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The Second Vatican Council


									                      The Second Vatican Council
         THE SECOND VATICAN COUNCIL – By Fr. John O’Malley, S.J., Ph.D.
               LECTURE NOTES – By Dr. Walter A. Marshaleck, Jr. Ed. D
                     “The Best way to learn is to prepare to teach”

MONTH ONE - WEEK ONE:                     ”Ecumenical Councils Background”

WEEK TWO:                                 ”Ecumenical Councils Background Continued”

WEEK THREE:                               ”Welcome to Vatican Two”

WEEK FOUR:                                ”Documents and Issues”

MONTH TWO - WEEK FIVE:                    ”The Prior Long 19th Century”

WEEK SIX:                                 ”The Council Opens”

WEEK SEVEN:                               ”The Incomplete First Session - 1962”

WEEK EIGHT:                               ”The Second Session – 1963”

MONTH THREE - WEEK NINE:                  ”The Second Session – Continued”

WEEK TEN:                                 ”The Third Session – 1964”

WEEK ELEVEN:                              ”The Third Session – Continued”

WEEK TWELVE:                              ”The Third Session – Not the End”

MONTH FOUR – WEEK THIRTEEN                “The Fourth Session – 1965”

WEEK FOURTEEN:                            “What was this & What will it become?”

Instructions for each days study.
                                  1. Review the “Why Study?
                             2. Review the previous days reading.
                         3. Read the daily portion slowly three times.
                                  4. Recite the prayer slowly.
                5. Make up several questions about the passage and answer them.
                                   6. Give yourself to Christ.
                                 7. Go about your daily tasks.

  Dr. Walter A. MARSHALECK, Ed.D.    Lecture Notes on The Second Vatican Council   Page 1 of 9
                     The Second Vatican Council
MONTH THREE - WEEK NINE: ” The Second Session – Continued”
Why Study? Because: Problems, there were many. Answers, there were few. Yet, somehow, it
was solved and readied for the Third Session. What can be learned?

   1- (MONDAY) Pope Paul did intervene. The ballots were actually burned.
      What was the reason? We can only guess, because History offers no answer.
      But, somehow, the problems are confronted and solutions are found.
      ANOTHER, special commission is set up!
      They finally agreed that a vote was actually necessary in order to determine the issues.
      Therefore, the ballots are recreated and reprinted this time with five questions:
      (1) The Ordination of Bishops, (2) The Permanent Deacon, and
          (3-4-5) Three questions dealing with “Collegiality”.

   2- (TUESDAY) Votes were taken on each of the questions and to everyone’s surprise,
      there was overwhelming affirmative to all of the questions
      at an average of eighty-seven percent.
      It became clear that there was actually a majority present.
      Even the negative responses never disclaimed the leadership of the Pope.
      Pope Paul was going to be more active than Pope John
      and the power of the Moderating Commission was going to be reduced.
      But, questions continued to be asked.
      Are the Bishops, as a body in union with the Pontiff, supreme?
      And is this power bestowed by “ordination” or “delegation”?
      The Council was split on Mary as co-redemptress and the Mother of the Church;
      Therefore, those questions were not asked.
      Are the people of God ahead of the Hierarchy?
      Is the call to Holiness, Universal?
      Is the Heavenly Church and the Earthly Church the same?
      Is Mary important to the Church?

   3- (WEDNESDAY) The Document on the Bishops did not mention authority.
      It did, however, include 37 paragraphs on procedures, collegiality, diocese boundaries,
      competence, Episcopal Conferences, etc.
      It was accepted as a base text; but, as needing repair.
      What was the relationship between Rome and the Bishops?
      The Church should be governed by Peter and the successor of the Apostles,
      and not by the “Curia” was the answer.
      Some very radical solutions were offered.
      Who is in charge became a dividing issue.
      So, the Pope expanded the commissions. Solutions were hard to find.
      More votes were taken. So much negativism ended the discussion on the Bishops.
      It was agreed to continue on to the other subjects.

  Dr. Walter A. MARSHALECK, Ed.D.     Lecture Notes on The Second Vatican Council    Page 2 of 9
                    The Second Vatican Council
     4- (THURSDAY) As the subjects expanded, the negativism was reduced.
     Now the questions were about how to involve non-Catholic
     and non-Christian religions in the “Light of Christ”.
     Questions about unity were being considered.
     How can Christians be as one, just like Jesus prayed to the Father?
     What actions were OK and what actions were not OK?
     As the questions were being asked, the attitude of the Council was changing.
     It was a change of heart, a move toward holiness, a working together,
     a discussion of our differences, and an acknowledgement of our past faults.
     Maybe there is hope after all.
     Questions about the Hierarchy of Doctrine were discussed.
     Is the Doctrine of the Trinity higher than the Doctrine of the Authority of the Church?
     Is common worship appropriate and under what conditions?
     Attending a funeral or a wedding is now acceptable!
     The movement to move toward each other has begun.

     5-(FRIDAY) The non-Christian issues, especially of the Jews were discussed.
     It became clear that these discussions would be on religious not political matters.
     The questions became related to “Religious Liberty”. Freedom of the Press, Freedom of
     Religion, Individual Choice, and respect for each other became the issues.
     As time for the Council came to an end,
     the Pope agreed that another session was necessary.
     But, he advised that this session should be the last session.
     In his closing remarks, the Pope announced his plans for a visit to Jerusalem.
     No Pope had ever done this. A silent answer lasted for a few moments;
     then, thunderous applause erupted. The Council was ready for the next session.
     During this time of preparation, the Bishops met with each other
     and the Pope met with the Patriarchs in the Holy Land.
     The Pope, the Curia, and the Bishops were working on the plans for the third session.
     Negativism was still there; but, there was also a new spirit.

                                      Ending Prayer:
                             “Make my … imitate Christ’s ...”
                                  HEART, LOVE OF OTHERS,
                             USE OF WORDS, ORDER OF LOVE,
                             HUMILITY, EVALUATION OF ME.

Dr. Walter A. MARSHALECK, Ed.D.      Lecture Notes on The Second Vatican Council     Page 3 of 9
                     The Second Vatican Council
WEEK TEN: ”The Third Session - 1964”
Why Study? Because: Change occurs slowly. The Third Session is rocked with controversy.
But, it manages to establish a central issue, The Church in the Modern World.

   1- (MONDAY) The time between sessions was filled with activity.
      All parties continued to be very active in the preparation for the next session.
      Documents had to be prepared. And it was hoped that if the planning was well done,
      then, this would be the last session. So, the preparation centered on the final product.
      An idea came forward and was accepted. Let us limit the documents to six.
      The limit did not materialize in the end;
      but, it limited the third session to remain focused.
      The six were: 1- The Church, 2- Bishop’s, 3- Revelation, i.e. Scripture and Tradition,
      4- The Laity, 5- Ecumenism, and 6- The Modern World.

   2- (TUESDAY) Some agreed; but, most wanted to include other issues as well.
      Chapter 3, of “The Church” based on Collegiality ran into sever resistance.
      The issues became so disruptive, that the Pope offered “Thirteen” suggestions.
      The committee was stunned. Does this mean that the Pope has taken charge?
      The Pope clarified that his suggestions were just that,
      suggestions only and had no authority attached.
      Twenty-five Cardinals sent a message to the Pope.
      “Collegiality” is a dangerous path against our and your authority they indicated.
      The responses from the Bishops were sharp and divisive.
      Now the voting majority was not assured.

   3- (WEDNESDAY) Pope Paul answered, that it is fully necessary to have faith
      with both the Council Fathers and with each other.
      The Pope then wrote his own Encyclical about the Church that clarified the issue.
      Full liberty of the Council was acknowledged; but, powerful suggestions were included.
      The Council was opened with a very elaborate ceremony.
      The Pope celebrated mass with nineteen other celebrants from nineteen countries.
      The Pope’s Homily was very long and specific.
      The first day two documents were passed by a majority vote.
      However, there was so much demand that these documents be reopened.
      New arguments were presented and a compromise on four presentations was passed.
      The Bishops remained committed to collegiality and voted on 39 alternative wordings.

  Dr. Walter A. MARSHALECK, Ed.D.      Lecture Notes on The Second Vatican Council   Page 4 of 9
                   The Second Vatican Council
 4- (THUESDAY) After many votes the document on “The Church” passes with a very large
    majority. This document also revised the Deaconate.
    The Bishop’s authority was revised several times.
    A recommendation that a body be formed to represent the Bishops was also discussed.
    Heated discussion lasted for four days; however, in the end,
    the authority of the Bishops remained protected in their diocese by a large majority.
    A very detailed portrait of a Bishop as a “Listening Servant Leader” was included.
    The next document “Religious Liberty” also had political backlash.
    The rights of the individual and human dignity were stressed.
    The teaching finally became,
    “Since humans are made in the likeness of God, they are called to seek and follow God
    as their conscience makes clear”. The “Act of Faith” must be free.
    The text was changed daily in order to receive the required 2/3 rd majority.

 5- (FRIDAY) The commission was under continuous stress to gain the required majority.
    So many changes were being considered that sometimes a change
    in one word was all it took. It was not an easy task for anyone.
    The paper-work was massive.
    But, in the end the result was enriching.
    The understanding of God’s Church improved.
    The next document was on the Jews and non-Christians.
    It was the most controversial; but, had the largest impact.
    Let’s look at this document carefully in the next lesson.

                                    Ending Prayer:
                                    “May the … ….”
                            LOVE OF GOD / MOVE WITHIN US,
                         BODY OF CHRIST / LIVE IN OUR HEARTS ,

Dr. Walter A. MARSHALECK, Ed.D.    Lecture Notes on The Second Vatican Council   Page 5 of 9
                      The Second Vatican Council
WEEK ELEVEN: ”The Third Session, Continued”
Why Study? Because: The Church needed to change; but, change is always difficult. The
aftermath of the War, the rise of the Muslims, the Jewish State, the decline of vocations, the
rise of Laity responsibilities, and the vast differences of opinion needed to be resolved.
   1- (MONDAY) The next document to be debated was the “Non-Christian Document”.
      It had great Public interest, but was filled with controversial issues.
      Some wanted it to be removed or moved to the document on the Church.
      The basic question, “Were the Jewish people responsible for the death of Christ?
      This Document was not to be a political document.
      However, it was very difficult to keep it non-political.
      Truth and Justice were to be the only issues.
      Jewish-Christian Groups had already begun the debate.
      In 1955, a priest in Seaton Hall, NJ founded “The Institute of Judea-Christian Studies”.
      It produced a publication called “The Bridge”.

   2- (TUESDAY) The “World Jewish Council” attended the Council as invited guests.
      Several Bishops had concern over the safety of their people in Arab States.
      The debate over the Document was so heavy that the document was almost cancelled.
       It became impossible not to discuss the political issues.
      A basic statement was created,
      “The Church accepts all that is holy and true from the Jewish Scriptures.
      Those who believe in the Jewish faith are God’s chosen people.
      Jews are not cursed, but the leaders did give Christ over to suffer.
      The people are not responsible for this act of their leaders.

   3- (WEDNESDAY) The speeches were many.
      Some demanded that the Jews must admit that they unjustly condemned Christ.
      Others prayed that God would remove the veil from their eyes.
      Some said that we did not do enough to protect them during the War.
      Others demanded that the Jews need to love us.
      Some complained that the Jews started and promoted “Freemasonry”.
      Others said that the other religions must also be included.
      A basic text was accepted; but, Pope Paul wanted it revisited.
      Agreement was difficult to find. Even arguments over procedures took days.
      After the Pope’s instructions, the disagreements settled.
      Progress continued; but, the discussion now turned to the other documents.

  Dr. Walter A. MARSHALECK, Ed.D.       Lecture Notes on The Second Vatican Council    Page 6 of 9
                   The Second Vatican Council
 4- (THURSDAY) The next document to be debated was the Document on Revelation.
    Revelation was defined as both “Scripture” and “Tradition”.
    Revelation is the manifestation of God Himself in Jesus Christ.
    It is the “Words” and “Deeds” of God. It is the “Fullness” of Truth.
    They reviewed the Council of Trent, and began the debate over technical issues.
    Then they moved to the Document on the Laity.
    The Laity are not simply in the Church. They are the Church.
    The Document then called for special training for those functions reserved for the laity.
    Those functions reserved for the priest-hood remained the same.
    Priests must obey; but also, the laity when functioning in a ministry must obey as well.
    They both remained under the authority of the Bishop.
    The debate lasted for several days.
 5- (FRIDAY) The next Document was “The Church”.
    The Eastern Church was guaranteed their own Rites and Discipline.
    The Orthodox Church was not required to change any of its rituals.
    They were invited to accept the Roman Church and to come as they are.
    The Orthodox Rites, Liturgy, and Traditions would remain the same.
    The Document on “The Church” subsection on “The Priest” was scheduled for reduction.
    After debate it remained fully intact.
    The section on “The Priest” discussed the lack of vocations, the call to holiness,
    the ideal priest, and celibacy. The Council decided to make the debate private;
    but, they still needed public agreement.
    The Married Deaconate was approved; but, celibacy of the priest was off the table.
    The matter was not resolved and was continued for the next session.
    However, they did approve a portrait of the ideal priest and Bishop.
    The priest is to be the “Listening Servant Leader”.
    The priest is “prophet, priest, and king”.
    And all Christians share in this Kingship.

                                     Ending Prayer:
                                      “Help us ….”
                          LOVE GOD WITH OUR WHOLE HEART,
                           LOVE GOD WITH OUR WHOLE SOUL,
                        LOVE GOD WITH OUR WHOLE STRENGTH.

Dr. Walter A. MARSHALECK, Ed.D.     Lecture Notes on The Second Vatican Council    Page 7 of 9
                     The Second Vatican Council
WEEK TWELVE: ”The Third Session – Not the End”
Why Study? Because: Change is always difficult. It is hard to get everyone to agree.
Disagreement seems to be the nature of Mankind. This was expected to be the last session;
yet, it is not. Why was this so difficult?
   1- (MONDAY) The final weeks were scheduled for voting.
      The Church in the Modern World was first.
      Note the title uses the word “in” instead of “against”.
      The debate lasted weeks. Any hope of concluding had disappeared.
      Most of the addresses were on the problems outside the Church.
      Most chose “Dialogue” as the preferred operation with the World.
      There were four major chapters that laid down principles:
      The Human Vocation, The Call of God, The Church in Service,
      and The Responsibilities of Christians.
      Five appendices were added: The Human Person in Society, Marriage and the Family,
      The Promotion of Culture, The Economic Issues, and Human Peace.
      This document ended up as Parts One and Two.
   2- (TUESDAY) The dignity of the human is central in this document.
      The Churches first duty is to preach the Gospel; but also, to be of service to mankind.
      The relationship between the Church and the World is ordained by God.
      The Church teaches the World and learns from the World.
      As the debate opens, it is generally positive.
      Then, the opposition complained that it did not stress the “Mystery of the Cross”.
      Sin and its consequences must be included. It becomes a German vs. French debate.
      Prior to Christ the World was corrupt. After Christ the World can become holy.
      Cardinal Ratzinger was then appointed to the council in order to settle issues.
      One issue that had total agreement was “Nuclear Disarmament”.
   3- (WEDNESDAY) Now they began to deal with Marriage and the Family.
      The issue of “Birth Control” was highly contested.
      Pope Pius XI had already issued a decree in 1931 that forbad birth control.
      Therefore, a commission was established just for the study of this issue.
      Debate was declared off the table, only study was allowed.
      Most understood that modern research needs to be consulted.
      An important Cardinal cautioned not to have another Galileo case.
      The Pope intervened and a week later the Cardinal retracted his statement.
      The Commission Moderators began felling outside the loop.
      Therefore, they turned to the next subject, missions.

  Dr. Walter A. MARSHALECK, Ed.D.      Lecture Notes on The Second Vatican Council    Page 8 of 9
                   The Second Vatican Council
 4- (THURSDAY) The Mission Statement needed to be revised.
    But, the Council began feeling confused. Does some of it need revision, or all of it?
    Therefore, they set all areas for revision. Some were calling for a totally new document.
    The relationship between the Pope and the Council deteriorated.
    The Bishops then declared the right to control their own diocese.
    Thus started the last week, “The Black Week” began.
    There would be no discussions, only voting.
    The Pope then made three interventions. This set the Council in disagreement.
    Even, some brand new documents, never discussed, were submitted for vote.
    The Bishops wanted to postpone all voting. Tempers rose.
    Changes in procedures were made.
    At the last moment, the Pope submitted several suggestions.
    They passed, but under great stress.
    The Pope then offered his explanation of “Collegiality”.
    New arguments broke out. The vote was delayed.
 5- (FRIDAY) Only three Documents were completed:
    “The Church”, “Ecumenism”, and “The Eastern Catholic Church”.
    “The Liturgy” and “The Mass Media” were completed in the second Session.
    Now the closing ceremony.
    The Pope spoke, declaring no character of the Church is changed.
    He affirmed the “Monarchal” character not the “Collegial” character.
    Then he declares Mary as “The Mother of the Church” instead of “The Perfect Member”.
    Some Bishops refused to acknowledge the Pope’s remarks by not clapping.
    Questions about the fourth sessions being the last, ended this session.

                                      Ending Prayer:
                                    “May our … be ….”
                                   STUDIES / FRUITFUL,
                                  CHOICES / GOD CHOSEN,
                                    LIVES / IMPROVED,
                            UNDERSTANDING / ENLIGHTENED,
                              DESIRES / DIRECTED BY GOD,
                            HEART’S DESIRE / FOR ONLY THEE

Dr. Walter A. MARSHALECK, Ed.D.      Lecture Notes on The Second Vatican Council   Page 9 of 9

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