Cancer+and+the+Cell+Cycle+Packet

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					                                                                Name: __________________________________

                                                                Date: _________________                   Section: ____

                             Cancer and the Cell Cycle


Use the first news alert video as an example of how to complete this chart. If you are having difficulty
understanding what is being said in the videos, click on the link entitled View Transcripts for Videos, located
under the videos. http://science.education.nih.gov/supplements/nih1/cancer/activities/activity2_videos.htm




                                                                                  1. Chimney sweeps are
                               An agent in coal tar causes cancer of              exposed to a lot of coal tar and
                               the scrotum.                                       have higher cancer rates.
                                                                                  2. Chimney sweeps are often
                                                                                  covered with coal tar and dust.




Section 2:Cancer and the Cell Cycle
http://science.education.nih.gov/supplements/nih1/cancer/activities/activity2_animations.htm
Answer the following questions by viewing the Cell Cycle Animation Videos.

1. Video 1: How is a pre-cancerous cell different from a normal cell?



2. Video 1: How do cancerous cells travel to other parts of the body?




                                                         1
3. Video 1: In your own words, explain why it is important that the rate of cell division (or
reproduction) equals the rate of cell death.



4. Video 2: Describe what happens during each of the following stages of the cell cycle.
G1:

S:

G2:

M:
5. Video 2: What controls cell division in normal, healthy tissue?



6. Video 3: What do the proteins produced by proto-oncogenes (PO) do?



7. Video 3: What do the proteins produces by tumor-suppressor genes (TS) do?



8. Video 4: What is a mutagen?



9. Video 4: Complete the following relationship.
As a chemical’s ability to cause mutation ______________________, its ability to cause
cancer __________________.

10. Video 5: Mutations may cause proto-oncogenes to turn into oncogenes. How do oncogenes cause
cancer?




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Section 3:Colon Cancer Incidence by Age
Use the graph to answer the following questions.




                                                   3
Section 4:The Mutation Simulator
1. Mutation Simulator, http://science.education.nih.gov/supplements/nih1/cancer/activities/activity3.htm
2. Click to proceed to the Flash Hit Simulator
3. Follow the directions below to Conduct Your First Run
4. Complete the chart below and answer the questions that follow.

     Note: Each “Hit” represents a mutation (or error) in the DNA code. As we
     learned in the cell-cycle video #4, there is a clear link between DNA mutations
     and cancer. During the first run you will set the number of hits required for
     cancer equal to 1. This represents the worst case scenario, where one single DNA
     mutation causes cancer.




              Hits = Mutations
             Required for Cancer




                                         First Run Data

                                                   4
1. What is the independent variable for the first run?


2. What is the dependent variable for the first run?


3. How does the incidence of cancer change as you require a greater number of hits (mutations) for a
cell to become cancerous?




4. Recall the graph of the incidence of colon cancer that you observed at the beginning of this activity.
Did the incidence of cancer in any of the trials you just completed match the incidence of cancer
recorded in that graph? Explain your answer.




                                            The mutation rate represents the
                                           portion of the population that will
                                         experience a cancer-causing mutation




                                         Second Run Data
     Note: Multiply by the mutation rate by 100 to obtain a percent. This number
     represents the percentage of people who5will experience a cancer-causing
     mutation.
5. What is the independent variable for the second run?


6. What is the dependent variable for the second run?


7. How does the incidence of cancer change as the mutation rate increases?




8. Recall the graph of the incidence of colon cancer that you observed at the beginning of this activity.
Did the incidence of cancer in any of the trials you just completed match the incidence of cancer
recorded in the graph? Explain your answer.




9. Using your data from both your first and second runs, predict the “number of hits” and “mutation
rate” that will put an individual at the greatest risk for cancer. (Provide exact numbers for both
categories.)




10. What age group is at the greatest risk for cancer? Using what you know about the cell cycle,
explain why older people are at a much greater risk for cancer.




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