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Object_Oriented_Abnalysis_and_Design

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					           Noorul Islam College Of Engineering, Kumaracoil.
               Department Of Information Technology
                                Fifth Semester
                 Object Oriented Analysis And Design (If 354)

                               Two marks Q & A

                                      Unit I

1. What are the properties of complex systems?
        a. Exhibits a very rich set of behaviors.
        b. Has a long life span.
2. What are the properties of simple systems?
        a. Has a short life span.
        b. Can be implemented by a single person
3. Define software maintenance.
           Software maintenance is a stage in software life cycle after installation,
           where we correct errors in software.
4. What is object-oriented decomposition?
           Decomposing a complex system in to set of abstractions or objects is
           called object-oriented decomposition.
5. Give examples for first generation programming languages.
           FORTRAN I, ALGOL 58, Flowmatic, and IPL V.
6. Give the criteria for a language to be object-oriented.
        a. Should support objects.
        b. Object must have an associated class.
        c. Classes must be able to inherit from super classes.
7. Define OO-Analysis.
           OO-Analysis is a method of analysis that examines requirements from the
           perspective of the classes and objects found in the vocabulary of the
           problem domain.
8. What are weakly typed languages?
           Languages, which allow mixing of basic built-in types but not other user-
           defined types, are weakly typed. Eg. C++.
9. What is static binding?
           Static binding means types of all variables and expressions are fixed at
           compile time.
10. What is a lightweight process?
           Lightweight process lives within a single operating system along with
           other lightweight processes, which share the same address space.
11. What is dynamic binding?
           Dynamic binding means types of all variables and expressions are fixed at
    run time.
12. What are strongly typed languages?
           Languages, which do not allow mixing of data types but not other user-
           defined types, are strongly typed. Eg. Eiffel.
13. Define OO-Design.
           OO-Design encompasses the process of OO-decomposition and a notation
           for depicting both logical and physical as well as static and dynamic
           models of the system under design.
14. Define abstraction.
           Abstraction denotes the essential characteristics of an object that
           distinguish it from all other kinds of objects.
15. Define encapsulation.
           Encapsulation is the process of compartmentalizing the elements of an
           abstraction that constitute its structure and behavior.
16. Define modularity.
           Modularity is the property of a system that has been decomposed in to a
           set of cohesive and loosely coupled modules.
17. Define hierarchy.
           Hierarchy is a ranking or ordering of abstractions.
18. Define typing.
           Typing is the enforcement of the class of an object such that objects of
           different types are not interchanged.
19. Define concurrency.
           Concurrency is the property that distinguishes an active object from one
           that is not active.
20. Define persistence.
           Persistence is the property of an object through which its existence

                                     Unit II

1. What is a scenario?
          A scenario is a sequence of events describing an interaction between a
          user and a system.
2. Define use case.
          A use case is a set of scenarios tied together by a common user goal.
3. Who is an actor?
          An actor is a role that a user plays with respect to the system.
4. Define include relationship.
          Common behavior across use cases will be factored out in to a separate
          use case and is connected to the main use cases through <<include>>
          relationship.
5. What are the types of actors?
          Types of actors are: Humans, software and hardware.
6. When will you use extend relationship?
          A variation from the normal behavior of a use case will be taken out of it
          and is connected through <<extend>>.
7. What are the phases of Rational Unified Process?
      a. Inception
      b. Elaboration
      c. Construction
        d. Transition
8. What are the types of risks?
        a. Requirements risks.
        b. Technological risks.
        c. Skills risks.
        d. Political risks.
9. What is the use of a release plan?
            A release plan shows the use cases that will be done during each iteration.
10. What is refactoring?
            Refactoring is a technique that allows you to change the internal structure
    of the code in order to make it easier to understand and work with.
11. Define class category.
            A class category is an aggregate containing classes and other class
            categories.
12. Define class utility.
            A class utility is a collection of one or more free subprograms.
13. Define micro process.
            Micro process represents the daily activities of the individual developer or
            a small team of developers.
14. Define macro process.
            Macro process represents the activities of the entire development team on
            the scale of weeks to months at a time.
15. What is the purpose of conceptualization?
            Conceptualization establishes the core requirements for the system.
16. What is a tactical decision?
            Decision, which deals with common and local policies is a tactical
            decision.
17. Define class diagram.
            A class diagram shows the existence of classes and their relationships on
            the logical view of a system.
18. Define conceptual clustering.
            In this type, classes are generated by first formulating conceptual
            descriptions of these classes and then classifying the entities according to
            the descriptions.
19. Define prototype theory.
            In prototype theory, things are grouped according to the degree of their
            relationship to concrete types.
20. Define CRC cards.
        a. CRC stands for Class-Responsibility-Collaboration.
        b. CRC is a 4 x 6 “ index card, upon which the analyst writes the name of the
            class and its responsibilities.

                                      Unit III

1. Write the UML syntax for operations. Give example.
          Visibility Name (parameter list): Return type {Property string}
           E.g. + balanceOn (date: Date): Money
2. What is the use of iteration marker?
           Iteration marker (*) is used to show that a message is sent many times to
           multiple receiver objects.
3. What is a self-call?
           Self-call is a message an object sends to itself, by sending the message
    arrow back to the same lifeline.
4. What is a lifeline?
           Lifeline represents the object’s life during the interaction.
5. Define stereotype.
           Stereotype is the extension mechanism of UML by which existing
           notations can be used for different purposes.
6. What is an object diagram?
           Object diagram is a snapshot of the objects in a system at a point in a time.
7. Define single classification.
           In single classification, an object belongs to a single type, which may
           inherit from super types.
8. What is frozen?
           Frozen is a constraint that the UML defines as applicable to an attribute or
           an association end.
9. What is a package?
           A package is a collection of logically related classes.
10. What is a guard?
           A guard is a logical condition that will return only true or false.
11. What is the use of swimlanes?
           Swimlanes vertically divides the activity diagram in to zones. Each zone
           represents the responsibilities of a particular class.
12. Define deployment diagram?
           Deployment diagram shows the physical relationships among software and
           hardware components in the delivered system.
13. What is a node?
           A node represents some kind of computational unit.
14. Define component diagram.
           Component diagram shows the various components in a system and their
           dependencies.
15. What is an interface?
           An interface is a class with operation declarations and no methods and
           hence no implementation.
16. What is an asynchronous message?
           An asynchronous message does not block the caller, so it can carry on
           with its own processing.
17. Define interaction diagrams.
           Interaction diagrams are models that describe how groups of objects
           collaborate in some behavior.
18. What are facade classes?
           Facade classes are the public classes in a package for public behavior.
19. What is the difference between an abstract class and an interface?
           Abstract class allows adding implementation of some of the methods but
           the interface will not.
20. What is the use of {} in a class diagram?
           {} is used to describe constraints in informal English.

                                     Unit IV

1. Define model.
           Model is an approximation of the real world problem.
2. Define object.
           An object is an abstraction of something in the problem domain; reflecting
       the capabilities of a system to keep information about it, interact with it or
       both.
3. Define attribute.
           An attribute is an abstraction of a single characteristic.
4. What are descriptive attributes?
           Descriptive attributes are facts that are intrinsic to each entity.
5. What are naming attributes?
            Naming attributes are used to name or label an entity.
6. What is a service?
           Service is the work done for others.
7. Define method.
           A method is a detailed set of operations that an object performs when
           another object requests a service.
8. Define qualifiers.
           Qualifier is an attribute whose value is always dependent on a particular
           context.
9. Define algorithmically simple services.
           Services, which are easy to implement and are expected in every class are
           called algorithmically simple services.
10. What are the types of algorithmically complex services?
           Calculate, monitor and query.
11. What are the types of algorithmically simple services?
           Create, connect, disconnect, delete and access.
12. Define prototype.
           Prototype is the name and signature of the service.
13. Define behavior.
           Behavior is defined as the set of actions that an object is responsible for
           exhibiting when providing a service.
14. Give one example for static behavior.
           E.g. for static behavior is “square root” service for the class Number.
15. Name any two techniques for documenting control.
       a. Activity diagram
       b. Sequence diagram.
16. Give any two techniques for documenting static behavior.
       a. Flowcharting.
       b. Data flow diagrams.
17. Define discordant attribute.
           An attribute that seems completely unrelated to all other attributes is
           called discordant attribute.
18. Name any two current techniques for identifying objects.
       a. Using generalization.
       b. Using subassemblies.
19. Name any two traditional techniques for identifying objects.
       a. Using nouns.
       b. Using CRC cards.
20. What are the categories of objects according to Ross?
           People, places, organizations, things, concepts and events.

                                       Unit V

1. What is a modeless state diagram?
           A modeless state diagram occurs when an object always responds the
           same way to external and internal events.
2. What are the types of lifecycle forms?
       a. Circular lifecycle.
       b. Born-and-die lifecycle.
3. Define state model.
           A state model establishes relationships among states of an object.
4. What is a state?
           A state represents a stage in the lifecycle of an object.
5. What is an event?
           An event is a condition that can be detected by an object.
6. What is a transition?
           A transition is a response by an object to an event received by an object.
7. What is an action?
           An action is an operation that is done inside of a state or on a transition.
8. What is an activity?
           An activity is a set of operations that is executing during the entire period
           an object is in a state.
9. What are the types of state models?
       a. Harel model.
       b. Mealy model.
       c. Moore model.
       d. Modified Harel model.
10. Define history state.
           A history state captures the concept that a state must remember its sub-
           state when it is exited and be able to enter the same sub-state on
           subsequent reentry in to the state.
11. What is a timing mark?
           A timing mark is used to capture real-time constraints on transition.
12. Write a brief note on generalization without polymorphism?
           In this type, all methods supplied by the ancestor for its services are also
       used by the descendent to provide the corresponding services.
13. What are the mathematical properties of generalization?
       a. Anti-symmetry.
       b. Transitivity.
14. Define homeomorphic property of aggregation.
           If the parts are made of the same thing as the whole, then that aggregation
           relationship satisfies homeomorphic property, otherwise not.
15. What is a link?
           A link is a relationship between objects that lets one object knows about
           another object so that one object may request the services of another
           object.
16. What is the main difference between aggregation and link?
           An aggregation cannot connect an object to itself but a link can.
17. Give two examples for Assembly-parts composition.
       a. A keyboard is part of a computer.
       b. Windows are parts of a house.
18. Give two examples for Material-object composition.
       a. A chair is partly iron.
       b. Bread is made from flour.
19. Give two examples for Place-area composition.
       a. A room is part of a hotel.
       b. New York city is part of New York state.
20. Give two examples for Portion-object composition.
       a. A meter is part of kilometer.
       b. A second is part of a day.

				
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