechanism of storage and release of nerve transmitters Mechanism of the actions of hormones Chemical structure of antibodies Organization of social and behavior patterns in animals Structural and functional organization of cells Interaction between tumor viruses and genetic material New mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of diseases Hypothalamic hormones Development of computer assisted tomography (CAT scan) Processing of visual information by the brain Discovery of prostaglandins Techniques of monoclonal antibody formation Nerve growth factor and epidermal growth factor y Discovery of the genetic principle for generation of antibody diversity Cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes Organ transplantation techniques Chemical communication between cells Genetic control of early embryonic development Recognition of virus-infected cells by the immune system Discovery of prions, a new biological principle of infection Regulating blood pressure with nitric oxide (NO) Discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell m Discoveries in signal transduction in the nervous system Discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle Genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death Discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system Discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease RNA interference—gene silencing by double-stranded RNA Development of knock-out mice Discovery, isolation, and expression of HPV
Funded by

Golgi, Cajal Laveran Mechnikov, Ehrlich Kossel Carrel Richet Bordet Krogh Hill Banting, M l d Macleod Einthoven Nicolle Eijkman, Hopkins Sherrington, Adrian Whipple, Murphy, Minot Spemann Dale, Loewi Heymans Domagk Dam, Doisy er Erlanger, Gasser Fleming, Chain, Florey Cori, Cori, Houssay Hess, Moniz Kendall, Hench, Reichstein Theiler Waksman Krebs, Lipmann Enders, Weller, Robbins Theorell Bovet Burnet, Medawar von Békésy xley Eccles, Hodgkin, Huxley Block, Lynen Rous, Huggins ld Hartline, Granit, Wald Holley, Khorana, Nirenberg Katz, von Euler, Axelrod Sutherland Edelman, Porter von Frisch, Lorenz, Tinbergen de Duve, Palade, Claude Baltimore, Dulbecco, Temin Blumberg, Gajdusek Gullemin, Schally, Yalow Cormack, Hounsfield Sperry, Hubell, Wiesel Bergstrom, Samuelsson, Vane Millstone, Kochler, Jerne Levi-Montalcini, Cohen Tonegawa Varmus, Bishop Murray, Thomas Neher, Sakmann Lewis, Nüsslein-Volhard, Wieschaus Doherty, Zinkernagel Prusiner Fuchgott, Ignarro, Murad Blobel Carlsson, Greengard, Kandel Hartwell, Hunt, Nurse Brenner, Horvitz, Sulston Lauterbur, Mansfield Axel, Buck ren en n Marshall, Warren Fire, Mello Capecchi, Evans, S i hi Smithies zur Hausen

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