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					   CUSTOMS – TRADE PARTNERSHIP
TO FIGHT CORRUPTION AND SAFEGUARD
              INTEGRITY
                    by
         Dato’ Mohamed Khalid Yusuf
           Deputy Director General
           Royal Malaysian Customs
                      DEFINITION: INTEGRITY

 “Moral uprightness; honesty; wholeness”
(Concise`Oxford Dictionary)


 “The quality of being honest and having strong
   moral principles”
(Oxford Dictionary)

 “… integrity is a quality of excellence that is
   manifested in a holistic & integral manner in
   individual & organizations. Integrity is based on
   ethics and noble values and their concrete
   manifestation in daily lives”
(National Integrity Plan, Integrity Institute Malaysia, 2002)
         CORRUPTION: DEFINITION & ROOT CAUSE

“Any person who corruptly solicits or receives…or corruptly
gives any gratification as an inducement …or reward …”
(sec.10 Anti-Corruption Act 1997, Malaysia)

“the misuse of public power for private benefit”
(World Bank, 2000)


    Corruption = (Monopoly + Discretion) – Accountability

“…one will tend to find corruption when an organization or
person has monopoly power over a good or service, has the
discretion to decide who will receive it and how much that
person will get, and is not accountable”
(Robert Klitgaard)
Factors That Compromise Integrity and Breed Corruption



1. Individual: greed & vulnerability

2. Breakdown of family institution & social values

3. Obsolete system and procedures

4. Lack of transparency and accountability

5. Excessive discretion giving room for abuse of power

6. Lack of political will & leadership
                                   DETERIORATION OF INTEGRITY

 INDIVIDUAL                           LEADERSHIP
 • Individual weaknesses:             • Non exemplary leadership and low              SYSTEM & PROCEDURE
  - low education and poor             commitment                                     • Low transparency
    values                            • Instructions go against procedures &          • Poor systems and
  - poor work ethics                   regulations                                     procedures
  - greed                             • Do not walk the talk promises                 • Poor enforcement
  - refuse to accept own                                                              • Selective enforcement
    weaknesses                                                                        • Poor monitoring
 • Life demands                                                                       • Limited resources
                                         EROSION OF INTEGRITY                         • Outdated laws and
                                                                                       conflict in laws


 CULTURE
 • Culture that does not give
  importance to integrity             STRUCTURE AND INSTITUTION
  - poor reports                      • STRUCTURE
  - could not careless attitude        - Structure not suitable and not focused
  - fear of consequences of            - Targets not clear and unreasonable
    lodging reports                    - Structure outdated and not addressing new demands and challenges
  - indifferent attitude              • INSTITUTION
  - refusal to act whistleblower       - Overlapping of scope, functions and responsibilities
  - the ‘yes-man’ attitude and         - Low coordination
    ‘apple-polishing syndrome’         - Conflict in objectives between institutions resulting in conflict of
                                         values and value crisis

NATIONAL INTEGRITY PLAN, Government of Malaysia, 2004
              IMPACT OF CORRUPTION

1. Negative impact on national budget: revenue leakage

2. Increases cost of doing business

3. High cost inflation (goods & services)

4. Hinders trade, erodes national economic
   competitiveness and discourages FDI

5. Promotes culture that discourages compliance

6. Undermines citizen trusts in the government
    WCO INITIATIVES ON INTEGRITY

1. The Revised Arusha Declaration (2003)
2. Integrity Sub-Committee
3. Model Code of Ethics & Conduct
4. Integrity Development Guide
5. WCO Compendium of Integrity Best Practices
6. Database of the Integrity Best Practices
7. WCO Integrity e-Learning Module
8. National/Regional level :
   - Maputo Declaration
   - Almaty Integrity Resolution
   - Nairobi Resolution on Integrity
         INSTITUTIONAL MECHANISM & INITIATIVES (GOVERNMENT)



1.    Anti Corruption Act 1997
2.    Anti Corruption Agency (ACA)
3.    Malaysian Commission on Anti-Corruption (MCAC)
4.    Integrity Institute Malaysia (IIM)
5.    National Integrity Plans (2004-2008)
6.    Public Accounts Committee (PAC)
7.    Parliamentary Select Committee on Integrity
8.    External & Internal Audit
9.    Public Complaints Bureau
10.   Special Task Force to Facilitate Business
11.   Management Integrity Committee (MIC)
 INSTITUTIONAL MECHANISM & INITIATIVES (GOVERNMENT)
 Integrity Institute Malaysia (IIM) established in 2005
  - coordinating body for implementation of National Integrity
  Plan (NIP)
 Objectives of NIP for 2004 – 2008:
    To minimise effectively - corruption, malpractice and abuse
     of powers
    To increase effectiveness of public services delivery system
     and overcome bureaucratic red tape
    To improve good governance and business ethics
    To strengthen family institutions
    To improve the quality of life and prosperity of the society

 As a government agency, Customs Malaysia also implements
  the relevant action plans outlined under the NIP
                                    INTERNATIONAL AGENCIES
                                        PRIVATE SECTOR
MODEL: NATIONAL INTEGRITY PILLARS




                                         CIVIL SOCIETY
                                         CIVIL SOCIETY
                                            MEDIA
                                            MEDIA
                                        PUBLIC SERVICE
                                        PUBLIC SERVICE




                                                             SOCIETY’S
                                      WATCHDOG AGENCY
                                      WATCHDOG AGENCY
                                         OMBUDSMAN
                                         OMBUDSMAN
                                       AUDITOR GENERAL
                                       AUDITOR GENERAL
                                          JUDICIARY
                                          JUDICIARY
                                          EXECUTIVE
                                          EXECUTIVE
                                         LEGISLATURE
                                         LEGISLATURE
 MODEL FOR THE ENHANCEMENT OF INTEGRITY

                    NATION & SOCIETY



 POLITICS           ADMINISTRATION              ECONOMY




                      CIVIL SOCIETY


                         FAMILY


                      COMMUNITY


 RELIGION                                     SOCIO-CULTURE




NATIONAL INTEGRITY PLAN & INTEGRITY INSTITUTE OF MALAYSIA
                     MODEL FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF NIP
                                      NATIONAL INTEGRITY PLAN


                               INTEGRITY ENHANCING EFFORTS


                                         INTEGRITY AGENDA


                       IMPLEMENTATION APPROACH & STRATEGY


                                            ACTION PLAN




Family   Community    Civil Society     Socio-culture   Religion   Economy   Politics   Administration




                           INTEGRITY INSTITUTE OF MALAYSIA
     CUSTOMS IN HOUSE INSTITUTIONAL MECHANISM & INITIATIVES


1. Customs Act 1967 (sec.10A, 125,137 & 141A-AB 143)
2. Anti Corruption Committee (1983)
   Management Integrity Committee (1998)
3. Security & Integrity Vetting
4. Statutory Declaration Public Service
5. Code of Ethics
6. Departmental Disciplinary Board: enforcement
7. Mandatory Declaration of Assets
8. Control Over Car Ownership & Usage
9. Reporting of cash carried on duty for front liners
     CUSTOMS IN HOUSE INSTITUTIONAL MECHANISM & INITIATIVES




1. Guidelines on acceptance of gifts
2. Campaign to refuse gifts during festive seasons
3. Control over part-time or second employment
4. Inculcation of universal good values among staff
5. Continuous Business Process Reengineering (BPR) to
   plug loopholes
6. Training & courses
7. In-house counselling services
     CUSTOMS-TRADE PARTNERSHIP ON INTEGRITY

1.   Customs-Private Sector Consultative Panel

2.   Customs-Federation of Malaysian Manufacturers Cooperation

3.   Customs-Industry Smart Partnership Programs:
     - Glass Manufacturers
     - Tyre Manufacturers
     - Steel Industry
     - Ceramic Tiles Industry
     - Ceramic Wares producers

4.   Customs-Confederation Malaysian Tobacco Manufacturer
     Partnership

5.   Customs-Malaysian Breweries Association Consultation

6.   Customs Golden Client Scheme (CGC) & AEO Program

7.   MOU with major clients: Port Operators, Free Zones Authority,
     Customs Brokers and Freight Forwarders
                         KEY SUCCESS FACTORS

                                         Leadership by
                                         Leadership by
                                           Example
                                           Example
               Readiness of
               Readiness of                                          Sound
                                                                     Sound
                Individuals
                Individuals                                     Policies & Clear
                                                                Policies & Clear
                 To Change
                 To Change                                          Targets
                                                                    Targets




Adequacy &                                                                         Continuous
                                                                                   Continuous
 Efficacy of
 Resources                            FACTORS                                       Education
                                                                                    Education

                                     TOWARDS
                                      SUCCESS

  Effective Legal
                                                                              Effective
                                                                              Effective
  Framework &
                                                                           Communication
                                                                           Communication
   Independent
     Judiciary

                        Cooperation
                        Cooperation                       Conducive
                                                          Conducive
                      between Politics
                      between Politics                     Cultural
                                                           Cultural
                      & Administrative
                      & Administrative                   Environment
                                                         Environment
                         Machinery
                         Machinery
                 CONCLUSION


- Integrity is a universal issue

- Corruption and corrupt practices cuts across all strata of
  society: from politicians to sportsmen; from ordinary
  citizen to god-fearing members of society

- Malaysian Customs Administration cannot effectively
  tackle integrity issues and corruption entirely on its
  own. The problem has to be addressed as a concerted
  effort in collaboration with other organizations in line
  with national government policies and also through
  partnership with the industry and trade fraternity
          Conclusion: Food for Thought




“Just as it is impossible not to taste the honey or
the poison that finds itself at the tip of the tongue,
so it is impossible for a Government servant not to
eat up at least a bit of the King’s revenue”.
                  (Emperor Chandragupta, India 300 BC)
Thank you for your kind
      attention




       Q&A

				
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