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Toxicity

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					 TOXICITY
  Foods, Plants, and Organisms
    that can harm your pets




   Daniel Mosquera
Companion Animal Biology
                 TOXICITY
• : containing or being poisonous material
  especially when capable of causing death or
  serious injury
• : exhibiting symptoms of infection or
  toxicosis
• : extremely harsh, malicious, or harmful
                   CITRUS
• Essential oils and psoralens

• Clinical Signs: Vomiting, diarrhea, depression;
  potential photosensitivity

• Citrus has high acidity levels and dogs’
  stomachs are set up to digest meat, already
  high acidic.
                ALCOHOL
• alcohol has the same effect on a dog's liver and
  brain that it has on humans.
• Takes far less to do its damage.
• Causes vomiting, diarrhea, central nervous
  system depression, problems with coordination,
  difficulty breathing, coma, even death.
• The smaller the dog, the greater the effect.
                 AVOCADO
• Avocados contain a substance called persin.

• Causes your dog to vomit and have diarrhea.

• Persin is in the leaves, seed, and bark, as well
  as in the fruit.
            ONIONS & GARLIC
• All forms - powdered, raw, cooked, or
  dehydrated - can destroy a dog's red blood cells,
  leading to anemia.
• An occasional small dose is probably OK. But
  just eating a large quantity once or eating
  smaller amounts regularly can cause onion
  poisoning.
• Breaks down red blood cells because of
  thiosulphate.
• Symptoms include vomiting, diarrhea, little
  interest in food, dullness, and breathlessness.
                   CAFFINE
• Caffeine in large enough quantities can be fatal
  for a dog.
• NO antidote.
• Symptoms of caffeine poisoning include
  restlessness, rapid breathing, heart palpitations,
  muscle tremors, fits, and bleeding.
• In addition to tea and coffee - including beans
  and grounds - caffeine can be found in cocoa,
  chocolate, colas, and stimulant drinks such as
  Red Bull. It's also in some cold medicines and
  pain killers.
                   GRAPES
• Grapes and raisins have often been used as
  treats for dogs.
• Grapes and raisins can cause kidney failure in
  dogs. And, just a small amount can make a dog
  ill.
• Repeated vomiting and being hyperactive are
  early signs. Within a day, the dog will become
  lethargic and depressed.
• The best prevention is to keep grapes and raisins
  off counters and other places your dog can
  reach.
                   DAIRY
• Milk and milk-based products can cause
  diarrhea and other digestive upset as well as
  set up food allergies (which often manifest as
  itchiness).
          MACADAMIA NUTS
• Dogs should not eat nuts or foods containing
  nuts because nuts can be fatal.
• As few as 6 raw or roasted macadamia nuts can
  make a dog ill.
• Symptoms of poisoning include muscle tremors,
  weakness or paralysis of the hindquarters,
  vomiting, elevated body temperature, and rapid
  heart rate.
• Eating chocolate with the nuts will make
  symptoms worse, leading to possible kidney
  failure and death.
               Candy & Gum
• Candy, gum, toothpaste, baked goods, and some
  diet foods are sweetened with xylitol.
• Xylitol can cause an increase in the insulin
  circulating through your dog's body.
• That can cause your dog's blood sugar to drop
  and lead to liver failure.
• Initial symptoms include vomiting, lethargy, and
  loss of coordination.
• Eventually, the dog may have seizures, and liver
  failure can occur within just a few days.
             CHOCOLATE!!!!!!
• The toxic agent in chocolate is theobromine. It's
  in all kinds of chocolate, even white chocolate.
• The most dangerous kinds, though, are dark
  chocolate and unsweetened baking chocolate.
• Eating chocolate, even just licking out the icing
  bowl, can cause a dog to vomit, have diarrhea,
  and be excessively thirsty.
• It can also cause abnormal heart rhythm,
  tremors, seizures, and death.
     FAT TRIMMINGS & SCRAPS
• Table scraps often contain meat fat that a
  human didn't eat and bones.
• Both are dangerous for dogs. Fat trimmed
  from meat, both cooked and uncooked, can
  cause pancreatitis in dogs.
• A dog can choke on it. Bones can also splinter
  and cause an obstruction or lacerations of
  your dog's digestive system.
           PEACHES & PLUMS
• The problem with these fruits is the seeds or
  pits.
• The seeds from persimmons can cause
  inflammation of the small intestine in dogs.
• They can also cause intestinal obstruction.
  Obstruction is also a possibility if a dog eats
  the pit from a peach or plum.
• Peach and plum pits contain cyanide, which is
  poisonous to both humans and dogs.
                       EGGS
• Two problems with giving your dog raw eggs:
  – The first is the possibility of food poisoning from
    bacteria like Salmonella or E. coli.
  – The second is that an enzyme in raw eggs
    interferes with the absorption of a particular B
    vitamin. This can cause skin problems as well as
    problems with your dog's coat.
             Raw Meat & Fish
• Raw meat and raw fish, like raw eggs, can
  contain bacteria that causes food poisoning.
• In addition, certain kinds of fish such as salmon,
  trout, shad, or sturgeon can contain a parasite
  that causes "fish disease."
• If not treated, the disease can be fatal within 2
  weeks.
• The first signs of illness are vomiting, fever, and
  big lymph nodes. Thoroughly cooking the fish
  will kill the parasite and protect your dog.
                    SALT
• Eating too much salt can cause excessive
  thirst and urination and lead to sodium ion
  poisoning.
• Symptoms of too much salt include vomiting,
  diarrhea, depression, tremors, elevated body
  temperature, and seizures.
• It may even cause death.
              YEAST DOUGH
• Before it's baked, bread dough needs to rise.
  And, that's exactly what it would do in your
  dog's stomach if your dog ate it.
• As it swells inside, the dough can stretch the
  dog's abdomen and cause severe pain.
• In addition, when the yeast ferments the
  dough to make it rise, it produces alcohol
  that can lead to alcohol poisoning.
                 BUFO TOAD
• Common poinsoning in Florida dogs is poisoning from
  Bufo marinus, the giant or cane toad.
• This species of toad produces a pasty yellow-
  white toxin in the parotid glands, which extend from
  the head backward over the shoulder region and is
  released through pinhole openings in the
  skin.
• When a dog mouths or bites a Bufo toad the toxin is
  released and rapidly absorbed across the mucus
  membranes of the mouth.
              BUFO SYMPTOMS
• Symptoms :
  – occur suddenly
  – may include:
    •   profuse salivation
    •   vocalizing and pawing at the mouth
    •   brick-red gums
    •   uncoordination or a stiff gait
    •   difficulty breathing and the intoxication can
        rapidly progress to seizures and death.
            BUFO SYMPTOMS
• The severity of the poisoning depends on the
  size of the dog and the amount of toxin
  absorbed into the blood stream.
• Puppies and small breed dogs such as
  Dachshunds, Mini-Pins, Jack Russell Terriers and
  miniature Schnauzers are more seriously
  affected because they get "more poison per
  pound" than a large breed dog.
             BUFO TREATMENT
• DO NOT PANIC!!!
• IMMEDIATELY rinse the dog’s mouth out with a large
  amount of water.
• Rinse the mouth from side to side. DO NOT DROWN
  THE ANIMAL BY FORCING WATER DOWN ITS THROAT. The
  toxin is very sticky and may need to be gently rubbed off
  of the mucus membranes of the mouth.
• Be very careful so as not to get bitten by your pet. Even
  the gentlest animal may bite if it is scared, in pain or
  having a
  seizure.
• Transport to veterinary care
• NO ANTIDOTE – ONLY SUPPORTIVE CARE!
                       BUGS
•    Black Widows
•    Centipedes
•    Wasps
•    Scorpion
•   All secrete toxins with bites that will attack
    when agitated.
                    BUGS
• Best thing to do indentify the bug responsible
  for the attack.

• There are various courses of treatments can
  be administered with antidotes to stop
  swelling and spread of toxins.

• Supportive care
                  AZALEA
• Entire plant, Cardiotoxic.
• Can affect the heart, produce vomiting,
  drooling, diarrhea, weakness and central
  nervous system depression.
• Severe cases could lead to death from
  cardiovascular collapse.
            TOMATO PLANTS
• Tomato plants are also poisonous plants for
  dogs. Eating the green parts of the plants, (the
  stems and leaves), can cause many problems.
• Solanine – breaks down mitochondria.
• Some symptoms that your dog has eaten tomato
  plants are abnormal behavior, clumsiness,
  diarrhea, dilated pupils, drowsiness, excessive
  salivating, fatigue, loss of appetite, slow
  heartbeat, vomiting, and weakness.
                  DAISIES
• Most every garden has daisies or
  chrysanthemums. They contain pyrethins and
  sesquiterpene.
• Irritants that cause diarrhea, drooling, skin
  rashes and vomiting.
            HOLIDAY PLANTS
• Holly (leaves and berries) causes upset
  stomach and can be potentially fatal to both
  dogs and cats.
• Mistletoe upsets the stomach and can cause
  heart collapse, while hibiscus may cause
  diarrhea.
• Poinsettias have an irritating sap that can
  cause blistering in the mouth and upset
  stomach.
                ANTI-FREEZE
• Common car and house product
• It is the toxin ethylene glycol that makes
  antifreeze lethal. Because of this, dogs will
  consume great quantities of ethylene glycol
  before being repulsed by its aftertaste.
• It does not take a significant amount of ethylene
  glycol to cause fatal damage to the system; less
  than three ounces (or 88 ml) of antifreeze is
  sufficient to poison a medium-sized dog.
• Anti-freeze poisoning affects the brain, liver, and
  kidneys
                     ANTI-FREEZE
•   Drunken behavior
•   Euphoria/Delirium
•   Wobbly, uncoordinated movement
•   Nausea/Vomiting
•   Excessive urination
•   Diarrhea
•   Rapid heart beat
•   Depression
•   Weakness
•   Seizures/Convulsions/Shaking tremors
•   Fainting
•   Coma
               ANTI-FREEZE
• Veterinarian will do full exam including
  urinalysis and a complete blood profile.
• Vomit and stool will also help the
  veterinarian determine the appropriate
  course of action.
• Induce vomiting if you are sure that the
  antifreeze was ingested with hydrogen
  peroxide solution.
• Transport to veterinarian immediately.
                ANTI-FREEZE
• Veterinarian can administer antidote.

• Dialysis is useful and affective if procedure is
  done quickly after ingestion.

• Dogs may survive but will have renal failure.
              WHAT TO DO.
• Call your local vet, the closest emergency
  clinic, and the ASPCA Animal Poison Control
  Center - (888) 426-4435

• A $65 consultation fee may be applied to
  your credit card.

				
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posted:12/7/2011
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