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The 2005 Aoyama Symposium on International Communication

VIEWS: 13 PAGES: 37

									                       A Lecture for the
Sixth Northeast Asia Management and Economy Joint Conference
            Gwangju Kimdaejung Convention Center
                        May 30, 2007


Linguistic Auditing and EIL for East
      Asian Tourist Industry

         Judy Yoneoka
    Kumamoto Gakuen University
              Email: judy@kumagaku.ac.jp
                                                         11
      Topics of Presentation

1.The linguistic landscape of East Asia
2.International tourism in East Asia
3.An overview of Linguistic auditing
4.Focus on Kumamoto: Linguistic Auditing
  to assess present and future needs



                                           2
   East Asia




                                Japan




                                        3
Map from Fauser, 2007 presentation
   English Education in NE Asia
                China         Taiwan       Korea          Japan       Russia

 Beginning
              primary 3      primary 5    prim 3 (1)    JH 1 (p5)      prim 5
     age
                                            1997
  Since          2001          2001                       2002
                                             (2008)

Hours/week        5                        1 to 2       3 (1/mo)         3

Number of      300-350
  students       million
             CET4/6, p1 in   *p1 in big    *english     *93% teach
   Other                                                              *research
                 cities         cities       villages      as gen'l
                                                                          4
   Role of English as a regional
     language in East Asia?
            English



Korean       ERL?        Japanese



          Chinese(s)
                                    5
 The OTHER regional language:
Advantages:                漢字
 Chinese characters are widely recognized
 Meanings are (generally) understood
          山、川、道、路
Disadvantages:
 Which characters? 勞 or 労? 運転手
 How to pronounce?
                                            6
        2. International Tourism in
                 East Asia
   In 2004, China received 109 million visitors
    from overseas, 60 times that of 1978.
   Recently, TTG Asia cited China as the 2004
    best travel destination in the world.
    http://www.china.org.cn/english/travel/126448.htm

   In 2006 international tourists to Japan were
    7,334 thousand PAX, up 9.0% compared with
    last year, and renewing the record high.
    http://www.tourism.jp/english/statistics/inbound/
   The number of Koreans travelling abroad
    passed the 10 million mark for the first time in
    2005, growing at a rate of 14.2% for the year.
    http://www.airhighways.com/korea.htm
                                                        7
           TOP TOURISM GENERATING
         COUNTRIES TO JAPAN, KOREA +
                 CHINA 2006
China                   Korea              Japan
KOREA       3,923,986   Japan    2,338,921 Korea    2,117,200
JAPAN       3,745,881   Taiwan   896,969   Taiwan   1,309,100
RUSSIA      2,405,063   Americas 555,705   China     811,700
U.S.A.      1,710,292   China    338,162   USA       816,700
MALAYSIA    910,458                        HK        352,300


                                                         8
Proficiency in International Languages Needed
               in Tourist Industry
        EIL = English as an International Language
            LOTE = Languages other than EIL
    OLIL = Own language as an International Language



                           EIL
                            EIL


              LOTE
                                    OLIL


                                  Based on Honna, 2007 presentation
                                                                 9
    English as an East Asian Tourist
              Language?
   In all, English remains a traveller's most useful
    language overall, although for longer stays in any
    East Asian country picking up at least some of the
    local language is essential. When looking for
    English speakers, tourist areas tend to be a good
    bet and in general younger people or those around
    universities are most likely to speak at least some
    English. That being said, there are many areas
    where no English is spoken so patience and a good
    phrasebook are always a safe bet.
    http://wikitravel.org/en/East_Asia
                                                     10
What is linguistic auditing and how
            can it help?
   Began in Europe
   Helps businesses realize their language goals
   Uses an assessment method based on structured tests
    and face-to-face interviews
   Gives advice on appropriate training solutions
   Analyzes specific objectives and requirements
   ...SAVES
    – time
    – money
    – unnecessary language training
    http://www.modulor.us/language_audits/en
                                                   11
   From Honna, 2007 presentation
                                12
            Needs Assessment

1. Actual and immediate needs (= What does the
   company need to do in another language
   now? )
By questionnaire to Kumamoto hotels and actual
   tourists
2. Hidden and potential needs (= What could the
   company do in another language to be more
   successful and profitable?)
By questionnaire to potential Korean tourists
                                             13
        Evaluating responses
 1. How prepared is the hotel to meet their
  linguistic needs?
 2. What is the best way to meet their needs?
  (translation resources, language services,
  tailored ESP courses etc.)
 3. What resources do they already have?

  (human, machine, community, finance)
 4. What is the hotel doing already?

                                             14
                           Focus on Linguistic
                              Auditing in
                              Kumamoto

   1. Kumamoto as a tourist town
    – In 2003, Kumamoto declared itself a tourist town
    – 3-year plan (2005-2007) to develop tourism
    – 400 year anniversary of Kumamoto Castle
   2. Kumamoto as the heart of Kyushu
    – Kyushu Bullet Train to be completed in 2012
   3. Kumamoto as an international town
    – UD and the 4-language plan

                                                         15
 A page from the Kumamoto
Prefectural UD online manual




                               16
Tourists to Kumamoto




                       17
Where do the international tourists
   come from? (2003 - 2005 data)
                  Korea          59%
                  Taiwan         22%
                  USA             5%
                  Unknown         4%
                  Other Asia      2%
                  China           2%
                  Hong Kong       2%
                  Other Europe    1%
                  Germany         1%
                  UK              1%   18
        Increase of Korean Tourists in
              Japan/Kumamoto
          2001    2002   2003   2004   2005   increase


Japan     981     1099   1272   1397   1585    162%


熊本         29      60    85     99     106     370%


         Unit = 1,000

                                                19
Needs Assessment: Language Needs
 of Korean Travelers to Kumamoto
 135   respondents across Korea

 Age   breakdown; 19-24 32%
                25-29 44%
                30-39 12%
                40-49 9%
                 50-    3%
                                   20
                             Do you want to visit
     Have you been to Japan?
                              Japan (again)?




   60% of Koreans surveyed have been to Japan, and almost all
    (96%) would like to go (again).
   Only 13% of Korean visitors have been to Kyushu, whereas
    23% indicated they would like to go to Kyushu (again).
                                                                 21
What do you like to do/see most
       when traveling?
                        History,
                         local
                         food and
                         nature
                         rated
                         highest.
                        Shopping
                         rated
                         only 6%. 22
  How do you like to travel?
      tours         3%
  free time/short
         term
                    71%
   backpacking/
    longer term
                    26%

         most Korean travelers
 However,
 to Kumamoto come on tours!
                                 23
     How is your language ability?




Note the inverse trends:
(1) Most people rated themselves as fair or poor at English
(2) Most people rated themselves as good or none at Japanese
                                                           24
Fig. 8 What
language(s) do you
plan/expect to use in      Fig. 9 Do you
Japan?                  plan/expect to use
                        English in Japan?    25
   If Korean/English were used in advertising/menus,
      would you be more likely to use the business?




Advertising/literature in Korean is a key factor for over 85% of
Korean tourists, but advertising in English “will do” for over half of
the potential visitors.

                                                                         26
Part 2: Linguistic Responses
   of Hotels in Kumamoto




                           27
           The Questionnaire

 Mailed to 60 hotels in Kumamoto in
  October 2006
 All hotels had presence on at least one
  international hotel website
 17 hotels responded

 Response rate = 28%



                                            28
  RESULTS 1: Number and type of foreign
           guests per month
3 general groups:
1-9          8 hotels 47%
10-50        5 hotels 29%
51-1600(!) 4 hotels 24%

More Western (65-90%) 5 hotels 29%
Half and half (50%) 4 hotels 24%
Less Western (0-49%)  8 hotels 47%
                                          29
           Number of guests per hotel by nationality

HOTEL               2     3           5     6     7     8    9   10      11    12    1    14    15   16            %
           1                    4                                                    3
                                                                                                           TOTAL



Korean    1120     89    4.9    89   1.8    0    0.6   0.8   5   0.4     0.1   3.6   10   2.5   4     2    1334    59%

Chinese    480     0.9   69     41   1.8   0.5   0.6    0    0   0.2     0.6   3.6   10   2.5   3     4     618    27%

Western        0    0    20    210   0.5    2    0.8   0.8   5   1.4     1.2   0.8   16    5    3    14     280    12%

Other          0    0    4.9    37    0     0     0     0    0    0      0.2    0    4     0    0     0     45.7   2%




        Compared with percentage of                                    Korea                         59%
        tourists who stay in Kumamoto                                  Taiwan, China, HK             26%
        (2005 data)                                                    USA, Europe                    8%
                                                                       Unknown                        4%
                                                                       Other Asia                     2%     30
  Languages used with Foreign guests




                      with Asians
  with Westerners     Other: Asian languages
Other: Gestures 20%     30%, 10%
                      Gestures 33%, 20% 31
Number of Employees who speak Foreign
        Languages (all hotels)




                                        32
       Linguistic Preparedness
of Hotels (上=spoken, 下 = written)


                          82%
                        59-65%


                          47%
                        70-76%
                                    33
CONCLUSIONS…
        Speaking English
           is important,
            And useful
        for MANY but not
           ALL tourists
           But to really
         promote tourism
          in Kumamoto

           Use more
          Korean and
           Chinese     34
and DIRECTIONS…
            Or at least
              write in
            romaji and
               kanji
             as much
                as
            possible…



                          35
…and Dreams: The Kumamoto
      Welcome Card




                  kumamoto
    kumamoto



                             36
   Thank you for your hospitality, and please come to visit us soon!
   For a copy of this handout, please visit
    www2.kumagaku.ac.jp/teacher/~judy/                              37

								
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