WORLD METEOROLOGICAL ORGANIZATION                                   CAgM/MMG-2/Doc. 5
            ________________________                                      (8.03.05)


  GUARUJA, BRAZIL, 30 MARCH – 2 APRIL 2005                                Original: ENGLISH

                                (M.V.K. Sivakumar)


        The training activities under the Agricultural Meteorology Programme progressed well during June
 2003 to March 2005. Main emphasis was on assistance to Members through various training events such
 as workshops and roving seminars. Most of these events have been organized in collaboration with
 national and international organizations. Following is a list of the training events held.

 (a)     Training Workshop (RA II) on Satellite Remote Sensing and GIS Applications in
         Agricultural Meteorology

         WMO organized a Training Workshop (RA II) on Satellite Remote Sensing and GIS
 Applications in Agricultural Meteorology at the Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (IIRS) in Dehradun,
 India from 7 to 11 July 2003. The workshop was co-sponsored by the India Meteorological Department
 (IMD), the Centre for Space Science and Technology Education in Asia and the Pacific (CSSTEAP),
 IIRS, the National Remote Sensing Agency (NRSA) and the Space Applications Centre (SAC).

        Sixteen participants from thirteen Asian countries, including Bangladesh, China, India,
 Kazakhstan, Lao PDR, Maldives, Mongolia, Nepal, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, Tajikistan, Thailand, and
 the United Arab Emirates participated in the workshop.

          Thirteen invited lecturers from the ANGR Agricultural University, IMD, IIRS, NRSA, the Regional
 Remote Sensing Service Centre, and SAC presented lectures and practical exercises on fifteen
 different topics related to the theme of the workshop. These topics included: principles of remote
 sensing; meteorological satellites; digital analysis of satellite data; digital image processing;
 fundamentals of GIS & GPS; spatial data analysis; retrieval of agrometeorological parameters using
 satellite remote sensing data; remote sensing and GIS application in agro-ecological zoning; crop
 growth modelling and applications in agricultural meteorology; crop growth and productivity monitoring
 and simulation using remote sensing and GIS; assessment and monitoring of droughts, floods, water
 and wind induced soil erosion using remote sensing and GIS; satellite based weather forecasting and
 agro-advisory services; desert locust monitoring; and forest fire and degradation assessment using
 remote sensing and GIS. A training manual with copies of all the lectures and practical exercises was
 prepared and distributed to all the participants at the workshop.

 (b)     Training Seminar (RA I) on Information Technology related to Internet

         WMO organized a Training Seminar (RA I) on Information Technology related to Internet for
 Agricultural Meteorology at the Drought Monitoring Centre (DMCN) in Nairobi, Kenya from 1 to 5
 December 2003. The workshop was co-sponsored by the Drought Monitoring Centre. Eighteen
 participants from eight countries, including Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Niger, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda,
 and Zimbabwe, participated in the seminar.           Participants represented their countries’ various
 meteorological services, the African Centre for Meteorological Applications to Development (ACMAD),
 the Agrhymet Regional Centre, and the SADC Drought Monitoring Centre (Harare).
                                      CAgM/MMG-2/Doc. 5, p. 2

        Lecturers included experts from the United States Department of Agriculture, DMCN and the
Kenyan Agricultural Research Institute (KARI). The following topics along with practical computer
exercises included: Agrometeorological Information Technology (IT) challenges in the IGAD region;
Communicating Agrometeorological Information; Contents of Agrometeorological Bulletins; Improving
Agrometeorological Bulletins; Survey on the status of internet in the IGAD region; Quick Tips on Using
MS Windows, Internet, and MS Office; FTP; Automatic Internet Downloads; Introduction to HMTL;
Introduction to MS FrontPage; Introduction to Databases; RANET initiative; Grid Analysis and Display
System (GRADS); Introduction to Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Arcview; and the World
AgroMeteorological Information Service (WAMIS). A training manual with copies of all the lectures and
practical exercises was prepared and distributed to all the participants at the workshop.
        All participants presented an overview of how their countries and organizations currently use
information technology related to the Internet and what agrometeorological information (bulletins,
advisories) were produced and disseminated. The participants also presented their needs and priorities
in improving their agrometeorological products and use of Internet related information technology.

(c)    Roving Seminar on The Application of Climatic Data for Desertification Control,
       Drought Preparedness and Management of Sustainable Agriculture

        The Roving Seminar on The Application of Climatic Data for Desertification Control, Drought
Preparedness and Management of Sustainable Agriculture was held at the Antigua and Barbuda
International Institute of Technology (ABIIT), St John’s, Antigua, 21-29 April 2004 at the kind invitation
of the Antigua Meteorological Services. Twenty participants from 9 countries, including 12 from
Antigua and Barbuda attended the seminar. Hon. Harold E.E. Lovell, Minister of Tourism, External
Affairs, International Transportation and Trade of Antigua and Barbuda opened the seminar and
explained the importance of the Seminar for Antigua and Barbuda.

       The seminar was conducted Prof. Luis Santos Pereira, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Lisbon,
Portugal. He was assisted by Mr Adrian Trotman of the Caribbean Institute for Meteorology and
Hydrology (CIMH). The WMO representative gave three lectures during the seminar.

        A CD-ROM version of the Training Manual was prepared at WMO for distribution to the
participants. In addition to the Training Manual, other material was provided to the local organizers that
prepared a CD-ROM for distribution to the participants. Data for the exercises were provided by the
participants, who made available data sets of all types of weather data with daily and monthly time
steps. Data on soils and crops were created in the Seminar using the expertise of participants with
agricultural background.

Training courses co-sponsored by WMO


(a)    Regional Technical Meeting on CLIPS and Agrometeorological Applications for the
       Andean Countries

        WMO organized a Regional Technical Meeting on CLIPS and Agrometeorological Applications
for the Andean Countries from 8 to 12 December 2003 at the Centro Internacional para la Investigación
del Fenómeno El Niño (CIIFEN) in Guayaquil, Ecuador. Twenty four participants including CLIPS and
Agricultural Meteorology experts from six Andean countries (Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru
and Venezuela), invited experts from Costa Rica, Colombia, International Research Institute for Climate
Change (IRI), representatives from WMO and CIIFEN participated in the Meeting.

        The Meeting started with presentations by invited experts on current advances in seasonal
forecasting and future challenges, applications of climate information in agriculture in the Andean
region, recent advances in agrometeorological applications at the global level, climate prediction and
agriculture, IRI experiences in climate forecasting and applications for the Andean countries and the
potential for applications of climate forecasting. These were followed by two presentations reviewing
the current applications and future potential in CLIPS and in Agricultural Meteorology from each of the
                                       CAgM/MMG-2/Doc. 5, p. 3

six Andean countries. One full day of the Meeting was devoted to discussions on future strategies to
promote CLIPS and Agrometeorological Applications in two separate working groups. Plenary
meetings were held at different stages to integrate the findings from the two working groups.

(b)    Meeting of the RA II Working Group on Agricultural Meteorology

         The meeting of the Working Group on Agricultural Meteorology of Regional Association II (Asia) was
held at the Headquarters of the Presidency of Meteorology and Environment (PME) in Jeddah from 15 -17
December 2003. Twelve participants attended the meeting. The meeting was opened by His Royal
Highness Prince Turki bin Nasser bin Abudulaziz, Permanent Representative of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia
with WMO. The meeting was chaired by Dr G. Kamali (Iran).

        The meeting reviewed reports prepared by the members of the working group and made a
number of suggestions for their improvement. The meeting agreed on the schedule for the finalization
of the report of the group to be submitted to the thirteenth session of the Regional Association II which
was held in September 2004 in Hong Kong, China. The meeting made the following recommendations
for the future activities of the group:

a)     To review the approaches in promoting the more active use of agrometeorological research
       products by the end users for sustainable agriculture in the region.

b)     To review and summarize the status of seasonal and early warning prediction as well as the
       monitoring of drought in the region by both conventional and remote sensing techniques.

c)     To review and summarize the latest information on impact of climate change on the
       agricultural and water resources sectors, and the adaptation strategy to cope with the

d)     To review and summarize the current procedures of agrometeorological forecasts in
       particular with respect to pest and disease management.

e)     To review and summarize both the modern and traditional methods of rain water harvesting
       for agricultural use.

f)     To review and summarize the application of agrometeorological modeling in the region.

g)     To evaluate the status of education and training of agrometeorological personnel with
       particular reference to early warning and monitoring of drought so as to promote and
       support the activities of centres in the region such as the RDMEC in Jeddah.

h)     To review and evaluate the importance of urban and indoor agriculture in the region and the
       strategy to promote them for sustainable agriculture.

(c)    Meeting of the RA VI Working Group on Agricultural Meteorology

      The meeting of the RA VI Working Group on Agricultural Meteorology was held in
Braunschweig, Germany from 17 to 19 December 2003. Ten participants from 10 countries attended
the meeting. The meeting was chaired by Prof. G. Maracchi (Italy), Chairman of the RA VI Working
Group on Agricultural Meteorology. The group reviewed the reports prepared by the members and
made a number of suggestions for revising these reports for the final report of the working group. Dr
Ray Motha, President of the Commission for Agricultural Meteorology (CAgM), made a presentation on
the USDA Joint Agricultural Weather Facility.

        The group discussed the possibility of preparing a Regional Project on Agricultural Meteorology
that could be submitted to the European Commission for funding. The group also discussed the
contents of the two reports to be submitted under item 7.2 on Agricultural Meteorology Programme at
the fourteenth session of RA VI will be held in Aachen, Germany in September 2005 and agreed on a
                                      CAgM/MMG-2/Doc. 5, p. 4

time table for the preparation of the two reports.

        The group agreed that the subject of the impact of climate change and climate variability on
agriculture and forestry in Europe is of significant importance and that Members in RA VI should be
fully sensitized about these impacts to take action to monitor and mitigate these impacts. The group
concluded that financial and human resources available for activities in the area of agricultural
meteorology in Europe are not consistent with the perceived impacts of climate change and weather
extremes on agriculture and forestry in Europe and made the following recommendations:

1)     Efforts should be made to strengthen training, research and operational applications in
       agricultural meteorology in Europe.

2)     There is an urgent need to strengthen the linkages between meteorological services and
       agricultural sector and improve the collaborative activities in the field of agricultural meteorology
       especially in the areas of numerical weather forecasting, remote sensing, data management

3)     The Working Group on Agricultural Meteorology for RA VI should be reestablished with
       renewed terms of reference which might include the following:

       (a)   To review the various agrometeorological techniques and applications to enhance water
             use efficiency and availability in European Agriculture and suggest more appropriate tools
             for effective irrigation scheduling;

       (b)   To assess the economic impacts of agrometeorological information in Europe through
             specific case studies;

       (c)   To review and recommend applications of seasonal to interannual climate forecasts to
             agriculture in Europe, especially concerning quality and storage of agricultural products,
             through active collaboration with CLIPS,

       (d)   To assess the feasibility of using numerical weather products in operational applications
             of agrometeorology;

       (e)   To evaluate the use of remote sensing techniques for monitoring crop growth phases and
             promote their applications in operational agrometeorology, and

       (f)   To promote more active collaboration with farming community in Europe for improved
             applications of agrometeorology at the farm level including internet technologies.

       (d)   Inter-Regional Workshop on Strengthening Operational Agrometeorological Services

        The Inter-Regional Workshop on Strengthening Operational Agrometeorological Services was
organized in collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) from 22-26 March 2004 in
Manila, Philippines, at the kind invitation of the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical
Services Administration (PAGASA). Twenty-eight participants from 19 countries, including 4 from the
Philippines, attended the meeting.

       The workshop was opened by Ms E.F. Alabastro, Secretary of the Department of Science and
Technology of the Government of Philippines. There were 11 sessions during the workshop in which
21 invited papers were presented dealing with various aspects on strengthening operational
agrometeorological services. The technical sessions included the following: operational
agrometeorological services: national, regional and international perspectives; strengthening
operational agrometeorological services – a critical review; and strengthening operational
agrometeorological services – needs from agricultural sector. These sessions were followed by a
brainstorming session on strengthening services at which the participants identified the following main
problems in Strengthening Operational Agrometeorological Services and prioritized them as follows:
                                      CAgM/MMG-2/Doc. 5, p. 5

1.     Lack of effective communication between providers and users
2.     Insufficient knowledge and appreciation of the potential applications of agrometeorology
3.     Lack of adequate resources
4.     Lack of training
5.     Lack of adequate tools and methods
6.     Lack of adequate infrastructure
7.     Insufficient linkages between disciplines and institutions
8.     Lack of adequate, reliable and standardized datasets with sufficient and temporal spatial

       The workshop then identified the strategies to address the above priority problems in
strengthening operational agrometeorological services. Following recommendations were made by the

a)     In order to improve the spatial resolution of the application of agrometeorology products, there
       is a need to strengthen the density of agrometeorology station networks.

b)     The NHMS need to accord recognition to the agrometeorology stations established and
       maintained by other national, regional, and international institutions focusing on agricultural,
       forestry, fisheries, and rangelands issues and assist, support, and collaborate with them.

c)     There is a need for routine interactions between agrometeorologists, agricultural extension
       services, and other intermediaries to provide better services to farmers.

d)     There is a need for a comprehensive strategy for capacity building at the national and regional
       level including short-term, long-term education and training, roving seminars, workshops, and
       conferences that will build on synergies between institutions and organizations responsible for
       capacity building.

e)     Sharing of data, tools, methodologies, and experiences should be promoted through the
       exchanges of experts between member countries and regional centers.

f)     The generation and application of climate information should be promoted by increasing the
       awareness and understanding of policy makers of its importance for sustainable development
       from national to the local levels.

h)     There is a need to involve communication experts in the process of disseminating agromet
       information. Implement the training programs for enhancing the capacity of farmers in using
       climate information for supporting their farming activities.

i)     A coordinated and integrated national agricultural weather policy is needed to ensure that
       operational services to agriculture and food security are met.

j)     There is a need to involve users in the identification of specific climate-sensitive issues in order
       to facilitate their operational decisions.

k)     While modern tools such as remote sensing and GIS may help reduce the impact of traditional
       limitations such as data scarcity, care must be exercised in their use, including thorough
       knowledge of the methodology, assumptions, and limitations.

l)     In an era of decreasing public resources, agricultural meteorologists need to actively publicize
       their efforts and successful endeavors, including an assessment of economic benefits if

m)     Development and provision of agrometeorological products should involve active interaction
       with farmers and/or the agricultural industry initially for their perspective and specific needs, and
       ultimately including education of the user by the providers.
                                         CAgM/MMG-2/Doc. 5, p. 6

n)      An international standard for reporting crop data along with minimum requirements for
        metadata, database formats and database content should be evolved which could be accepted
        by industry, international centers and academia.

o)      Use of participatory research approaches should be promoted in the establishment and
        implementation of projects involving agrometeorology in sustainable development.

q)      Efforts should be made to establish and/or improve phenological observations in a regular
        basis, due to their fundamental role in agrometeorology.

r)      In order to obtain financial resources for agrometeorological activities, very well supported and
        “completed” projects should be presented to different national and international agencies for
        their considerations.

s)      Taking in account the day-to-day increasing advantages of new technologies, efforts must be
        made to enrich the users of agrometeorological products with more precise, timely, and easy-
        to-use local information.

(e)     Expert Group Meeting on Meteorological Information for Locust Control

        The Expert Group Meeting on Meteorological Information for Locust Control was organized from 18
to 20 October 2004 in Geneva to discuss WMO’s response to the Desert Locust plague of 2004 which drew
the attention of the world to the threat they pose to the food security of the affected countries, especially in
the developing world.

        All the different phases in the life cycle of a locust require ideal meteorological conditions for it to
evolve from the solitary phase to the gregarious phase and cause the widespread damage. The National
Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHSs) in the locust-affected areas in Africa, the Middle East
and Asia, as part of the multi-disciplinary teams addressing the locust problem at the national level, do
provide information when required. However, it is important to develop clear guidelines on the exact nature
of meteorological products that must be produced at regular intervals to assist the International Agencies
such as FAO and the regional and national organizations in effective control of the locust problem.

        Four experts from AGRHYMET, FAO, Italy and India attended the meeting. The meeting
reviewed the inter-relationships between weather, climate, locust outbreaks and their migration using
appropriate case studies and elaborated the detailed meteorological information required for the
different phases in the life-cycle of locusts to facilitate more effective locust control operations (please
see the attached programme). C/AGM presented an overview of meteorological information required
for locust control and pointed out the challenges and opportunities to improve existing methods of
monitoring. Mr Keith Cressman from FAO made an interesting presentation on the current locust
plague and pointed out the needs for meteorological information for more effective locust monitoring.
FAO’s analysis points out that conditions are now favourable for the locust breeding conditions in North
Africa in Spring 2005 which could bring more locust swarms into West Africa in the rainy season of

        Presentations from Drs J.R. Sharma (India), B. Sidibe (AGRHYMET) highlighted the regional
needs for more effective meteorological monitoring and Prof. G. Maracchi (IBIMET, Italy) discussed the
use of products of Numerical Weather Prediction Models (NWPs), reanalysis and satellite data and
the use of Local Area Models (LAM) and GIS to improve the monitoring and forecasting of
locusts. H. Kontongomde from WCDMP presented information on Climate Database Management
Systems of WMO.

       Considerable time was devoted to discussing the data needs and design of a database on
meteorological information for locust control. The meeting also discussed the contents of a guidance
brochure for the NMHSs.
                                     CAgM/MMG-2/Doc. 5, p. 7

Conclusions of the meeting

1)    There is a strong relationship between desert locust biology and behaviour and the different
      meteorological parameters including rainfall, temperature, wind etc.,

2)    There are several constraints in most of the locust-affected countries regarding near-real time
      meteorological information. These include poor density of rainfall network, lack of use or poor
      use of meteorological information by national locust control centres, variable quality of synoptic
      rainfall data provided on the GTS, and inadequate collaboration between the National Locust
      Control Centres (LCCs), and the National Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHSs),
      international and regional institutions.

3)    The lack of geospatial meteorological data for entire regions is a major draw back for
      monitoring the locust activity by different nations.

4)    There are several tools and products such as Field Servers which could assist significantly in
      producing meteorological information for more effective monitoring of locusts.

5)    There is a large amount of meteorological information available through Internet eg., the
      products of Numerical Weather Prediction Models (NWPs), reanalysis and satellite data,
      which allows the preparation of specific tools through Local Area Models (LAM) and GIS to
      improve the monitoring and forecasting of locusts.

Recommendations of the meeting

1)    NMHSs should strengthen collaboration with the National LCCs and provide near-real time
      rainfall and temperature data and forecasts, if any.

2)    Meteorological observation networks could be supplemented by new tools such as “Field
      Servers” which offer a low cost option and can be combined with satellite data transmission
      systems to assist in locust monitoring and early warning, besides serving many other users eg.,
      crop insurance, food security, drought monitoring etc.,

3)    Since many of the national, regional and international organizations rely on real-time
      meteorological data from GTS for locust monitoring, it is essential that NMHSs ensure the
      provision of good quality synoptic data on GTS.

4)    National LCCs are encouraged to make better use of geospatial data under Reconnaissance
      and Management System (RAMSES) GIS for effective monitoring of locusts.

5)    Because of the current state of observation networks, it is important to promote the use of NWP
      products including the use of local models.

6)    It will be useful to verify, through the Institute for Biometeorology of the National Research
      Council of Italy (IBIMET–CNR) and in cooperation with WMO, FAO, and the AGRHYMET
      Centre, the feasibility of an operational system that integrates the various data and
      products of LAM to provide better estimates of rainfall, temperature and wind to national,
      regional and international agencies.

7)    Evaluations should be made, with the same institutions, of the improvements in seasonal
      forecasting (two months in advance) that can be facilitated by the use of new parameters such
      as Hydrological Onset and Withdrawal Index (HOWI) and geopotential position to provide
      operational products to national, regional and international agencies.

8)    WMO and FAO should collaborate in the preparation and publication of a brochure that
      provides guidance to NMHSs and LCCs for more effective monitoring of locusts.

9)    FAO/WMO Regional Workshops on Improved Meteorological Support to National LCCs should
                                     CAgM/MMG-2/Doc. 5, p. 8

       be organized for the Francophone and Anglophone countries which would bring together staff
       of NMHSs and the LCCs.

10)    Considering the serious nature of the current locust emergency in West Africa and the need for
       improved user feedback to NMHSs in West Africa, meteorological information for locust
       monitoring should be the focus of PRESAO User Forum at the next session of PRESAO in

11)    Increased efforts should be made to strengthen capacity building and research in improving
       meteorological information and products for locust monitoring.

(f)    Meeting of the RA III Working Group on Agricultural Meteorology

      The meeting of the RA VI Working Group on Agricultural Meteorology was held in Lima, Peru
from 30 November to 3 December 2004. Eighteen participants from 10 countries attended the
meeting. The meeting was chaired by Mr Constantino Alarcon (Peru), Chairman of the RA III Working
Group on Agricultural Meteorology. The group reviewed the reports prepared by the members and
made a number of suggestions for revising these reports for the final report of the working group.

             The group examined the current activities in agricultural meteorology in the region and
identified the following major priorities:


      In most of the countries of the region, agrometeorological and agroclimatological applications
       have been developed, in addition to the agrometeorological and phenological data banks, and
       this work is restricted by the lack of human resources and insufficient budgets. It is necessary
       that the meteorological services promote the collection of phenological data·

      At the moment the NMHSs in the region prepare and distribute agrometeorological bulletins
       (both in printed form and on Web) in which evolution of the weather conditions and the different
       agrometeorological indices are described, however these bulletins still present deficiencies in
       relation to the agrometeorological forecasts.

      In some countries of the region, in face of the extreme events, evaluations of the losses and
       monitoring of the disasters is carried out and in a partial manner, the monitoring of crop yields.


      NMHSs in the region carry out agrometeorological studies in collaboration with the different
       research institutes

      Within the services, more importance is given to agroclimatological studies than to
       agrometeorological studies.

      Some countries undertake agrometeorological as well as agroclimatic studies on frosts, crop
       growth periods, evapotranspiration and phenological maps and these studies are made using
       and validating the agroclimatic indices in addition to agroclimatic and agroecological zonation at
       both the national and regional level.

      With respect to the technologies, the countries use specialized software as well as Agroclimatic
       Information Systems (AIS) for different agrometeorological and agroclimatological applications
       and in a form specific to each individual country in the region. Hence it is recommended that
       the RA IV countries develop a generalized AIS for South America.
                                     CAgM/MMG-2/Doc. 5, p. 9


      In some countries of the region, two bulletins - one for the policy makers and the other for the
       users – are prepared.

      In some countries of the region, agrometeorological forecasts in the short term are not made
       until the moment when significant extreme events in agriculture occur. This is because no
       country has agrometeorological information in real time.

      Most of the countries provide the information on the Internet and those that do not have this
       platform, can provide the information through WAMIS.

      In the end printed media as well as group meetings with the producers are possibly used for the
       diffusion of information, but they are not so effective.

      There no institutional support to establish clear policies for diffusion of the information


     The participation of the agrometeorology experts in the activities of CAgM and in the Working
      Group of RA-III is related given the main reasons for the changes that occur in the members of
      the group.

     An optimal coordination does not exist between the organizations that develop
      agrometeorology. This is the reason why the different meteorological services will have to
      assume with greater force the coordination of the activities that are carried out in meteorology,
      specifically in the case of agrometeorology.

     It is necessary that the Permanent Representatives of each country pay more effective attention
      to the institutions involved in agrometeorological activities and these can then have access to
      the WMO meetings, forums, training, bibliographical material, etc.

     A systematic plan for training in agrometeorology does not exist in the region which is
      necessary to follow up on the work programme within the group.

The Group recommended that the Working Group on Agricultural Meteorology for RA –III be
reestablished with the following main terms of reference:

1)    To investigate the drought indices that are commonly used in RA-III in the last 5 years and to
      evaluate the relation between these indices and the spatial impacts in the agricultural activity
      registered during this period;

2)    To review and analyze the methodologies currently used for the evaluation of the impacts
      caused by the different extreme events that affect the agricultural productivity in RA-III;

3)    To compile and analyze the results of the crop growth models using the results of the seasonal
      to interannual climate forecasts;

4)    To evaluate the diffusion of information and the awareness raised amongst the farmers of the
      economic benefits of the use of agrometeorological services and products and to evaluate the
      human, technical and budgetary the resources available to the agrometeorological services.

5)    To evaluate the different ways of diffusion of the agrometeorological information for the different
      users, obtain feedback from the users and to propose appropriate mechanisms to improve it.
                                     CAgM/MMG-2/Doc. 5, p. 10

6)    To analyze and evaluate the use of crop simulation models in the NMHSs and institutions in
      RA-III and suggest the procedures to implement them.

7)    To review the studies on agroclimatic and agroecological zonation that make use of GIS and
      Agrometeoroloigcal Information Systems in RA-III and determine the best procedures for their
      implementation througout the Region.

8)    To evaluate and propose appropriate methodologies for the application of remote sensing in
      agriculture in the region.

(g)   Meeting of the RA IV Working Group on Agricultural Meteorology

        The meeting of the RA IV Working Group on Agricultural Meteorology was held in Barbados
from 14 to 17 December 2004. Eighteen participants from 10 countries attended the meeting. The
meeting was chaired by Mr Constantino Alarcon (Peru), Chairman of the RA III Working Group on
Agricultural Meteorology. The group reviewed the reports prepared by the members and made a
number of suggestions for revising these reports for the final report of the working group.

      Following are the conclusions and recommendations of the group:


a)     Agriculture is not a sector that exerts a predominant weight in the economies of many countries
       in the Region as in the case of other sectors such as tourism, energy, zones of free trade,
       services, etc.

b)     Allocation of resources for the agricultural sector and the meteorological services is diminishing
       in the Region.

c)     As a consequence of the above, the human and financial resources for the agrometeorological
       applications have declined, therefore, they affect the provision and the quality of the
       agrometeorological services that are offered to the user community.

d)     The lack of agrometeorological services to the user community in some countries of the Region
       should be a serious concern in the short as well as long term.

e)     Present concerns with respect to climate change, soil degradation, desertification, the impacts
       of ENSO (for example, the 1997/98 episode) and the extreme events (for example, droughts
       and floods) on the crops, livestock, forestry and the fisheries have strong implications for the
       agrometeorological investigations and applications in the Region.

f)     If the present tendencies continue, the ability of the countries to respond and, but even more
       important, to anticipate the beginning of the above extreme events and to mitigate their
       impacts, would decline.

g)     The use of improved technologies and tools, such as GIS, for the agrometeorological
       applications is expanding and could continue to improve the ability to effectively handle the user

h)     Nevertheless, the lack of training and capacity of some of the personnel who toil in
       agrometeorology in the Region, is making it difficult to use the improved tools and resources
       and is affecting the quality of the services that are offered.

i)     In order to minimize the impact of natural events in sectors such as tourism, on the national
       economies and to assure their stability and security, is essential to educate to the decision
       makers on the necessity to improve the agricultural sector with the use of sustainable
       agricultural strategies.
                                    CAgM/MMG-2/Doc. 5, p. 11

j)    In order to meet the growing needs for weather and climate information in different sectors, it is
      necessary to expand the meteorological service operations in the Caribbean region beyond the
      forecasting and aeronautical applications, to include meteorological applications in areas such
      as agriculture and water resources.

k)    The support of WMO has been excellent in the preserving the Working Group on Agricultural
      Meteorology in RA IV, however in a general sense, the possibilities for the development of
      Agricultural Meteorology have been very limited in comparison to the support received by other
      meteorological disciplines in the Region.

l)    Only one NMHS in the Region has an independent agrometeorological unit.

m)    The themes addressed by the Working Group on Agricultural Meteorology of RA IV, are an
      important contribution to the knowledge source on Agricultural Meteorology of the Region and
      especially for the Spanish speaking countries.


a)    It is essential to develop to training modules on the use of improved tools and resources such
      as the GIS, which could facilitate the development and the implementation of
      agrometeorological products.

b)    The Member countries should be invited to collaborate in the development of new applications
      and agrometeorological products and in the improvement of the existing ones.

c)    Developed countries such as the United States and Canada should increase their efforts in the
      transfer of improved tools and technologies for agrometeorological applications (such as the
      drought monitor, forecasts and data base management) to the developing countries in the
      Region by means of the organization of training courses and seminars as well as through the

d)    Review the present linkages between the NMHSs and the agricultural research and extension
      services in the Region and suggest the ways and means to improve these linkages to promote
      the most efficient use of weather and climate information in the Region.

e)    Promote regional projects to strengthen the collaboration between the agrometeorological
      services of the countries of the region in critical subjects such as the socioeconomic impacts of
      the climatic change and the extreme events (ENSO, droughts floods, etc.).

f)    The Working Group on Agricultural Meteorology of RA IV should be reestablished with renewed
      terms of reference.

h)    Develop projects that allow to create capacities for the development of the agrometeorological
      services, with special emphasis on the monitoring, prediction and the early warning of extreme
      weather and climate events that can endanger agriculture, livestock, forestry and fisheries.


(a)   International Conference on Sustainable Agriculture and Environment in the Arab Region
      (Amman, Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, 14-16 October 2003)

(b)   Technical Workshop on Drought Preparedness for Balkan within the context of the UNCCD
      (Romania, 25 – 26 October 2004).
                                     CAgM/MMG-2/Doc. 5, p. 12



(a)      WMO. 2004. Servicios de Informacion y Prediccion del Clima (SIPC) y Aplicaciones
         Agrometeorologicas para los Paises Andinos (Actas de la Tecnica llevada a cabo en
         Guayaquil, Ecuador, 8-12 de diciembre de 2003). Geneva, Switzerland: World Meteorological
         Organization. 221 pp.

(b)      WMO. 2004. Applications of Climate Forecasts for Agriculture. (Proceedings of an Expert Group
         Meeting for Regional Association I (Africa), Banjul, Gambia, 9-13 December 2002). Geneva,
         Switzerland: World Meteorological Organization.

Technical Note

Technical Note No. 202. Management Strategies in Agriculture and Forestry for Mitigation of
Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Adaptation to Climate Variability and Climate Change. Report of the
CAgM Working Group, WMO-No. 969


No. 93       Experts for Collection of Case Studies of Economically Beneficial Agrometeorological
             Applications and Services and Other Success Stories in Agrometeorology for Policy
             Matters, by W. Baier

No. 94       Contribution from Members on Operational Applications in Agrometeorology and from
             Discussants of the Papers Presented at the International Workshop: Reducing
             Vulnerability of Agriculture and Forestry to Climate Variability and Climate Change, by H.
             Abadalla, A. Abdullaev, L. Grom, V. Alexandrov, A. Bockari, M. Carvajal, et. al.

No. 95       User Requirements for Satellite and Other Remote Sensing Information in the Field of
             Agricultural Meteorology, by P.C. Doraiswamy, G.B. Diagne, M. Labo, S.K. Shaha, and
             O. Virchenko

No. 96       Impact of Agrometeorological Information on Rangeland and Pasture Ecology and
             Management, by L.V. Lebed, Y. Gandega, and D. Rijks

No. 97       Working Group on the Communication of Agricultural Information, by V. Perarnaud, A.
             Bootsma, P. Isabyrie, and B.-L. Lee

No. 98       Informe del grupo de trabajo sobre meteorologia agricola de la AR IV, by O. Solano, R.
             Villalobos, and A. Albanil

Training Manual

M.V.K. Sivakumar, P.S. Roy, S.K. Saha (Eds.). 2003. Training Workshop (RA II) on Satellite Remote
Sensing and GIS Applications in Agricultural Meteorology (Dehradun, India, 7-11 July 2003). Geneva,
Switzerland: World Meteorological Organization.


        WMO participated actively in various meetings related to UNCCD during 2003 and 2004, which are
as follows:

(a)      Second Asian Ministerial Conference on UNCCD Implementation in Preparation for the Sixth
         Session of the Conference of the Parties to UNCCD and Sixth Regional Meeting of Asian Focal
                                   CAgM/MMG-2/Doc. 5, p. 13

      Points in preparation for the Ministerial Conference and the Sixth Session of the COP (Abu
      Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, 7-11 June 2003).

(b)   Sixth Conference of the Parties (COP-6) to the UNCCD (Havana, Cuba, 25 August to 6
      September 2003).

(c)   Technical Workshop on Drought Preparedness for Balkan within the context of the UNCCD
      (Romania, 25 – 26 October 2004).


      WMO was represented at the following meetings during 1999-2002:

(a)   13th Brazilian Congress of Agrometeorology (CBA), Santa Maria, State of Rio Grande do Sul, 3
      to 7 August, 2003.

(b)   5th Conference on Agricultural and Forest Meteorology of the Korean Society of Agricultural and
      Forest Meteorology, Wonju City, 26 to 27 September 2003.

(c)   Meeting of the Task Force on CLIMAG (Climate Prediction and Agriculture) of START (Global
      Change System for Analysis, Research and Training), Washington DC, 11 November 2003.

(d)   Meeting of the Management Committee (MC) of COST Action 718 (Meteorological Applications
      for Agriculture), Brussels, 4 to 5 March 2004.

(e)   24th FAO Regional Conference for Europe, Montpellier, France, 5 to 7 May 2004.

(f)   7th Session of the Scientific Advisory Committee (SACOM) of the African Centre of
      Meteorological Applications for Development, Niamey, 14 to 17 September 2004.

(g)   30th Session of the Committee on World Food Security, Rome, 20 to 23 September 2004.

(h)   96th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Agronomy, Seattle, 31 October to 4 November

(i)   First Project Steering Committee (PSC) Meeting of the Project on Capacity-Building in Drought
      Preparedness in Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok, 24 January 2005.

(j)   Workshop on Reducing Food Insecurity associated with Natural Disasters in Asia and the Pacific,
      Bangkok, 27-28 January 2005.

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