Anatomy and Physiology Homework Chapters 3-4 by linxiaoqin

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									                                 Anatomy and Physiology Homework: Chapters 3-4

CHAPTER 3: Cells and Tissues

1. The smallest unit of living tissue is called a _____________. All living organisms are composed of these basic units
where all life processes occur. These units are composed of four elements:

_____________________, _______________________, ____________________ and _____________________.



     2. Living matter is _________________% water (H2O)


     3. The three parts of living cells are:


        Nucleus




        Cytoplasm




        Plasma membrane




     4. Cell transport and reproduction
        Passive transport is includes ______________________ and ______________________-
        Active transport uses energy in the form of ________________________.
        Cells arise only from preexisting cells in a two events ___________________ and
        ___________________. The time between these events is known as ____________________.
       ____________ carries the genetic master blueprint for protein synthesis


   TISSUES


     1. Tissue is composed of groups of ____________ with the same or similar function.




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        The four tissue types are:


                1.


                2.


                3.


                4.


2. Histology is the study of __________________________________________________________________.


3. For each of the four types of tissue in your text (p. 88), provide a short description of each type. (VERY SHORT)

    EPITHELIAL TISSUE (skin, mucous membrane, secretor glands, linings of vessels and cavities)
        Functions


       Characteristics


    CONNECTIVE TISSUE (loose, dense, and specialized)
       Functions


        Characteristics


    MUSCLE TISSUE (Smooth, skeletal, cardiac)
      Function


        Characteristics


    NERVOUS TISSUE (conducing and supporting neurons)
       Function


        Characteristics




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4. MATCH THE NAMES OF THE TERMS OF DIRECTION WITH THE DESCRIPTION
____      Histology                    1. Stores fat
____      Connective tissue            2. Blood platelets
____      Adipose tissue               3. Hardest substance in the body
____      Ossification                 4. White blood cells
____      Enamel                       5. Blood-forming tissue
____      Bone marrow                  6. Study of tissues
____      Gland                        7. Salivary
____      Leukocytes                   8. Skeletal muscle
____      Neuron                       9. Flat
____      Squamous                    10. Nerve cell
                                      11. Tendon
                                      12. Formation of bone

CHAPTER 4: Skin and body membranes

1. Classification of body membranes – briefly describe each membrane below

       Epithelial


               Cutaneous



               Mucous



               Serous



       Connective




2. Skin is composed of two types of tissue; what are they?

   1. ____________________________________

   2. ____________________________________


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    The tissue that anchors the skin to underlying organs is known as

    _________________________ _________________

3. The epidermis has _____ layers. New skin cells are produced in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th or 5th

   layer. (circle the correct answer).


4. The ______________________, ____________________ and _____________________ are the
pigments that give skin color.

5. Appendages – provide a brief description of the purpose of these structures.

        Cutaneous glands (secrete oil and sweat)




        Hair




        Nails




6. What are the primary concerns for health care professionals who treat burns?




7. What are the three types of skin cancer?




        a. Which is most common skin cancer?




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        b. Which type of skin cancer is most deadly? Why?




7. MATCH The Names of the Terms with the description

_____      Melanin                         1. Central axis of hair
_____      Keratinization                  2. Skin pigment
_____      Dermis                          3. Visible portion of hair
_____      Cuticle                         4. White crescent of nail
_____      Medulla                         5. Produces brittle dry cells without nuclei
_____      Shaft                           6. Lubricates surface of skin
_____      Cortex                          7. Blue or ashy color of skin
_____      Lunula                          8. Muscle
_____      Sebum                           9. Principal portion of hair cells
_____      Cyanosis                      10. Outermost layer of hair with scale like cells
_____      Arrector pili                 11. Corium

Fill in the blank:

1) The specialized cellular compartments within the cytosol of the cell are collectively called __________.

2) Whiplike cellular extensions that move substances along the cell surface are called __________.

3) Tiny finger-like projections of the plasma membrane that increase its surface area are called __________.

4) The movement of substances through the cell membrane against their concentration gradient is called __________.

5) The random movement of molecules (and ions) down their concentration gradient is called __________.

6) The DNA segment that carries information for building one protein or polypeptide chain is called a __________.

7) Epithelial tissue consisting of one layer of cells flattened like fish scales is called a __________ epithelium.

8) The type of muscle tissue that can be controlled voluntarily is called __________ muscle.

9) The type of tissue consisting of cells embedded in an extracellular matrix is __________ tissue.

10) The type of connective tissue that contains fat stored in adipocytes is called __________.

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11) This type of epithelial tissue found lining organs of the digestive system such as the small intestines is the
__________.

12) The cell type found in nervous tissue is the __________.

13) __________ tissue contains cells called fibroblasts that make fibers such as collagen.

14) Many layers of cube-shaped cells should be termed __________ epithelial tissue.

15) The dermis is composed of the reticular and __________ layers.

16) "Goosebumps" are caused by contractions of the ____________ ___________ muscles.

17) The type of burn that involves injury to the epidermis and the upper region of the dermis and is red, blistered, and
painful is termed as a __________-degree burn.

18) The white, cheesy-looking substance that is produced by the sebaceous glands and protects a baby's skin while it is
floating in its water-filled sac inside the mother is called ______________.

19) The part of the hair enclosed in the follicle is known as the __________.

20) The white crescent area located over the nail matrix is called the __________.

21) The layer of the serous membrane that covers an organ is known as the __________ layer.

22) The type of connective tissue membrane found in joints is the __________.

23) The two major categories of membranes are __________ and __________.

24) Epithelial membranes contain two types of tissue, __________ and __________ tissue.

25) The sebaceous glands produce __________ oil.




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Identify the following:

1) The region that contains adipose tissue is indicated by letter __________.

2) The hair follicle is indicated by letter __________.

3) The structure that is responsible for whorled ridges on the epidermal surfaces is indicated by letter __________.

4) The structure that pulls the hair follicle into an upright position is indicated by letter __________.

5) The gland that produces a mixture of oily substances and fragmented cells is indicated by label __________.

6) The gland that produces sweat is indicated by label __________.




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