Personality by VBr1k2g

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									Personality
   Defining and Measuring
         Personality
• “Who am I?” – what makes a personal quality
  part of your personality?
  – characteristic, enduring pattern of thinking,
    feeling, and acting
My observations of you


Results from personality testing
    Assessing Personality




Rorschach Inkblot Test   TAT
 Assessing Personality

Objective measures (examples from
your text?)
Different perspectives on
       personality

 • psychoanalytic
 • biological / trait
 • humanistic
 • social-cognitive
    The Psychoanalytic
       Perspective
• Psychoanalysis
  – Background
  – Freud’s theory in a
    nutshell -- thoughts
    and actions are
    driven by
    unconscious motives
    and conflicts
        Psychoanalysis
• Free Association
• Interpretation of dreams
  and “slips”
      Freud’s Personality
           Theories
1. Personality Structure
2. Personality Development
Personality
Structure
                 Mediator:
Internalized     Ego
ideals:
Superego


               Unconscious
               psychic
               energy: Id
Personality Development
• Psychosexual Stages
  – stages of development: pleasure-seeking
    energies focus on erogenous zones (i.e.,
    oral, anal, phallic…)
• Oedipus Complex
              Fixation
• Freud’s belief that we can get “stuck” at an
  earlier stage (where conflicts were
  unresolved)…
• Nail-biting, etc.?
• Don’t be so “anal”
     Defense Mechanisms
• The Ego’s methods of reducing anxiety – by
  unconsciously distorting reality
  – Repression
  – Regression
  – Displacement

  (“mechanisms of defense” exercise)
What can we say about Freud?
             •Scientific?
             •Impact
              •Psychology & madness
              •Everyday language

             •Why?
              •Sex
              •Turn-of-the-century
              science
              •Applicable
  Biological / Trait perspective

We’ve discussed this perspective a
lot already this semester…
Examples…?
       Humanistic Perspective
• Background
• Major theorists:
   – Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) -- self-actualization (the
     motivation to fulfill one’s potential)
   – Carl Rogers (1902-1987) -- growth and fulfillment of
     individuals -- requires:
          – genuineness
          – acceptance - unconditional positive regard
          – empathy
     Humanistic Perspective
• Recognizes the impact of culture on
  personality
  – Individualism vs. Collectivism
Social-Cognitive Perspective
               Internal personal/
                cognitive factors
                (enjoy high-risk
                                                    • Reciprocal
                   activities)                        Determinism
                                                      – the interacting
                                                        influences between
                               Environmental            personality,
 Behavior                         factors
(learning to
                                   (rock-climbing
                                                        behavioral, &
 rock climb)
                                      friends)          environmental
                                                        factors
Social-Cognitive Perspective

• Personal Control
   – our sense of how well we control our environments
• Locus of control scale (handout – if we have time)
   – External Locus of Control -- the perception that
     chance or outside forces beyond one’s personal
     control determine one’s fate
   – Internal Locus of Control -- the perception that one
     controls one’s own fate
    Social-Cognitive Perspective –
        Learned Helplessness
• Learned Helplessness

  Uncontrollable
   bad events



                     Perceived
                   lack of control



                                        Generalized
                                     helpless behavior
                   Personality- Summary
The Four Perspectives on Personality
Perspective        Behavior Springs From             Assessment Techniques          Evaluation

Psychoanalytic     Unconscious conflicts             Projective tests aimed at      A speculative, hard-to-test
                   between pleasure-seeking          revealing unconscious          theory with enormous cul-
                   impulses and social restraints    motivations                    tural impact

Trait              Expressing biologically           (a)Personality inventories     A descriptive approach crit-
                   influenced dispositions, such     that assess the strengths      icized as sometimes under-
                   as extraversion or introversion   of different traits            estimating the variability
                                                     (b)Peer ratings of behavior    of behavior from situation
                                                     patterns                       to situation

Humanistic         Processing conscious feelings     (a)Questionnaire               A humane theory that
                   about oneself in the light of      assessments                   reinvigorated contemporary
                   one’s experiences                 (b)Empathic interviews         interest in the self; criticized
                                                                                     as subjective and sometimes
                                                                                    naively self-centered and
                                                                                    optimistic

Social-cognitive   Reciprocal influences between (a)Questionnaire assessments       Art interactive theory that in-
                   people and their situation,    of people’s feelings of control   tegrates research on learning,
                   colored by perceptions of     (b) Observations of people’s       cognition, and social behavior,
                   control                       behavior in particular             criticized as underestimating
                                                 situations                          the importance of emotions
                                                                                     and enduring traits

								
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