Mod # 19 � Personality Theories by HC111208013634

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									Mod # 19 – Personality Theories
• Freud’s Ideas: Psychodynamic Theory
  – Importance of early childhood
  – Conscious –
  – Unconscious –
    Psychodynamic Theory (cont’d)
•   Unconscious motivation –
•   Free Association –
•   Dream Interpretation –
•   Freudian Slips –

• Projective Tests – Thematic Apperception Test (TAT),
  The Roberts, The Rorschach
     – Pull for emotional information
     – Questionable reliability and validity
Psychodynamic Theory (cont’d)
• Mind Divisions

• ID - biological drives
• EGO –(Reality balance btwn ID/Superego
• SUPEREGO- Strict moral standards
    Psychodynamic Theory (cont’d)
•   Defense Mechanisms***
•   Rationalization –
•   Denial –
•   Repression –
•   Projection –
•   Reaction Formation –
Psychodynamic Theory (cont’d)
• Defense Mechanisms (cont’d)
•
• Displacement –

• Sublimation –
    Psychosexual Stages
•   Conflicts with body zones
•    Oral –
•    Anal –
•   Phallic –
•    Latency –
•   Genital – Puberty –
•   Fixation: Blocked in a stage
 Followers of Freud
• Jung (Collective Unconscious) -

• Adler –

• Horney –

• Erikson – Psychosocial stages
 Validity & Impact of Freud
• Covers many puzzling behaviors

• Not predictive –

• -nonclinical populations
Humanism
• Phenomenology – your perception of the
  world, whether accurate or not, becomes
  your reality

• Holistic view –

• Self-Actualization – (Maslow’s hierarchy)
    Humanism
• Cross-cultural applications
•   Mentoring programs –
•   Big Brothers; Partners -> 245-5555)

•     Remarkable achievements – resiliency from
    impoverished groups
Humanism
• Self Theory – tendency towards Self-
  Actualization:
•
• Self-Concept***
    Real Self – based on actual experience,
      Ideal Self – based on hopes, wishes,
Humanism
• Positive Regard =

•   Conditional –
•   Unconditional –

***Contrast with Conditioning principles???***
Mod # 20 – Personality Theories
• Social-Cognitive Theory (Bandura)
• Reciprocal Determinism
• Cognitive Factors***
• Language Ability –
• Observation –
• Purposeful Behavior :
• Self-Analysis :
    Personal Factors
• Locus of Control –

•     Internal – Self controls situations &
             rewards

•      External: fate/others control
    situations/rewards
 Personal Factors ***
• Delay of Gratification –

• Self-efficacy –
Environmental Factors***

• Social, political, family, community,
  & cultural factors which contribute
  to oppression versus opportunity
Trait Theories

• Stable, enduring tendencies to behave in a
  certain way

• Factor Analysis – one statistical method of
  grouping characteristics into traits
    Five Factor Model (*OCEAN*) ***
•   Openness – Novelty vs narrow
•   Conscientiousness – responsible vs. impulsive
•   Extraversion – outgoing vs. withdrawn
•   Agreeableness – warm vs. distant, cold
•   Neuroticism – stable vs. nervous, unstable
Five Factor Model (*OCEAN*)
• Person – Situation Interaction:

• Stability vs. Change –

• People report more change than really
  occurs
 Research on Trait Theory
• Appear valid due to replication of studies across
  cultures, ages

• Moderate predictive value

• Reactions to environments
    Quantum Change(research) pg. 470
•   Sudden, radical shift –
•   Specific date & time –
•   Surprising intense though
•   High emotional
•   Possible negative life experience
•   Positive impact over time
 Behavioral Genetics
• Inherited factors interact with psychological
  factors to produce personality

• Heritability –

• Twin studies –
Behavioral Genetics
• Influences
• Genetic Factors –
• Nonshared environment factors –
• Error – 26% :
• Shared environment factors -
 Cultural Diversity (resolving conflict)
• Interpersonal Conflict –

• Individualistic – priority of
  self-promotion

• Collective – priority on group
  goals;
Overview of Personality Theories
• Psychodynamic
•   Conscious / Unconscious
•   Free Association / Dream Interpretation
•    Id, Ego, Superego
•    Psychosexual Stages
Overview of Personality Theories
• Humanistic
•   Phenomenology
•   Holistic
•   Self-Actualization (Maslow’s Hierarchy)
•   Self Theory: Real vs. Ideal
   Overview of Personality Theories

• Social- Cognitive Theory
•   Behavior, Cognitive-Personal,
  Environment
•   Language, Observation, Purpose, Self-
    Analysis
    Locus of Control, Delay of Gratification
    Self-Efficacy
Overview of Personality Theories
• Trait Theory
• 5-Factor (OCEAN)
• Change vs. Stability
• Person-Situation Interaction
• Genetic component

								
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