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					Firefighter I                                  Basic Pre-Hospital Emergency Medical Care for Firefighters




                                 Chapter 21 Test
Name:                                                        Date:

Directions: Write the correct letter on the blank before each question.


Objective 1:
Discuss the importance of body substance isolation (BSI).
________        1.     Which body fluids must be considered infectious? (1004)
                       A.      All body fluids
                       B.      Those from known drug users
                       C.      Those from patients with hepatitis or AIDS
                       D.      Those from patients at a high risk for diseases

________        2.     Which of the following is a requirement of employers regarding BSI?
                       (1004)
                       A.      Employers must develop a written exposure control plan.
                       B.      Employers must compensate employees who are exposed to
                               dangerous diseases.
                       C.      Employers must ensure that employees are notified when a
                               patient is confirmed to be infectious.
                       D.      Employers must do their best to keep their employees from
                               being exposed to pathogens.

Objective 2:
Describe the components of personal protective equipment.
________        3.     Which of the following types of gloves are NOT considered safe
                       whenever there is the potential for contact with blood or other body
                       fluids? (1005)
                       A.      Vinyl
                       B.      Latex
                       C.      Leather
                       D.      Synthetic




Fire Protection Publications                                                                Chapter Test
Oklahoma State University                                                                           21-1
Firefighter I                                  Basic Pre-Hospital Emergency Medical Care for Firefighters




________        4.     In which of the following situations are alcohol-based hand cleaners
                       NOT considered effective? (1005-1006)
                       A.      After patient contact
                       B.      After contact with blood
                       C.      When hands are visibly soiled
                       D.      After contact with body fluids of any kind

________        5.     In cases where ___ is suspected, an N-95 or HEPA respirator should
                       be used. (1006)
                       A.      HIV
                       B.      AIDS
                       C.      hepatitis
                       D.      tuberculosis

Objective 3:
Discuss diseases of concern.
________        6.     Which disease of concern is an infection that causes an inflammation
                       of the liver? (1007)
                       A.      AIDS
                       B.      Hepatitis
                       C.      West Nile
                       D.      Tuberculosis

________        7.     Which disease of concern results from the immune system being
                       attacked by HIV? (1008)
                       A.      AIDS
                       B.      SARS
                       C.      Hepatitis
                       D.      West Nile

________        8.     Which disease of concern is a respiratory virus with symptoms that
                       include fever, dry cough, and difficulty breathing? (1009)
                       A.      SARS
                       B.      AIDS
                       C.      West Nile
                       D.      Hepatitis




Fire Protection Publications                                                                Chapter Test
Oklahoma State University                                                                           21-2
Firefighter I                                      Basic Pre-Hospital Emergency Medical Care for Firefighters




________        9.     Which type of hepatitis is acquired through contact with stool?
                       (1007)
                       A.      Hepatitis   A
                       B.      Hepatitis   B
                       C.      Hepatitis   C
                       D.      Hepatitis   Delta

________ 10.           Which type of hepatitis has been found to live for many days in dried
                       blood spills? (1007)
                       A.      Hepatitis   A
                       B.      Hepatitis   B
                       C.      Hepatitis   C
                       D.      Hepatitis   Delta

________ 11.           Which of the following diseases of concern causes the LEAST risk to
                       health-care workers? (1008)
                       A.      AIDS
                       B.      Hepatitis A
                       C.      Hepatitis B
                       D.      Tuberculosis

Objective 4:
Describe laws that relate to infection control.
________ 12.           Which law mandates a procedure by which emergency response
                       personnel can seek to find out if they have been exposed to
                       potentially life-threatening diseases while providing patient care?
                       (1010-1011)
                       A.      Ryan White CARE Act
                       B.      Hepatitis Exposure Requirement
                       C.      Tuberculosis Compliance Mandate
                       D.      Occupational Exposure to Bloodborne Pathogens

________ 13.           Which of the following is NOT required of employers by the
                       Occupational Exposure to Bloodborne Pathogens standard? (1010)
                       A.      Training
                       B.      Vaccinations
                       C.      Protective equipment
                       D.      Post-traumatic stress counseling




Fire Protection Publications                                                                    Chapter Test
Oklahoma State University                                                                               21-3
Firefighter I                                   Basic Pre-Hospital Emergency Medical Care for Firefighters




________ 14.           The Ryan White CARE Act requires every state’s public health officer
                       to designate an official within every emergency response
                       organization to act as a: (1011)
                       A.      safety officer.
                       B.      health officer.
                       C.      designated officer.
                       D.      accountability officer.

________ 15.           Which of the following is NOT a sign and symptom of tuberculosis?
                       (1013)
                       A.      Weight loss
                       B.      Bloody stool
                       C.      Productive cough
                       D.      Lethargy and weakness

Objective 5:
Explain the importance of immunizations.
________ 16.           Which of the following does NOT currently have an immunization?
                       (1014)
                       A.      Mumps
                       B.      Measles
                       C.      Hepatitis B
                       D.      Tuberculosis

________ 17.           Which of the following immunizations is usually made available
                       through the fire department or local health department? (1014)
                       A.      West Nile
                       B.      Hepatitis B
                       C.      Hepatitis C
                       D.      Tuberculosis

Objective 6:
Describe the physiological aspects of stress.
________ 18.           Which is the first stage of the body’s response to stress? (1015)
                       A.      Exhaustion
                       B.      Completion
                       C.      Alarm reaction
                       D.      Stage of resistance


Fire Protection Publications                                                                 Chapter Test
Oklahoma State University                                                                            21-4
Firefighter I                                 Basic Pre-Hospital Emergency Medical Care for Firefighters


________ 19.           In which stage of general adaptation syndrome does the sympathetic
                       nervous system increase in activity in what is known as the “fight or
                       flight” syndrome? (1015)
                       A.      Exhaustion
                       B.      Completion
                       C.      Alarm reaction
                       D.      Stage of resistance

________ 20.           At which stage of general adaptation syndrome does the body’s
                       systems return to normal functioning? (1015)
                       A.      Exhaustion
                       B.      Completion
                       C.      Alarm reaction
                       D.      Stage of resistance

Objective 7:
Describe types of stress reactions.
________ 21.           Which type of stress reaction is often linked to catastrophes? (1015)
                       A.      Acute stress reaction
                       B.      Delayed stress reaction
                       C.      Cumulative stress reaction
                       D.      Cataclysmic stress reaction

________ 22.           Which type of stress reaction is not triggered by a single critical
                       incident, but from sustained, recurring low-level stressors? (1016)
                       A.      Acute stress reaction
                       B.      Delayed stress reaction
                       C.      Cumulative stress reaction
                       D.      Cataclysmic stress reaction

Objective 8:
Summarize causes of stress.
________ 23.           Which of the following statements about the causes of stress is
                       LEAST accurate? (1017)
                       A.      Stress is often caused by no reason at all.
                       B.      Multiple-casualty incidents can cause stress.
                       C.      Personal problems can lead to stress on the job.
                       D.      Stress does not occur after one incident, only from a
                               combination of factors.


Fire Protection Publications                                                               Chapter Test
Oklahoma State University                                                                          21-5
Firefighter I                                   Basic Pre-Hospital Emergency Medical Care for Firefighters




Objective 9:
List signs and symptoms of stress.
________ 24.           Which type of stress is a positive form that helps people work under
                       pressure? (1017)
                       A.      Eustress
                       B.      Distress
                       C.      Acute stress
                       D.      Delayed stress

________ 25.           Which type of stress is negative and can happen when the stress of a
                       scene becomes overwhelming? (1017-1018)
                       A.      Eustress
                       B.      Distress
                       C.      Acute stress
                       D.      Delayed stress

Objective 10:
Explain various ways to deal with stress.
________ 26.           Which of the following is NOT a way to deal with stress? (1018)
                       A.      Exercise.
                       B.      Devote time to relaxing.
                       C.      Increase consumption of alcohol and caffeine.
                       D.      Avoid fatty foods and increase carbohydrate intake.

Objective 11:
Describe scene safety considerations at hazardous materials
incidents and rescue operations.
________ 27.           What is the primary rule at a hazardous materials incident? (1018)
                       A.      Maintain a safe distance from the source of the hazardous
                               material.
                       B.      Take whatever actions are necessary to stop the leak of the
                               hazardous material.
                       C.      Do not respond to hazardous materials incidents until a haz mat
                               team is on scene.
                       D.      Maintain close contact with the source of the hazardous material
                               in order to determine what is inside.



Fire Protection Publications                                                                 Chapter Test
Oklahoma State University                                                                            21-6
Firefighter I                                 Basic Pre-Hospital Emergency Medical Care for Firefighters


________ 28.           Which of the following provides important information about the
                       properties of dangerous substances and should be placed in every
                       vehicle that responds to a hazardous materials incident? (1018)
                       A.      Emergency Response Guidebook
                       B.      Introduction to Hazardous Materials
                       C.      Hazardous Materials for First Responders
                       D.      Managing the Hazardous Materials Incident

Objective 12:
Describe actions required when responding to scenes involving
violent or dangerous situations.
________ 29.           Which of the following is NOT an action required when responding to
                       a scene involving violent or dangerous situations? (1019)
                       A.      Act
                       B.      Plan
                       C.      React
                       D.      Observe

________ 30.           Which of the following should be observed at a scene involving
                       violent or dangerous situations? (1020-1021)
                       A.      Number of pedestrians
                       B.      Small children
                       C.      The neighborhood
                       D.      The ethnicity of bystanders

________ 31.           Which of the following is NOT one of the three “R’s” of reacting to a
                       scene involving violent or dangerous situations? (1021)
                       A.      Radio
                       B.      Retreat
                       C.      Respond
                       D.      Reevaluate




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Oklahoma State University                                                                          21-7
Firefighter I                                  Basic Pre-Hospital Emergency Medical Care for Firefighters



Objective 13:
Discuss the circulatory system.
________ 32.           Which of the following is the purpose of the circulatory system?
                       (1022)
                       A.      It removes wastes from the organs.
                       B.      It delivers oxygen and nutrients to the body’s tissues.
                       C.      It circulates oxygenated air between the upper and lower
                               airways.
                       D.      It is responsible for delivering electronic responses from the
                               brain through the spinal cord.

________ 33.           Which parts of the circulatory system allow for the exchange of
                       gases and nutrients between the blood and the cells of the body?
                       (1023)
                       A.      Veins
                       B.      Arteries
                       C.      Capillaries
                       D.      Blood vessels

________ 34.           The ___ side of the heart receives oxygenated blood from the lungs
                       and pumps it to all parts of the body. (1023)
                       A.      left
                       B.      right
                       C.      upper
                       D.      lower

________ 35.           A pulse is an indication of the wave of blood sent through the ___
                       when the heart pumps. (1024)
                       A.      veins
                       B.      arteries
                       C.      capillaries
                       D.      blood vessels

________ 36.           If a patient is clinically dead for ___ minutes, brain cells begin to die.
                       (1024)
                       A.      1   to   2
                       B.      2   to   4
                       C.      4   to   6
                       D.      8   to   10




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Oklahoma State University                                                                           21-8
Firefighter I                                     Basic Pre-Hospital Emergency Medical Care for Firefighters



Objective 14:
List the links in the chain of survival.
________ 37.           Which of the following is NOT a link in the chain of survival? (1024)
                       A.      Early   CPR
                       B.      Early   access
                       C.      Early   basic care
                       D.      Early   defibrillation

Objective 15:
Explain actions to be taken before resuscitation.
________ 38.           Which of the following is NOT a part of the assessment of a patient?
                       (1025-1027)
                       A.      Determine     pulselessness.
                       B.      Determine     breathlessness.
                       C.      Determine     unresponsiveness.
                       D.      Determine     pulmonary responsiveness.

________ 39.           Which maneuver is most commonly used to open the airway of an
                       unconscious patient with suspected head, neck, or spinal injuries?
                       (1029)
                       A.      Jaw-thrust
                       B.      Head-thrust
                       C.      Head-tilt, chin-lift
                       D.      Chin-tilt, head-lift

________ 40.           After activating EMS, what should be done next? (1027)
                       A.      Open the airway.
                       B.      Assess the patient.
                       C.      Position the patient.
                       D.      Perform rescue breathing.

________ 41.           When performing the head-tilt, chin-lift maneuver, tilt the head by
                       applying gentle pressure to the patient’s: (1028)
                       A.      chin.
                       B.      ears.
                       C.      jaw.
                       D.      forehead.




Fire Protection Publications                                                                   Chapter Test
Oklahoma State University                                                                              21-9
Firefighter I                                 Basic Pre-Hospital Emergency Medical Care for Firefighters



Objective 16:
Discuss rescue breathing.
________ 42.           What is the ventilation duration on an adult patient? (1030)
                       A.      1/second
                       B.      2/second
                       C.      3/second
                       D.      4/second

________ 43.           What is the ventilation rate on a child patient? (1030)
                       A.      6-10 breaths/minute
                       B.      10-12 breaths/minute
                       C.      12-20 breaths/minute
                       D.      15-25 breaths/minute

________ 44.           Improper rescue breathing can cause: (1030)
                       A.      internal bleeding.
                       B.      gastric distention.
                       C.      tracheal disturbance.
                       D.      pulmonary expansion.

Objective 17:
Describe the steps of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).
________ 45.           Which of the following is the FIRST step of CPR? (1031)
                       A.      Check for circulation.
                       B.      Perform rescue breathing.
                       C.      Provide chest compressions.
                       D.      Check for airway obstructions.

________ 46.           You should NEVER initiate CPR on any adult who has: (1032)
                       A.      a pulse.
                       B.      a head trauma.
                       C.      irregular breathing.
                       D.      spontaneous circulation.




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Oklahoma State University                                                                        21-10
Firefighter I                                  Basic Pre-Hospital Emergency Medical Care for Firefighters




________ 47.           Which of the following is NOT a rule for providing chest
                       compressions? (1032)
                       A.      Keep your elbows bent.
                       B.      Deliver compressions straight down.
                       C.      Place shoulders directly over your hands.
                       D.      Fully release pressure on the patient’s sternum without lifting
                               hands from patient.

________ 48.           When joining CPR in progress, allow the first rescuer to complete a
                       cycle of: (1033)
                       A.      15   compressions   and   1   ventilation.
                       B.      15   compressions   and   2   ventilations.
                       C.      30   compressions   and   1   ventilation.
                       D.      30   compressions   and   2   ventilations.

Objective 18:
Describe the CPR techniques for an infant patient.
________ 49.           What ages are considered an infant patient? (1035)
                       A.      Birth-1 year
                       B.      Birth-2 years
                       C.      1-2 years
                       D.      1-3 years

________ 50.           What is the compression rate for a newborn? (1036)
                       A.      80/minute
                       B.      100/minute
                       C.      120/minute
                       D.      150/minute

________ 51.           What is the compressions-to-ventilations ratio for a newborn? (1036)
                       A.      3:1
                       B.      15:2
                       C.      30:1
                       D.      30:2




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Oklahoma State University                                                                         21-11
Firefighter I                                    Basic Pre-Hospital Emergency Medical Care for Firefighters



Objective 19:
Describe the CPR techniques for a child patient.
________ 52.           What ages are considered a child patient? (1036)
                       A.      Birth-1 year
                       B.      1-3 years
                       C.      1-8 years
                       D.      1 year - puberty

________ 53.           What is the compression depth for a child patient? (1036)
                       A.      1/3 to ½ depth of chest
                       B.      ½ to ¾ depth of chest
                       C.      1½ to 2 inches
                       D.      2 to 4 inches

________ 54.           When working alone on a child patient, call 9-1-1 after: (1036)
                       A.      2 minutes of resuscitation.
                       B.      5 minutes of resuscitation.
                       C.      determining pulselessness.
                       D.      determining unresponsiveness.

Objective 20:
Describe the CPR techniques for an adult patient.
________ 55.           What is the compression depth for an adult patient? (1036)
                       A.      1/3 to ½ depth of chest
                       B.      ½ to ¾ depth of chest
                       C.      1½ to 2 inches
                       D.      2 to 4 inches

________ 56.           What is the compression rate for an adult patient? (1036)
                       A.      80/minute
                       B.      100/minute
                       C.      120/minute
                       D.      150/minute

________ 57.           Where is the pulse check location for an adult patient? (1036)
                       A.      Radial artery
                       B.      Brachial artery
                       C.      Carotid artery
                       D.      Femoral artery


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Oklahoma State University                                                                           21-12
Firefighter I                                   Basic Pre-Hospital Emergency Medical Care for Firefighters



Objective 21:
Discuss indications of effective CPR and when CPR may be
interrupted.
________ 58.           Which of the following is NOT an indication of effective CPR? (1035-
                       1036)
                       A.      Carotid pulse
                       B.      Dilated pupils
                       C.      Exhalation of air
                       D.      Spontaneous heartbeat

________ 59.           Which of the following is NOT a reason to interrupt CPR? (1036)
                       A.      To   allow for defibrillation
                       B.      To   move patient onto a stretcher
                       C.      To   suction vomitus or airway obstructions
                       D.      To   move patient to a more convenient location

Objective 22:
Summarize when not to begin or to terminate CPR.
________ 60.           Which of the following is a reason not to begin or to terminate CPR?
                       (1037)
                       A.      Pulselessness
                       B.      Constricted pupils
                       C.      Obvious mortal wounds
                       D.      Apnea

________ 61.           Which of the following is NOT a reason to stop CPR once you have
                       already started? (1037)
                       A.      Spontaneous circulation occurs
                       B.      Another trained rescuer can take over
                       C.      You receive a “no CPR” order from a physician
                       D.      If you have been working alone for more than 10 minutes




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Oklahoma State University                                                                          21-13
Firefighter I                                 Basic Pre-Hospital Emergency Medical Care for Firefighters



Objective 23:
Summarize actions taken when clearing an airway obstruction.
________ 62.           Which type of airway obstruction occurs if the patient can speak or
                       cough? (1038)
                       A.      Total
                       B.      Partial
                       C.      Severe
                       D.      Complete

________ 63.           Which procedure should be used for an unconscious adult or child
                       with an airway obstruction? (1039)
                       A.      Chest thrusts
                       B.      Perform CPR
                       C.      Head-tilt, jaw-thrust
                       D.      Series of 5 back blows and 5 chest thrusts

________ 64.           What procedure should be used for a conscious infant with an airway
                       obstruction? (1039)
                       A.      Chest thrusts
                       B.      Perform CPR
                       C.      Abdominal thrusts
                       D.      Series of 5 back blows and 5 chest thrusts

Objective 24:
Describe the main components of the circulatory system.
________ 65.           Which component of the circulatory system pumps blood? (1041)
                       A.      Vein
                       B.      Heart
                       C.      Artery
                       D.      Capillary

________ 66.           Which component of the circulatory system takes blood from the
                       arteries? (1041)
                       A.      Vein
                       B.      Heart
                       C.      Capillary
                       D.      Blood vessel




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Firefighter I                                  Basic Pre-Hospital Emergency Medical Care for Firefighters



Objective 25:
Differentiate between arterial, venous, and capillary bleeding.
________ 67.           Which type of bleeding is bright red in color? (1042)
                       A.      Arterial bleeding
                       B.      Venous bleeding
                       C.      Capillary bleeding
                       D.      Pulmonary bleeding

________ 68.           Which type of bleeding is usually somewhere between bright red and
                       dark red? (1043)
                       A.      Arterial bleeding
                       B.      Venous bleeding
                       C.      Capillary bleeding
                       D.      Pulmonary bleeding

________ 69.           Which type of bleeding has a steady flow and is usually easy to
                       control? (1042)
                       A.      Arterial bleeding
                       B.      Venous bleeding
                       C.      Capillary bleeding
                       D.      Pulmonary bleeding

Objective 26:
Describe the steps for controlling external bleeding.
________ 70.           Which is the most common and effective way to control external
                       bleeding? (1044)
                       A.      Elevation
                       B.      Direct pressure
                       C.      Pressure points
                       D.      Prompt transport

________ 71.           When should pressure points be used? (1045)
                       A.      Only in cases of head injury
                       B.      Only if alone and EMS services are not nearby
                       C.      Before attempting direct pressure and elevation
                       D.      Only after direct pressure and elevation have failed




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Oklahoma State University                                                                         21-15
Firefighter I                                   Basic Pre-Hospital Emergency Medical Care for Firefighters




________ 72.           What should be done if cerebrospinal fluid is leaking from a patient’s
                       ears or nose? (1047-1048)
                       A.      Allow the drainage to flow freely.
                       B.      Provide suction of the leaking fluid.
                       C.      Stop the leaking and bleeding immediately.
                       D.      Apply direct pressure to the fleshy portion around the nostrils.

Objective 27:
Discuss internal bleeding.
________ 73.           Which of the following is NOT a sign of internal bleeding? (1049)
                       A.      A tender or rigid abdomen
                       B.      Painful or swollen extremities
                       C.      Bruising or swelling over vital organs
                       D.      Leaking of clear fluid from the nose or ears

________ 74.           Which of the following statements about internal bleeding is MOST
                       accurate? (1048)
                       A.      Internal   bleeding   most often occurs to the extremities.
                       B.      Internal   bleeding   is bleeding that occurs outside the body.
                       C.      Internal   bleeding   can easily be seen by trained professionals.
                       D.      Internal   bleeding   can be caused by blunt or penetrating trauma.

Objective 28:
Describe types of shock.
________ 75.           Which type of shock is the type most commonly seen by EMT-Bs?
                       (1051)
                       A.      Shock
                       B.      Cardiogenic shock
                       C.      Hypovolemic shock
                       D.      Neurogenic/vasodilatory shock

________ 76.           Which type of shock results from the uncontrolled dilation of blood
                       vessels due to nerve paralysis caused by spinal cord injuries? (1051)
                       A.      Shock
                       B.      Cardiogenic shock
                       C.      Hypovolemic shock
                       D.      Neurogenic/vasodilatory shock




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Oklahoma State University                                                                          21-16
Firefighter I                                 Basic Pre-Hospital Emergency Medical Care for Firefighters


________ 77.           Which type of shock may be caused by burns or crush injuries?
                       (1051)
                       A.      Shock
                       B.      Cardiogenic shock
                       C.      Hypovolemic shock
                       D.      Neurogenic/vasodilatory shock

Objective 29:
Describe the signs of shock.
________ 78.           Which sign of shock is caused by deprivation of oxygen? (1052)
                       A.      Vital sign changes
                       B.      Nausea and vomiting
                       C.      Altered mental status
                       D.      Pale, cool, clammy skin

________ 79.           When in shock, what will happen to vital signs? (1052)
                       A.      Pulse and respirations decrease.
                       B.      Respirations and blood pressure increase.
                       C.      Blood pressure increases while the pulse decreases.
                       D.      The pulse will increase while blood pressure decreases.

Objective 30:
Describe the steps for managing shock.
________ 80.           Which of the following is a step for managing shock? (1053)
                       A.      Maintain an open airway.
                       B.      Administer IV drugs if trained to do so.
                       C.      Control internal bleeding as well as possible.
                       D.      Decrease body heat by applying cool compresses.




Fire Protection Publications                                                               Chapter Test
Oklahoma State University                                                                        21-17

				
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