Cooking and Baking with Gluten-Free Grains and Beans by linxiaoqin


									      Cooking and Baking with
    Gluten-Free Grains and Beans

October 23, 2011 – New England Celiac Conference

                    By Carol Fenster
         Author of 125 Gluten-Free Vegetarian Recipes
   What is a Whole Grain?
   Whole Grain Ideas By Specific Meals
       Breakfast Cereals (Hot and Cold)
       Desserts
       Side Dishes & Soups
       Breads
       Snacks
       Whole Grain Flours
   Beans and Vegetables in the Gluten-Free Diet
           Good News, Bad News
   40% of Americans do not
    eat whole grains….

   60% do…but only 1
    serving a day… far below
    the recommended 3 to 5
    daily servings by the Whole
    Grains Council.
    Health Benefits of Whole Grains
   Higher intake of whole grains associated with:
     Lower rates of heart disease

     Reduced risk of gastrointestinal cancer

     Overall gastrointestinal health

     Reduced risk of diabetes and better maintenance of
      blood glucose levels
     Better weight management

     Reduced belly fat

     Part of Andrew Weil’s anti-inflammatory diet

     Fiber
          Latest Research on Fiber
   NIH-funded study by National Cancer Institute says
    “eating fiber significantly lowers risk of dying,
    particularly from cardiovascular disease and
    infectious and respiratory disease.” The most
    significant benefits came from the fiber in whole
    grains (and beans, more about beans later). The more
    fiber, the less risk of dying.” (WSJ, February, 2011)

   About 25 to 38 grams per day (only 19g for toddlers)
    Where Does Fiber Come From?
   Kellogg’s surveyed 1,006 Americans by telephone in
    November, 2010, and found that nearly 20 percent of
    consumers interviewed incorrectly thought that
    seafood, meats and dairy are good sources of fiber,
    while nearly 10 percent said they thought that water
    provides fiber. Wrong!

   Fiber comes from grains, beans, fruit, veggies
     Whole Grains in “Plain Package”
   Michael Pollan, New York Times writer and author
    of Omnivore’s Dilemma, In Defense of Food, and
    Food Rules says that the more health claims a food
    makes on its package, the less healthy it might
    actually be.

   In contrast, a package of whole grains makes few
    health claims yet has tremendous health benefits.
                Food for Thought
   “Make preparing fresh wholesome food more about
    simplifying your life than complicating it.”

   “Make good changes slowly.”

   “Fresh insights emerge when you view the world from a
    different angle.”
How to Eat More Whole Grains
      Whole Grains are WHOLE

     Whole grain contains bran, endosperm, and germ.
Whole grains have fiber, protein, and deeper flavor that affects
           the texture, nutrients, and flavor of food.
   Whole Grains for Breakfast
Breakfast is the most critical meal of the day and
     affords many options for whole grains.
                         Breakfast, Anyone?
   89% of moms                  But, those who actually do?
    want their kids                Only 50% of middle-schoolers
    to eat breakfast.              Only 36% of high-schoolers

   Source: Kellogg’s, 2011
                        Hot Cereal
Cook hot cereal from whole grains:
      Amaranth
      Brown rice
      Buckwheat
      Flax
      Gluten-free rolled oats
      Gluten-free steel-cut oats
      Quinoa
      Sorghum
      Teff

   TIP: Instead of stovetop, prepare in slow cooker or rice
       cooker. Refrigerate and reheat for a quick meal.
    Pressure Cooker vs. Rice Cooker

   Pressure cookers cook whole grains in about 1/3 the time, but
    require tending. (Brown rice cooks in 20, not 60 minutes.)

   Rice cookers don’t cook whole grains any faster than stovetop,
    but require no tending. Check out the “fuzzy-logic” types.
                          Hot Cereal
   Choose whole grain ready-to-cook hot cereals:
       Bob’s Red Mill Creamy Buckwheat cereal
        or Mighty Tasty hot cereal
       Birkett Mills Buckwheat cereal
       Ancient Harvest Quinoa Flakes

    TIP: Add dried fruits, nuts, or ground flax to hot cereal.
   Make homemade granola from gluten-free
    rolled oats.

   Add oat bran, rice bran, ground flax, Montina,
    Chia, or sesame seeds to boost fiber.

   Layer granola with yogurt and fruit for parfait.

   Add rolled oats to pancakes.

     TIP: Transform homemade granola into trail mix with nuts,
       raisins, dried fruit, and small amounts of candy pieces.
   Cook homemade granola and milk/yogurt for fresh muesli.

   Or combine with yogurt, milk, honey, and cinnamon, and
    your favorite dried fruits and refrigerate 4 hours or
    overnight for a softer, European-style version.
           Whole Grains with Eggs
   Add cooked whole grains (millet or
    quinoa) to scrambled eggs or quiche.
    About 1 tablespoon per serving.

   Add cooked whole grains to egg-bread-
    cheese casseroles and quiches.

   Match size and texture of grains to dish
    (light-colored grains such as brown rice,
    quinoa, or millet are good.)
                      Cold Cereals
   Store-bought GF cold cereals include:
       Enjoy Life Granolas
       Perky’s Crunchy Flax
       General Mills’ Chex cereals
       Nature’s Path Mesa Sunrise

    Tip: These cereals can also be sprinkled on fresh fruit.
            Every Little Bit Helps
   You may be thinking… can a tablespoon here and a
    tablespoon there really help me?

   YES…. it’s like calorie-counting….25 calories here,
    25 calories there… those tablespoons eventually all
    add up. More on serving size later.
                  Chia and Salba
   Members of the mint family
   Extremely highly in fiber and nutrients; ancient
    peoples used them for endurance
   Chia resembles poppy seeds in appearance
   Salba is a small, tannish-white seed
   Sprinkle on food, grind into flour or
    use as egg-replacer
   Make desserts based on whole grains or add whole
    grains to desserts in creative ways.
   Cooked grains boost homemade puddings
       Amaranth
       Brown rice
       Millet
       Steel-cut oats
       Teff

    TIP: Add leftover cooked grains to puddings for fiber, texture.
   Cooked whole grains are focus in some desserts:
       Cooked brown rice, quinoa, or sorghum with honey,
        fruit, and whipped cream

       Rice pudding (brown rice: 6 fiber g/cup;
        white rice: 2 fiber g/cup)

     Thai dessert of black rice cooked in
      coconut milk with fresh mango.
     (12 fiber g per cup + antioxidants)
   Add whole grains to cookies and cakes:
       Cooked amaranth or teff in chocolate or dark desserts
       Cooked millet or buckwheat flakes in neutral desserts

    TIP: Use dark colored grains in dark foods; light colored grains
      in light foods. Start with one to two tablespoons per recipe.
   Top fruit (stewed or fresh) with:
       Homemade or store-bought GF granola
       Quinoa flakes (Ancient Harvest)
       Cold cereals (Arrowhood Mills Maple Buckwheat Flakes,
        Perky’s Crunchy Flax ----sweeten to your taste)

     TIP: Coat cereals with cooking spray for added sheen if using
               on a baked fruit dessert such as fruit crisp.
             Side Dishes & Soups
   Instead of the usual white
    rice or white potatoes as a
    side dish, use whole grains.

   Soups can be enhanced by
    whole grains such as
                       Side Dishes
   Instead of rice, risotto, pilaf, or couscous, cook these
    grains in broth and add seasonings to taste:
       Brown rice (not white rice)
       Buckwheat groats
       Millet
       Steel-cut oats
       Quinoa
       Sorghum

    TIP: Serve alongside or as a bed for entrée or vegetables. Or,
      add vegetables and salad dressing for a zesty cold salad.
                    Side Dishes
   Toss cooked whole grains with pasta or mixed greens
    for more fiber, nutrients, and visual appeal.

   Corn grits (polenta) under entrée (not whole grain).

   Steel-cut oats make chewy, hearty side dishes. Be
    sure to rinse thoroughly after cooking.
      Side Dishes - Tabbouleh

Tabbouleh is traditionally made with bulgur, but these two
examples use sorghum with wild rice (left) or quinoa (right).
   Some soups focus on the whole grain itself, e.g.,
    posole using hominy (whole corn) or wild rice soup.

   Whole grains add bulk, nutrients, and variety to other
       Sorghum or brown rice resemble barley in vegetable soup
       Millet or quinoa add texture to cream soups, like tomato
       Brown rice can be used as bed for curries

    TIP: One-quarter cup of cooked whole grains equals one-half
      serving of whole grains, so one-half cup equals a serving.
                    Main Dishes
   Whole grains can add bulk, texture, and nutrient
    value to many main dishes. And, in most of them,
    the whole grains are either invisible or stays in the
                  Main Dishes
   Whole grain sorghum makes an enticing main dish
    when paired with shrimp in this Tabbouleh.
                       Main Dishes
   Use cooked whole grains as binders for meat loaf and
       Quinoa, teff, sorghum, millet, brown rice

   Add cooked whole grains to stuffing for turkey, pork
    chops, whole chickens, or bell peppers
       Quinoa, teff, sorghum, millet, brown rice

   Sprinkle cooked whole grains on pizza
                 Main Dishes
   Whole grain millet stuffed in acorn squash
     makes a hearty main dish fit for the holidays
     or week day meals.

Moroccan Millet-Stuffed
  Acorn Squash
   Whole grains (uncooked or cooked) or in flakes
    (quinoa or buckwheat) enhance texture and flavor
    of gluten-free bread.
   Add cereal flakes to savory muffins, bread
       Buckwheat cereal, quinoa flakes, or hot cereal

   Add whole grains to homemade muffins, bread
       Teff, flax meal, rolled oats or cooked quinoa, millet, and wild
        rice add variety and nutrients

       Tip: About ¼ to 1/3 cup per recipe.
   Popcorn (whole grain corn)
      Popped Sorghum or Popped Amaranth

   Whole grain crackers (Mary’s Gone Crackers, Crunchmaster)
   Cold cereals tossed with
    seasonings for party mix

    TIP: Choose snacks with high-fiber or Whole Grain Stamp.
  Look for the Whole Grain Stamp

To learn more about the Whole Grain Stamp, go to and read the whole web
  site for excellent discussions of whole grains.
   Gluten-Free Whole Grain Flours
Gluten-free whole grains are ground into flour without refining,
    so all parts of the grain are in the flour:
    Amaranth
    Buckwheat
    Flax
    Millet
    Quinoa
    Sorghum*
    Teff

   TIP: For best results, use 15 to 25% as part of flour blend.
      *Sorghum can constitute up to 40% of flour blend.
             Stealth Nutrition

Sometimes we have to hide nutritious foods. Black
  bean puree in chocolate cake or brownies; grains in
  smoothies, granola bars, or puddings like this Trifle.
                   What is a Serving?
   The Whole Grains Council defines a serving as 16 grams of
    whole grains and recommends 3-5 per day. How much is that?

        1/2 cup cooked brown rice or other cooked grain
        1/2 cup cooked hot cereal, such as GF oatmeal
        1 ounce uncooked whole grain brown rice or other grain
        1 cup 100% whole grain ready-to-eat cereal

   For more information on whole grains and servings, go to:
          But I Don’t Have Time!
   Grains that cook in same time as white rice:
     -amaranth
     -buckwheat

     -millet

     -quinoa

     -teff

   Grains that take longer to cook:
     -brown rice (slow cooker or open pot method)
     -sorghum (pre-soak overnight; slow cooker)
        Getting 3-5 Servings Per Day
   If one-half cup cooked brown rice equals 1 serving, then 1 ½
    cups makes 3 servings; 2 ½ cups makes 5 servings.

Day One:
 Breakfast: ½ cup cooked brown rice or whole grain hot cereal
 Lunch: Tomato soup with ¼ cup cooked quinoa in each serving
 Afternoon Snack: 1 ½ cups popped popcorn ( ½ serving)
 Dinner: ½ cup cooked millet as side dish instead of white rice
       Muffin or bread with 2 tablespoons cooked grain such as teff
       Dessert: Apple crisp with GF rolled oats topping (at least 2 tablespoons)

   Total for the day is 1 ¾ cups, or 3 ½ servings.
                         Good Job!!!!
        Getting 3-5 Servings Per Day
Day Two:

   Breakfast: Scrambled eggs with 2 tablespoons cooked millet
   Lunch: 1 cup cooked quinoa or sorghum in Tabbouleh
   Afternoon Snack: 13 Mary’s Gone Crackers = 1 serving
   Dinner: ½ cup cooked wild rice as side dish
       Cornbread with equivalent of 2 tablespoons cornmeal per serving
       Dessert: Chocolate Pudding containing 2 tablespoons cooked teff

   Total for the day is 2 ¾ cups, or 4 ½ servings.
                         You Get a Gold Star!!!!
        Getting 3-5 Servings Per Day
   Yet another day, try this approach:

   Breakfast: ¾ to 1 cup cold cereal (e.g., granola)
   Lunch: Pasta or salad with ½ cup cooked whole grains on top
   Afternoon Snack: Trail mix containing 1 cup cold cereal
   Dinner: ½ cup cooked steel-cut oat pilaf as side dish
       Dessert: ½ cup GF granola layered with pudding or yogurt

   Total for the day is 5 servings.
             Beans Add Nutrition

   Beans (pulses in Canada) are high in
    protein, fiber and B-vitamins, low in
    calories and fat, and are very

   Lima, garbanzo, red, kidney, pinto,
    black, split peas, lentils, black-eyed

   ¾ cup = 1 serving; 7-8 grams of fiber
              How to Eat More Beans
   Bean soups, stews, casseroles, dips
   Sprinkle cooked beans on salads, pasta, pizza
   Serve as side dish with Southwestern meals
   Serve under meats as part of entrée
   Mash and add to omelet, egg salad, tuna salad
   Bake with bean flours

    New booklet, “Pulses and the Gluten-Free
     Diet” by Shelley Case and Carol Fenster
    (free at
    Ways to Eat Beans
               Chocolate Brownies
              with bean puree or flour
        Click on “Recipes”
   Sorghum Shrimp Salad
   Moroccan Millet-Stuffed Acorn Squash
                    Photo Credits
   Photos courtesy of:
       Whole Grains Council
       Bob’s Red Mill
       Terry Burns Photography
       Sunnyland Mills
       Gluten-Free Oats
       Only Oats
       Cream Hill Estates
       Chia and Salba websites
       Carol Fenster

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