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ppt-Genetic Engineering

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               Genetic Engineering or just good
               training?




Pet Cloning?
     Genetically modified organisms
                 (GMO)
   Genetically modified cows to be pain free to
    be create a more humane slaughtering.
   For thousands of years people have changed the
    characteristics of plants and animals.
    – Through selective breeding
    – Through the exploitation of mutations deemed as desirable
      traits were bred to keep these traits.

   Since breeders have been able to take advantage of
    naturally occurring mutations, they have dreamed of
    being able to artificially create mutations.




      Real or Not?
      GENETIC ENGINEERING
Gene Mapping -Diagnosis of genetic
               disease-genetic counseling
Human gene therapy -replacing bad genes
                     with functional ones.
Pharmaceutical products made by bacteria
Forensics -DNA fingerprinting
Genetically modifying plants and animals –
     producing proteins of other species or
     changing their traits
Cloning - stem cells, organs, pets, endangered
          or extinct species, etc.
 The ability to design new varieties of plants
  and animals has now become a reality
  through genetic engineering-we can change
  their evolution at the genetic code level.
 Genetic engineering involves the
  manipulation of genes within a cell or
  organism to bring about a change in the
  genetic makeup of an organism.
 There are several methods of gene
  manipulation currently used, most of which
  include the removal and insertion of genetic
  material into organisms.
This technique is also known as gene splicing or
 recombinant DNA technology because the DNA is
 recombined in another’s DNA.
   Once the location of the
    DNA sequence has been           Gene Splicing
    located, scientists can use
    restriction enzymes to
    separate the DNA at a
    particular location on the
    gene
   Once the pieces of DNA are
    removed other DNA can be
    spliced in or recombined with
    the remaining DNA
   This results in
    recombinant DNA
Recombinant DNA
The Recombinant DNA is put in little loops of
DNA or plasmids to be taken up by new cells
(even those of another species).
Using the chosen DNA fragments put into plasmids
     to transfer into the plant chromosomes.
  Making
gene copies
 (clones)!
 And then
 they can
 make the
  proteins
from those
   DNA
  copies.
 Making not
     just
medicine but
    actual
    human
  proteins to
cure diseases
like diabetes.
         Genetic Engineering
 Cross-species   gene splicing!
  Engineered Plants
Plants may be genetically
 engineered to enable them to
 fix nitrogen, produce pest-
 resistant crops, have fruit
 stay fresher longer, selective
 herbicide resistance,
 increased yield, improved
 nutrient balance, plant-
 grown vaccines and
 pharmaceuticals etc.
 Making crops
more tolerant to
   dry warm
 conditions-by
mixing genes of
drought tolerant
  native plants
   with crops
   Genetic engineering-experimental fun!

                                   Glo-Fish® are brilliantly colored,
                                   active fish. While they don't
                                   actually glow in complete
                                   darkness, they glow brightly with
                                   the help of a black light.



The fluorescent mouse family had
a fluorescent gene
implanted in their embryos
Genetic Engineering with Bacteria as foreign
     species protein and gene factories
Cows producing human proteins?!

 Transgenic cows can do the following:
   • benefit animal health, for example, by improving growth
     and survival of calves
   • prevent animal diseases, such as mastitis
   • make milk with human health benefits
   • assist milk processing into dairy products.
 Transgenic refers to genetic material artificially
 transferred into an organism from another
 species.
 Goats have been changed to
 make spider silk in their milk!
  Genetic
Engineering
gone weird?!
CSI-Crime Scene
Investigation
DNA Fingerprinting is a very quick way to
analyze and compare the DNA sequences of any
living organisms.

Uses of DNA Fingerprints
DNA fingerprints are useful
in several areas of society. They are used by
professionals:
Human Health- cures for inherited disorders
Justice System -criminal/forensic investigations
Personal identification
              DNA Fingerprinting
Each person has a unique array of DNA
fragments inherited from their parents
in Mendelian fashion. Even full siblings
can be distinguished from one another
by DNA fingerprints.
Tandem (end to end) repeats are short
regions of DNA that differ substantially
among people. There are many sites in
the genome where tandem repeats
occur. Each person carries a unique
combination of repeat numbers.
               DNA Fingerprinting
Gel Electrophoresis is used to separate different sized
  fragments of DNA. DNA is placed at one end of a gel and a
  current is applied to the gel. DNA molecules are negatively
  charged and move towards the positive end of the gel.
  Smaller molecules move faster than larger ones
Analyzing DNA Fingerprints
In the photograph, DNA "fingerprints"
   from the mother (M) of a child (C) and
   two possible fathers (F1, F2) are
   shown. The pointers on the left side
   indicate DNA bands shared by the
   child and the mother. The pointers on
   the right side indicate DNA bands
   shared by the child and possible father
   F1. Possible father F2 appears to share
   only one band (at the top) with the
   child and is less likely to have been the
   actual father of the child than is F1.
DNA fingerprints can be used to determine
the identity of a child’s parents
 In this example, a family consists of a mom and dad,
    two daughters and two sons. The parents have one
    daughter and one son together, one daughter is
    from the mother’s previous marriage, and one son
    is adopted, sharing no genetic material with either
    parent.
          GENE MAPPING-
         Human Genome Project
The Human Genome Project, an international quest to
     understand the genomes of humans and other
   organisms, will lead to unprecedented advances in
                science and medicine.
 One of the most important processes in gene
  manipulation is that of finding the location of
  genes on the chromosomes
 Gene mapping involves the finding of the
  particular location on the strand of DNA that
  contains the genes that control certain traits
What is the promise of the Human
        Genome Project ?

Hopefully, it will open new ways to
 diagnose, treat, and prevent the
 estimated 4,000 genetic diseases in
 humans, such as cancer, diabetes,
 muscular dystrophy, cystic fibrosis,
 etc.
        Automated DNA Sequencer
 The machine builds DNA molecules but uses
  eight kinds of bases: four normal (A, T, C,
  and G) and four that are modified to fluoresce
  in laser light.
 The automated DNA sequencer separates the
  sets of fragments by gel electrophoresis.
 The computer program in the machine
  assembles the information from all the
  nucleotides in the sample to reveal the entire
  DNA sequence.
 Mapping the
  location of
   genes on
chromosomes!
    Mapping the Human Genome
   The Human Genome Initiative in which the
    entire human genome was mapped was
    completed in early 2001. It utilized the
    technology we have been discussing. The
    information gained will give insights into
    genetic disorders and ultimately, provide for
    gene therapy.
    Genetic Counseling—mapping
    patients genes
                                  GATTACA
DNA-based tests are among the     scene
first commercial medical
applications of the new genetic
discoveries. Gene tests can be
used to diagnose disease,
confirm a diagnosis, provide
prognostic information about
the course of disease, confirm
the existence of a disease, or
probability in their offspring.
Gene Therapy

    Gene therapy which
     is the transfer of
     normal genes into
     body cells to correct
     a genetic defect will
     become increasingly
     possible now that
     the human genome
     has been mapped.
     Gene
  Therapy-
   inserting
  functional
genes into the
    cells of
patients who
     have
dysfunctional
    genes.
 Delivering the gene to the cells of the organism
can happen using at least the four methods shown.
  Gene Therapy requires making lots of copies
(clones) of the modified gene you want to splice
             into the organisms cells.

				
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posted:12/7/2011
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