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Toxicity Powered By Docstoc
  Foods, Plants, and Organisms
    that can harm your pets

   Daniel Mosquera
Companion Animal Biology
• : containing or being poisonous material
  especially when capable of causing death or
  serious injury
• : exhibiting symptoms of infection or
• : extremely harsh, malicious, or harmful
• Essential oils and psoralens

• Clinical Signs: Vomiting, diarrhea, depression;
  potential photosensitivity

• Citrus has high acidity levels and dogs’
  stomachs are set up to digest meat, already
  high acidic.
• alcohol has the same effect on a dog's liver and
  brain that it has on humans.
• Takes far less to do its damage.
• Causes vomiting, diarrhea, central nervous
  system depression, problems with coordination,
  difficulty breathing, coma, even death.
• The smaller the dog, the greater the effect.
• Avocados contain a substance called persin.

• Causes your dog to vomit and have diarrhea.

• Persin is in the leaves, seed, and bark, as well
  as in the fruit.
            ONIONS & GARLIC
• All forms - powdered, raw, cooked, or
  dehydrated - can destroy a dog's red blood cells,
  leading to anemia.
• An occasional small dose is probably OK. But
  just eating a large quantity once or eating
  smaller amounts regularly can cause onion
• Breaks down red blood cells because of
• Symptoms include vomiting, diarrhea, little
  interest in food, dullness, and breathlessness.
• Caffeine in large enough quantities can be fatal
  for a dog.
• NO antidote.
• Symptoms of caffeine poisoning include
  restlessness, rapid breathing, heart palpitations,
  muscle tremors, fits, and bleeding.
• In addition to tea and coffee - including beans
  and grounds - caffeine can be found in cocoa,
  chocolate, colas, and stimulant drinks such as
  Red Bull. It's also in some cold medicines and
  pain killers.
• Grapes and raisins have often been used as
  treats for dogs.
• Grapes and raisins can cause kidney failure in
  dogs. And, just a small amount can make a dog
• Repeated vomiting and being hyperactive are
  early signs. Within a day, the dog will become
  lethargic and depressed.
• The best prevention is to keep grapes and raisins
  off counters and other places your dog can
• Milk and milk-based products can cause
  diarrhea and other digestive upset as well as
  set up food allergies (which often manifest as
• Dogs should not eat nuts or foods containing
  nuts because nuts can be fatal.
• As few as 6 raw or roasted macadamia nuts can
  make a dog ill.
• Symptoms of poisoning include muscle tremors,
  weakness or paralysis of the hindquarters,
  vomiting, elevated body temperature, and rapid
  heart rate.
• Eating chocolate with the nuts will make
  symptoms worse, leading to possible kidney
  failure and death.
               Candy & Gum
• Candy, gum, toothpaste, baked goods, and some
  diet foods are sweetened with xylitol.
• Xylitol can cause an increase in the insulin
  circulating through your dog's body.
• That can cause your dog's blood sugar to drop
  and lead to liver failure.
• Initial symptoms include vomiting, lethargy, and
  loss of coordination.
• Eventually, the dog may have seizures, and liver
  failure can occur within just a few days.
• The toxic agent in chocolate is theobromine. It's
  in all kinds of chocolate, even white chocolate.
• The most dangerous kinds, though, are dark
  chocolate and unsweetened baking chocolate.
• Eating chocolate, even just licking out the icing
  bowl, can cause a dog to vomit, have diarrhea,
  and be excessively thirsty.
• It can also cause abnormal heart rhythm,
  tremors, seizures, and death.
• Table scraps often contain meat fat that a
  human didn't eat and bones.
• Both are dangerous for dogs. Fat trimmed
  from meat, both cooked and uncooked, can
  cause pancreatitis in dogs.
• A dog can choke on it. Bones can also splinter
  and cause an obstruction or lacerations of
  your dog's digestive system.
           PEACHES & PLUMS
• The problem with these fruits is the seeds or
• The seeds from persimmons can cause
  inflammation of the small intestine in dogs.
• They can also cause intestinal obstruction.
  Obstruction is also a possibility if a dog eats
  the pit from a peach or plum.
• Peach and plum pits contain cyanide, which is
  poisonous to both humans and dogs.
• Two problems with giving your dog raw eggs:
  – The first is the possibility of food poisoning from
    bacteria like Salmonella or E. coli.
  – The second is that an enzyme in raw eggs
    interferes with the absorption of a particular B
    vitamin. This can cause skin problems as well as
    problems with your dog's coat.
             Raw Meat & Fish
• Raw meat and raw fish, like raw eggs, can
  contain bacteria that causes food poisoning.
• In addition, certain kinds of fish such as salmon,
  trout, shad, or sturgeon can contain a parasite
  that causes "fish disease."
• If not treated, the disease can be fatal within 2
• The first signs of illness are vomiting, fever, and
  big lymph nodes. Thoroughly cooking the fish
  will kill the parasite and protect your dog.
• Eating too much salt can cause excessive
  thirst and urination and lead to sodium ion
• Symptoms of too much salt include vomiting,
  diarrhea, depression, tremors, elevated body
  temperature, and seizures.
• It may even cause death.
              YEAST DOUGH
• Before it's baked, bread dough needs to rise.
  And, that's exactly what it would do in your
  dog's stomach if your dog ate it.
• As it swells inside, the dough can stretch the
  dog's abdomen and cause severe pain.
• In addition, when the yeast ferments the
  dough to make it rise, it produces alcohol
  that can lead to alcohol poisoning.
                 BUFO TOAD
• Common poinsoning in Florida dogs is poisoning from
  Bufo marinus, the giant or cane toad.
• This species of toad produces a pasty yellow-
  white toxin in the parotid glands, which extend from
  the head backward over the shoulder region and is
  released through pinhole openings in the
• When a dog mouths or bites a Bufo toad the toxin is
  released and rapidly absorbed across the mucus
  membranes of the mouth.
              BUFO SYMPTOMS
• Symptoms :
  – occur suddenly
  – may include:
    •   profuse salivation
    •   vocalizing and pawing at the mouth
    •   brick-red gums
    •   uncoordination or a stiff gait
    •   difficulty breathing and the intoxication can
        rapidly progress to seizures and death.
            BUFO SYMPTOMS
• The severity of the poisoning depends on the
  size of the dog and the amount of toxin
  absorbed into the blood stream.
• Puppies and small breed dogs such as
  Dachshunds, Mini-Pins, Jack Russell Terriers and
  miniature Schnauzers are more seriously
  affected because they get "more poison per
  pound" than a large breed dog.
             BUFO TREATMENT
• IMMEDIATELY rinse the dog’s mouth out with a large
  amount of water.
• Rinse the mouth from side to side. DO NOT DROWN
  toxin is very sticky and may need to be gently rubbed off
  of the mucus membranes of the mouth.
• Be very careful so as not to get bitten by your pet. Even
  the gentlest animal may bite if it is scared, in pain or
  having a
• Transport to veterinary care
•    Black Widows
•    Centipedes
•    Wasps
•    Scorpion
•   All secrete toxins with bites that will attack
    when agitated.
• Best thing to do indentify the bug responsible
  for the attack.

• There are various courses of treatments can
  be administered with antidotes to stop
  swelling and spread of toxins.

• Supportive care
• Entire plant, Cardiotoxic.
• Can affect the heart, produce vomiting,
  drooling, diarrhea, weakness and central
  nervous system depression.
• Severe cases could lead to death from
  cardiovascular collapse.
            TOMATO PLANTS
• Tomato plants are also poisonous plants for
  dogs. Eating the green parts of the plants, (the
  stems and leaves), can cause many problems.
• Solanine – breaks down mitochondria.
• Some symptoms that your dog has eaten tomato
  plants are abnormal behavior, clumsiness,
  diarrhea, dilated pupils, drowsiness, excessive
  salivating, fatigue, loss of appetite, slow
  heartbeat, vomiting, and weakness.
• Most every garden has daisies or
  chrysanthemums. They contain pyrethins and
• Irritants that cause diarrhea, drooling, skin
  rashes and vomiting.
            HOLIDAY PLANTS
• Holly (leaves and berries) causes upset
  stomach and can be potentially fatal to both
  dogs and cats.
• Mistletoe upsets the stomach and can cause
  heart collapse, while hibiscus may cause
• Poinsettias have an irritating sap that can
  cause blistering in the mouth and upset
• Common car and house product
• It is the toxin ethylene glycol that makes
  antifreeze lethal. Because of this, dogs will
  consume great quantities of ethylene glycol
  before being repulsed by its aftertaste.
• It does not take a significant amount of ethylene
  glycol to cause fatal damage to the system; less
  than three ounces (or 88 ml) of antifreeze is
  sufficient to poison a medium-sized dog.
• Anti-freeze poisoning affects the brain, liver, and
•   Drunken behavior
•   Euphoria/Delirium
•   Wobbly, uncoordinated movement
•   Nausea/Vomiting
•   Excessive urination
•   Diarrhea
•   Rapid heart beat
•   Depression
•   Weakness
•   Seizures/Convulsions/Shaking tremors
•   Fainting
•   Coma
• Veterinarian will do full exam including
  urinalysis and a complete blood profile.
• Vomit and stool will also help the
  veterinarian determine the appropriate
  course of action.
• Induce vomiting if you are sure that the
  antifreeze was ingested with hydrogen
  peroxide solution.
• Transport to veterinarian immediately.
• Veterinarian can administer antidote.

• Dialysis is useful and affective if procedure is
  done quickly after ingestion.

• Dogs may survive but will have renal failure.
              WHAT TO DO.
• Call your local vet, the closest emergency
  clinic, and the ASPCA Animal Poison Control
  Center - (888) 426-4435

• A $65 consultation fee may be applied to
  your credit card.

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