English Standards of Learning – Adopted 2002
In fifth grade, reading and writing skills continue to support an increased emphasis on content-area learning and utilization of
the resources of the media center, especially to locate and read primary sources of information. The student will read texts in all subjects
and will acquire information to answer questions, generate hypotheses, make inferences, support opinions, confirm predictions,
compare and contrast relationships, and formulate conclusions. The student will continue to develop an appreciation for literature by
reading a variety of fiction and nonfiction selections. The student will continue to increase communication skills used in learning activities
and will use online, print, and media resources to prepare presentations. The student will use oral and written communication skills to
describe key concepts and information contained in the mathematics, science, and history and social science Standards of Learning. In
addition, the student will plan, draft, revise, and edit writings to describe, to entertain, and to explain.
Oral Language b) Identify structural patterns found in nonfiction.
5.1 The student will listen, draw conclusions, and share c) Locate information to support opinions,
responses in subject-related group learning activities. predictions, and conclusions.
a) Participate in and contribute to discussions across content d) Identify cause-and-effect relationships.
areas. e) Identify compare-and-contrast relationships.
b) Organize information to present reports of group activities. f) Skim materials to develop a general overview of
c) Summarize information gathered in group activities. content and to locate specific information.
5.2 The student will use effective nonverbal communication g) Identify new information gained from reading.
skills. 5.7 The student will demonstrate comprehension of
a) Maintain eye contact with listeners. information from a variety of print resources.
b) Use gestures to support, accentuate, and dramatize a) Develop notes that include important concepts,
verbal message. summaries, and identification of information
c) Use facial expressions to support and dramatize verbal sources.
message. b) Organize information on charts, maps, and
d) Use posture appropriate for communication setting. graphs.
5.3 The student will make planned oral presentations. Writing
a) Determine appropriate content for audience. 5.8 The student will write for a variety of purposes:
b) Organize content sequentially or around major ideas. to describe, to inform, to entertain, and to
c) Summarize main points before or after presentation. explain.
d) Incorporate visual aids to support the presentation. a) Choose planning strategies for various writing
e) Use grammatically correct language and specific purposes.
vocabulary. b) Organize information.
Reading c) Demonstrate awareness of intended audience.
5.4 The student will read fiction and nonfiction with fluency d) Use precise and descriptive vocabulary to
and accuracy. create tone and voice.
a) Use context to clarify meaning of unfamiliar words. e) Vary sentence structure.
b) Use knowledge of root words, prefixes, and suffixes. f) Revise writing for clarity.
c) Use dictionary, glossary, thesaurus, and other word- g) Use available technology to access information.
reference materials. 5.9 The student will edit writing for correct grammar,
5.5 The student will read and demonstrate comprehension of capitalization, spelling, punctuation, and
fiction. sentence structure.
a) Describe the relationship between text and previously a) Use plural possessives.
read materials. b) Use adjective and adverb comparisons.
b) Describe character development in fiction and poetry c) Identify and use interjections.
selections. d) Use apostrophes in contractions and
c) Describe the development of plot and explain how possessives.
conflicts are resolved. e) Use quotation marks with dialogue.
d) Describe the characteristics of free verse, rhymed, and f) Use commas to indicate interrupters and in the
patterned poetry. salutation and closing of a letter.
e) Describe how an author’s choice of vocabulary and style g) Use a hyphen to divide words at the end of a
contributes to the quality and enjoyment of selections. line.
5.6 The student will read and demonstrate comprehension of h) Edit for clausal fragments, run-on sentences,
nonfiction. and excessive coordination.
a) Use text organizers, such as type, headings, and
graphics, to predict and categorize information.
Mathematics Standards of Learning – Adopted 2009
The fifth-grade standards place emphasis on number sense with whole numbers, fractions, and decimals. This focus includes concepts of
prime and composite numbers, identifying even and odd numbers, and solving problems using order of operations for positive whole numbers.
Students will develop proficiency in the use of fractions and decimals to solve problems. Students will collect, display, and analyze data in a variety
of ways and solve probability problems, using a sample space or tree diagram. Students also will solve problems involving volume, area, and
perimeter. Students will be introduced to variable expressions and open sentences, and will model one-step linear equations in one variable, using
addition and subtraction. Students will investigate and recognize the distributive property. All of these skills assist in the development of the algebraic
concepts needed for success in the middle grades.
While learning mathematics, students will be actively engaged, using concrete materials and appropriate technologies such as calculators and
computers. However, facility in the use of technology shall not be regarded as a substitute for a student’s understanding of quantitative concepts and
relationships or for proficiency in basic computations.
Mathematics has its own language, and the acquisition of specialized vocabulary and language patterns is crucial to a student’s
understanding and appreciation of the subject. Students should be encouraged to use correctly the concepts, skills, symbols, and vocabulary
identified in the following set of standards.
Problem solving has been integrated throughout the six content strands. The development of problem-solving skills should be a major goal of
the mathematics program at every grade level. Instruction in the process of problem solving will need to be integrated early and continuously into
each student’s mathematics education. Students must be helped to develop a wide range of skills and strategies for solving a variety of problem
Number and Number Sense Measurement
Focus: Prime and Composite Numbers and Rounding Decimals Focus: Perimeter, Area, Volume, and Equivalent Measures
5.1 The student, given a decimal through thousandths, will round to 5.8 The student will
the nearest whole number, tenth, or hundredth. a) find perimeter, area, and volume in standard units of measure;
b) differentiate among perimeter, area, and volume and identify
5.2 The student will
whether the application of the concept of perimeter, area, or
a) recognize and name fractions in their equivalent decimal form and
volume is appropriate for a given situation;
vice versa; and
c) identify equivalent measurements within the metric system;
b) compare and order fractions and decimals in a given set from least
to greatest and greatest to least. d) estimate and then measure to solve problems, using U.S.
Customary and metric units; and
5.3 The student will e) choose an appropriate unit of measure for a given situation
a) identify and describe the characteristics of prime and composite involving measurement using U.S. Customary and metric units.
5.9 The student will identify and describe the diameter, radius,
b) identify and describe the characteristics of even and odd numbers.
chord, and circumference of a circle.
Computation and Estimation 5.10 The student will determine an amount of elapsed time in
Focus: Multistep Applications and Order of Operations hours and minutes within a 24-hour period.
5.4 The student will create and solve single-step and multistep 5.11 The student will measure right, acute, obtuse, and
practical problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication, straight angles.
and division with and without remainders of whole numbers.
5.5 The student will
Focus: Classification and Subdividing
a) find the sum, difference, product, and quotient of two numbers
expressed as decimals through thousandths (divisors with only one 5.12 The student will classify
nonzero digit); and a) angles as right, acute, obtuse, or straight; and
b) create and solve single-step and multistep practical problems b) triangles as right, acute, obtuse, equilateral, scalene, or
involving decimals. isosceles.
5.6 The student will solve single-step and multistep practical 5.13 The student, using plane figures (square, rectangle,
problems involving addition and subtraction with fractions and triangle, parallelogram, rhombus, and trapezoid), will
mixed numbers and express answers in simplest form. a) develop definitions of these plane figures; and
b) investigate and describe the results of combining and
5.7 The student will evaluate whole number numerical expressions,
subdividing plane figures.
using the order of operations limited to parentheses, addition,
subtraction, multiplication, and division.
Probability and Statistics
Focus: Outcomes and Measures of Center
5.14 The student will make predictions and determine the
probability of an outcome by constructing a
5.15 The student, given a problem situation, will collect,
organize, and interpret data in a variety of forms, using
stem-and-leaf plots and line graphs.
5.16 The student will
a) describe mean, median, and mode as measures of center;
b) describe mean as fair share;
c) find the mean, median, mode, and range of a set of data;
d) describe the range of a set of data as a measure of
Patterns, Functions, and Algebra
Focus: Equations and Properties
5.17 The student will describe the relationship found in a
number pattern and express the relationship.
5.18 The student will
a) investigate and describe the concept of variable;
b) write an open sentence to represent a given mathematical
relationship, using a variable;
c) model one-step linear equations in one variable, using
addition and subtraction; and
d) create a problem situation based on a given open
sentence, using a single variable.
5.19 The student will investigate and recognize the distributive
property of multiplication over addition.
Social Studies Standards of Learning – Adopted 2008
The standards for Virginia Studies allow students to develop a greater understanding of Virginia’s rich history, from the
cultures of its native peoples and the founding of Jamestown to the present. Geographic, economic, and civic concepts are presented
within this historical context. Students will develop the skills needed to analyze, interpret, and demonstrate knowledge of important
events and ideas in our history, and will understand the contributions made by people of diverse cultural and ethnic backgrounds.
Students will use geographic tools to examine the influence of physical and cultural geography on Virginia history. Ideas that form the
foundation for political institutions in Virginia and the United States also will be included as part of the story of Virginia.
The study of history must emphasize the intellectual skills required for responsible citizenship. Students practice these skills as
they extend their understanding of the essential knowledge defined by all of the standards for history and social science.
b) identifying the impact of Virginians, such as Woodrow
Political Growth and Western Expansion: 1781 to the Mid Wilson and George C. Marshall, on international events;
1800s c) identifying the social and political events in Virginia linked to
VS.6 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the role desegregation and Massive Resistance and their
of Virginia in the establishment of the new American relationship to national history;
nation by d) identifying the political, social, and/or economic
a) explaining why George Washington is called the contributions made by Maggie L. Walker; Harry F. Byrd, Sr.;
“Father of our Country” and James Madison is called Oliver W. Hill; Arthur R. Ashe, Jr.; A. Linwood Holton, Jr.;
the “Father of the Constitution”; and L. Douglas Wilder.
b) identifying the ideas of George Mason and Thomas VS.10 The student will demonstrate knowledge of
Jefferson as expressed in the Virginia Declaration of government, geography, and economics by
Rights and the Virginia Statute for Religious a) identifying the three branches of Virginia government and
Freedom; the function of each;
c) explaining the influence of geography on the b) describing the major products and industries of Virginia’s
migration of Virginians into western territories. five geographic regions;
Civil War and Postwar Eras c) explaining how advances in transportation,
VS.7 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the communications, and technology have contributed to
issues that divided our nation and led to the Civil Virginia’s prosperity and role in the global economy.
a) identifying the events and differences between
northern and southern states that divided Virginians
and led to secession, war, and the creation of West
b) describing Virginia’s role in the war, including
identifying major battles that took place in Virginia;
c) describing the roles played by whites, enslaved
African Americans, free African Americans, and
VS.8 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the
reconstruction of Virginia following the Civil War by
a) identifying the effects of Reconstruction on life in
b) identifying the effects of segregation and “Jim Crow”
on life in Virginia for whites, African Americans, and
c) describing the importance of railroads, new
industries, and the growth of cities to Virginia’s
Virginia: 1900 to the Present
VS.9 The student will demonstrate knowledge of twentieth-
and twenty-first-century Virginia by
a) describing the economic and social transition from a
rural, agricultural society to a more urban,
industrialized society, including the reasons people
came to Virginia from other states and countries;
Science Standards of Learning – Adopted 2003
The fifth-grade standards emphasize the importance of selecting appropriate instruments for measuring and recording observations. The
organization, analysis, and application of data continue to be an important focus of classroom inquiry. Science skills from preceding grades,
including questioning, using and validating evidence, and systematic experimentation, are reinforced at this level. Students are introduced to more
detailed concepts of sound and light and the tools used for studying them. Key concepts of matter, including those about atoms, molecules,
elements, and compounds, are studied, and the properties of matter are defined in greater detail. The cellular makeup of organisms and the
distinguishing characteristics of groups of organisms are stressed. Students learn about the characteristics of the oceans and the Earth’s changing
The fifth-grade standards focus on student growth in understanding the nature of science. This scientific view defines the idea that
explanations of nature are developed and tested using observation, experimentation, models, evidence, and systematic processes. The nature of
science includes the concepts that scientific explanations are based on logical thinking; are subject to rules of evidence; are consistent with
observational, inferential, and experimental evidence; are open to rational critique; and are subject to refinement and change with the addition of
new scientific evidence. The nature of science includes the concept that science can provide explanations about nature, can predict potential
consequences of actions, but cannot be used to answer all questions.
Scientific Investigation, Reasoning, and Logic Matter
5.1 The student will plan and conduct investigations in which 5.4 The student will investigate and understand that matter
a) rocks, minerals, and organisms are identified using a is anything that has mass, takes up space, and occurs
classification key; as a solid, liquid, or gas. Key concepts include
b) estimations of length, mass, and volume are made; a) atoms, elements, molecules, and compounds;
c) appropriate instruments are selected and used for making b) mixtures including solutions; and
quantitative observations of length, mass, volume, and c) the effect of heat on the states of matter.
d) accurate measurements are made using basic tools Living Systems
(thermometer, meter stick, balance, graduated cylinder); 5.5 The student will investigate and understand that
e) data are collected, recorded, and reported using the organisms are made of cells and have distinguishing
appropriate graphical representation (graphs, charts, characteristics. Key concepts include
diagrams); a) basic cell structures and functions;
f) predictions are made using patterns, and simple graphical b) kingdoms of living things;
data are extrapolated; c) vascular and nonvascular plants; and
g) manipulated and responding variables are identified; and d) vertebrates and invertebrates.
h) an understanding of the nature of science is developed and
reinforced. Interrelationships in Earth/Space Systems
5.6 The student will investigate and understand
Force, Motion, and Energy
characteristics of the ocean environment. Key concepts
5.2 The student will investigate and understand how sound is include
transmitted and is used as a means of communication. Key a) geological characteristics (continental shelf, slope, rise);
concepts include b) physical characteristics (depth, salinity, major currents);
a) frequency, waves, wavelength, vibration; and
b) the ability of different media (solids, liquids, and gases) to c) biological characteristics (ecosystems).
transmit sound; and
c) uses and applications (voice, sonar, animal sounds, and Earth Patterns, Cycles, and Change
5.7 The student will investigate and understand how the
5.3The student will investigate and understand basic
Earth’s surface is constantly changing. Key concepts
characteristics of visible light and how it behaves. Key
a) the visible spectrum and light waves; a) the rock cycle including identification of rock types;
b) refraction of light through water and prisms; b) Earth history and fossil evidence;
c) reflection of light from reflective surfaces (mirrors); c) the basic structure of the Earth’s interior;
d) opaque, transparent, and translucent; and d) plate tectonics (earthquakes and volcanoes);
e) historical contributions in understanding light. e) weathering and erosion; and
f) human impact.
Health Standards of Learning – Adopted 2008
Students in grade five distinguish reliable from unreliable health information and resources. Students’ practices and behaviors
demonstrate health knowledge and skills. Emphasis is placed on demonstrating interpersonal skills, assuming responsibility for personal
health habits, and practicing behaviors that promote active, healthy lifestyles. Students critique advertising and various media displays
and work with others to improve community health.
b) the existence of customs and traditions;
Knowledge and Skills c) promotion of the value of community health and wellness;
5.1 The student will demonstrate the interpersonal skills d) examination of community health issues;
necessary to build healthy relationships. Key e) development of community health projects;
concepts/skills include f) promotion of volunteerism and community service.
a) the development of positive social skills;
b) the use of refusal and conflict-resolution skills;
c) effective verbal and nonverbal communication skills that
convey care, consideration, and respect for self and
5.2 The student will demonstrate responsibility for
developing personal health habits and practicing
behaviors that promote an active, healthy lifestyle. Key
a) the relationship between health promotion and disease
b) the connection between nutritional guidelines and
c) strategies for managing stress;
d) the importance of exercise and recreation;
e) the effects of personal health habits on cardiovascular
f) the importance of developing and maintaining a positive
5.3 The student will analyze the risks associated with
dependence on and addiction to alcohol, tobacco,
inhalants and other drugs. Key concepts/skills include
a) the effects on the integrated functioning of the body’s
b) the effects on academic performance;
c) the effects on relationships with family, peers, and other
Information Access and Use
5.4 The student will critically evaluate how print media,
broadcast media, and Internet technology influence
perceptions of health information, products, and
services. Key concepts/skills include
a) strategies for validating health information;
b) tools for the critical evaluation of advertisements and
Community Health and Wellness
5.5 The student will explain how peers, families, and
community groups work together to build a healthy
community. Key concepts/skills include
a) collaborative support for environmental issues;
Family Life Standards of Learning – Adopted 2009
5.1 The student will define the structure and function of the Descriptive Statement: The teacher emphasizes the
endocrine system. individual's contribution to accepting responsibility, how this
Descriptive Statement: The basic parts of the endocrine system relates to group success or failure, and how opportunities for
(pituitary gland and adrenal glands) and their functions are leadership may be presented.
introduced. 5.9 The student will develop an increased understanding of
5.2 The student will identify the human reproductive organs in the roles, duties, and responsibilities of family members.
relation to the total anatomy. Descriptive Statement: The student can achieve this by
Descriptive Statement: Emphasis is placed on the male defining the traditional and changing roles, duties, and
reproductive organs: penis, testicles, scrotum, and urethra; and on responsibilities of family members; by preparing for the life-
the female reproductive organs: uterus, ovaries, vagina, and long adjustments required for his or her changing roles; and by
fallopian tubes. The reproductive organs are explained in relation describing the emotional interactions involved in being a family
to total human anatomy. member. Nontraditional roles of males and females are
5.3 The student will explain how human beings reproduce. discussed, and options for the lifelong goals of men and
Descriptive Statement: Instruction includes the uniting of the women are presented.
sperm and the egg and the development of the unborn child inside 5.10 The student will examine the messages from mass
the uterus. The development of the baby at different stages is media related to sexuality.
illustrated. Emphasis is placed on the consequences of premarital Descriptive Statement: Printed materials, advertising,
sexual activity. The importance of prenatal care is discussed also, television, wearing apparel, internet, movies, and music are
as well as the profound effects of drugs on the mother and discussed in relation to gender stereotyping and to the
developing child. avoidance of sexual exploitation and sexual violence. Students
5.4 The student will recognize the relationship between the will understand how the media affects mental health issues
physical changes that occur during puberty and the related to sexuality.
developing capacity for reproduction. 5.11 The student will develop skill in saying "no" to any
Descriptive Statement: Physical changes that occur during social behavior or activity that he or she perceives as
puberty are summarized. Topics included are nocturnal emissions wrong for him or herself.
and erections; menstruation; instability of emotions, such as mood Descriptive Statement: Discussion focuses on alternatives to
swings during puberty; development of a positive attitude toward situations such as rude behavior, smoking, alcohol or drug
one's sexuality; and the relationship between changes during use, theft, vandalism, violence, and premarital sexual
puberty and one's ability to conceive and bear children. relationships.
5.5 The student will realize the importance of nutrition for 5.12 The student will recognize threatening or uncomfortable
himself or herself and for pregnant women who need to eat situations and how to react to them.
nutritious foods and avoid dangerous substances while the Descriptive Statement: These situations may include walking
baby is growing inside the uterus. alone, opening doors for strangers, experiencing sexual abuse
Descriptive Statement: This objective is incorporated into the or incest, receiving obscene telephone calls or text messages,
nutrition component for the fifth-grade health curriculum. and facing dangers found in shopping malls. Ways of
5.6 The student will identify reasons for avoiding sexual activity protecting oneself and recognizing and reporting such threats
prior to marriage. are stressed. The point is made, however, that most life
Descriptive Statement: The psychological, social, and physical situations are not threatening.
consequences of premarital sexual relations are discussed, as 5.13 The student will explain the effects of substance abuse
well as the benefits of postponing sexual intercourse until one is on the body.
physically and emotionally mature and has a positive, committed Descriptive Statement: Emphasis is placed on the adverse
marital relationship. The detrimental effects of premarital sex, effects of alcohol, drugs, and tobacco on the body. This
including teenage pregnancy, infant mortality, and sexually information is related to physical and emotional growth during
transmitted diseases are emphasized, as well as the impact on adolescence, including sexual development; to fetal
one's reputation, self-esteem, and mental health. development; and to any adverse effects upon the family unit.
5.7 The student will describe the effects of personal hygiene on 5.14 The student will become aware of the existence of
one's self-concept. sexually transmitted diseases.
Descriptive Statement: Discussion focuses on those bodily Descriptive Statement: Factual information regarding the
changes in puberty that require special attention to cleanliness nature of sexually transmitted diseases, including human
and their relationship to a positive self-concept and acceptance immuno-deficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency
from peers. Proper use of feminine hygiene products in syndrome (AIDS), is introduced. HIV/AIDS is explained as a
relationship to cleanliness is included. deadly disease. Other diseases referred to include syphilis,
5.8 The student will recognize the importance of contributing to gonorrhea, chlamydia, and genital herpes.
a constructive group activity.