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Workplace Violence

VIEWS: 2 PAGES: 44

									Workplace & Classroom
      Violence




Identification and Risk Reduction
                           Amanda G. Warman
                             August 20, 2007
Workplace violence:

   Any act that is committed with the
      result of causing physical or
     psychological harm to another
  individual. This includes any act of
destruction towards property belonging
   to the company or its employees.
(cont.)
        Continuum of behaviors
  Homicide, physical assaults, domestic
  violence, stalking, threats, harassment,
bullying, emotional abuse, intimidation, etc.

Forms of conduct that create anxiety,
 fear, and a climate of distrust in the
               workplace
      Historically, we think of…

• Disgruntled employees (postal workers)

• Customers

• Domestic violence/stalking incidents
           The New Context

• September 11, 2001

• April 16, 2007
               Four Categories
TYPE 1:     Violent acts by criminals who have no
            other connection with the workplace, but
            enter to commit robbery or another crime.

   Represents about 80% of all workplace homicides

  Work in isolated locations or ―dangerous‖
  neighborhoods and carry or have access to cash
             » Taxi drivers
             » Retail clerks
             » Gas station attendants
TYPE 2:     Violence directed at employees by
            customers, clients, patients, students,
            inmates, or any others for whom an
            organization provides services.

  Other than those whose occupations involve regular
  contact with dangerous people (police, correctional
  and security officers), the greatest number of
  incidents occur in healthcare.
TYPE 3:      Violence against coworkers, supervisors,
             or managers by a present or former
             employee.
TYPE 4:      Violence committed in the workplace by
             someone who doesn’t work there, but has
             a personal relationship with an
             employee—an abusive spouse or domestic
             partner.

Because the subject is known, there are usually (but
  not always) warning signs – observable behavior.
Risk Factors

• Dealing with the public

• The exchange of money

•The delivery of services or goods

• Anyplace there is human interaction
        Risk By Occupation
JOB                            RATE PER 1,000 WORKERS

POLICE OFFICERS                       306
PRIVATE SECURITY GUARDS               218
TAXI DRIVERS                          184
PRISON GUARDS                         117
BARTENDERS                            91
MENTAL HEALTH PROFESSIONALS           80
GAS STATION ATTENDANTS                79
CONVENIENCE, LIQUOR STORE CLERKS      68
MENTAL HEALTH CUSTODIAL WORKERS       63
JUNIOR HIGH/MIDDLE SCHOOL TEACHERS    45
BUS DRIVERS                           45
SPECIAL EDUCATION TEACHERS            41
HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS                  29
ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS            26
COLLEGE TEACHERS                      3
Offender Relationship with
Victim

                             3%   2%
                  7%




   20%                                                 44%   Customers
                                                             Strangers
                                                             Co-workers
                                                             Boss/supervisor
                                                             Former employees
                                                             Other




                       24%




* Source – Northwest National Life Insurance Company
                                                                      * Source – Dept. of Justice

Offenders – Sex and Race
                      82.90%




                                           14.10%                                          Male
                                                    2.90%
    90.00%                                                                                 Female
    80.00%
                                                                                           Unknown
    70.00%

    60.00%

    50.00%

    40.00%

    30.00%

    20.00%

    10.00%

    0.00%
                               1




    60.00%

    50.00%

    40.00%

    30.00%

    20.00%

    10.00%

      0.00%
              White                Black            Other   Unknown
                                                     * Source- Dept. of Justice



Offender - Age

                            Unknown   Under 12
                                                 12 to 17


                                                                   18 to 20



Under 12
12 to 17
18 to 20
21 to 29
30 or older
Unknown       30 or older


                                                                      21 to 29
Victims
• Victims of choice
   Specific target or targets – real or symbolic



• Victims of chance
   Wrong place at the wrong time
 Victims – Sex
                66.80%




70.00%

                                  33.20%
60.00%
                                           Male   Female

50.00%


40.00%


30.00%


20.00%


10.00%



0.00%
         Male            Female
Victims - Race


                 3%
            9%




                            White
                            Black
                            Other




                      88%
   Victims - Age
40.00%                             37%


                          32.90%
35.00%



30.00%

                                                                 12 to 17

25.00%                                                           18 to 24
                                                                 25 to 34
                                                                 35 to 49
                 17.90%
20.00%                                                           50 to 59
                                                                 60 to 64
                                                                 65 +
15.00%



                                         7.20%
10.00%


         2.40%
 5.00%                                           1.50%   1.10%



 0.00%
The Incidents
• More than 1000 workplace violence
  homicides annually (accounts for 17%
  of workplace deaths)
• Most common is assault (about 1.5
  million a year including attacks on
  police officers)
• About 88% of incidents result in no
  injury
The Incidents - Location


                      17.70%




                                        Cities
        10.80%
                                        Suburbs
                                        Rural
                                        "More than one"
                               56.50%




             14.60%
   The Incidents - Weapons

80.00%   73.40%




70.00%



60.00%


                                                          No weapon
50.00%                                                    Unknown
                                                          Firearm
                                                          Knife
40.00%                                                    Club, stick, bottle
                                                          Unknown

30.00%



20.00%

                          7.50%
                  6.20%           6.00%   6.00%
10.00%
                                                  1.00%


 0.00%
Myths and Misconceptions
• ―People just snap‖

• ―Only crazy people do that stuff ―(the
mentally ill account for only 3% of offenders)

• ―He won’t come after me‖

• ―I can’t report this or s/he will come after me‖
(true in domestic violence cases but not in
workplace or school violence)
Myths and Misconceptions (cont.)
• ―That’s just Joe, he’s like that.‖

   How many Joes do you know?

 • People will know what to do or how to
   react
Warning Signs

• Intimidates others

   • Invade personal space

   • Touch aggressively
   • Barge into offices or workspace

    • Gets in someone’s face
Warning Signs (cont.)
 • Takes everything personally (a policy
   they don’t like will be seen as a
   personal affront)

 • Reads the employee manual, syllabus
   and grievance policy aggressively,
   often carrying the documents with
   them
Warning Signs (cont.)
• See themselves as victims
  • ―Perceived injustices‖ history

     - Always picked on

     - May nurse a grudge that goes
       back to childhood
Warning Signs (cont.)
• Need to be right all the time and gets
  angry if someone suggests they need
  help

• Emotionally immature – unable to handle

 relationships and resolve conflict
Warning Signs (cont.)
• Usually not newcomers to a community
  or people in the bottom jobs
• Fascination or obsession with weapons ,
other workplace attacks or the killing
power of automatic weapons – shift in
demeanor when discussing

• Alcohol/drug abuse – change in
medication (not causative)
Warning Signs (cont.)
• Socially isolated, limited relationships

• Recent loss or social rejection
  • Long wait for a negative outcome
  •―Point of no return‖

• Symptoms of depression or suicidality
Warning Signs (cont.)
• Has made direct or indirect threats
  – Conversation with classmate
  – MySpace/Facebook profiles
  – Content of paper
Threat Assessment –
    How serious is it?
  The more detail, the more dangerous!

Direct        Can be verbal or written
              and is specific
Conditional   ―if‖ ―or‖ scenarios: if action
              A occurs, B will happen
Veiled        Nonverbal, indirect, 3rd party
What To Do
• Verify information (if veiled)
• Take action
• May include notifying:
  • Department head/dean
  • Campus Safety or police department
  • Human Resources
  • Associate VP of Student Development
What To Do (cont’)

• Confront
  – But not if there is potential danger -
    contact Campus Safety, police, etc.
  – Room set-up is important – always leave
   yourself a way out!

• Document!!!
Options for Action
• Take no action – observe and document
• Disciplinary procedure
• Opportunity to resign/change class
• Voluntary/mandatory counseling
• Medical leave
• Fitness for duty evaluation
• Termination/suspension/expulsion
         “What if we didn’t
         do all that stuff?”
• Contact Campus Safety and/or police
  – No ―code words‖
• Try to de-escalate – low voice, calm tone
• Use calming gestures
• Create space – space = reaction time
• Don’t turn your back: don’t get trapped
        “What if we didn’t
     do all that stuff?” (cont.)
• Watch hands

• Mirror gestures – (don’t mimic!)

• If they are armed, stay low, create
barriers between you and assailant, know
difference between cover and
concealment
• Afterwards - DEBRIEF
Target Hardening

• Good pre-employment screening

• Environmental design
  • look at work area/classroom

  - Secondary exits
  - Door locks
  - Access to telephone/blue light?
Target Hardening (cont.)
  - Make a plan and discuss with your
    staff/students

 - Practice good access control

• Encourage employees and students to
bring problems and concerns to supervisors
or others in a timely fashion
Target Hardening (cont.)
• Know and work within policy

• Address in syllabi

• Be empathetic but firm

• Refer for assistance as needed
                Resources
• Campus Safety X8-2228
    – Emergency on campus 911
•   Dean/department head/VP/Provost
•   Human Resources
•   KSCEA/KSCAA
•   Associate VP of Student Development
•   Other?
                      What is KSC doing?
Policy Statement (USNH)
    A safe and secure environment is a fundamental prerequisite for fulfilling
    the University System of New Hampshire's mission of teaching, research and
    public service. Every employee is a member of the University System
    community and an integral participant in the mission of teaching and research.
    As such, each staff member is expected to exhibit a high degree of
    professionalism and personal integrity at all times. The role of prevention is to
    be proactive so employees feel safe. Various components of prevention
    include hiring practices, interpersonal relations, safety training, and training in
    issues and recognition of safety, workplace violence, effective policies and
    disciplinary procedures. Employees have a right to work in safe
    surroundings, and the institutions of the University System of New
    Hampshire are strongly committed to providing a safe work environment.
    Institutional responsibilities include the following:
•    Communicate safety policy, programs and reporting structure to all
    employees.
•    Encourage employee awareness of safety and health risks.
•    Encourage employees to report observed hazards, violations of policy or risks
    of potential workplace violence they observe.
•    Comply with N.H. Workers' Compensation Law, RSA 281-A.
•    Comply with N.H. Public Employee Health and Safety Regulations RSA 277.
• KSC Emergency Operations Plan
  – Basic principles and plan overview
  – ICS/NIMS
• Training and drills
• Review of facilities
• Warning systems
  – Siren/speaker system
  – Emergency messaging system
  – Web and e-mail
  – Paper
Types of scenarios possible at
 Keene State and what to do
 Questions?
 Comments?
  Concerns?


  Amanda Warman
     358-2766
awarman@keene.edu
                     Sources
Violence in the Workplace, US Department of Justice,
  Bureau of Justice Statistics,
  http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/pdf/vw99.pdf.
  1994
Workplace Violence – Issues in Response, Critical
  Incident Response Group, National Center for the
  Analysis of Violent Crime,
  http://www.fbi.gov/publications/violence.pdf, 2002
Northwest National Life Insurance Company
USNH Policy Manual,
  http://usnholpm.unh.edu/USY/V.Pers/D.3.htm

								
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