7th Grade Syllabus - ClassJump

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					Mr. Levine‟s 7th Grade American History Class

Unit 1: Our Colonial Heritage-Beginnings to 1783

Chapter 1: The World before the Opening of the Atlantic

New York State Social Studies Standards: (2) World History (3) Geography (4) Economics (5)
Civics, Citizenship and Government
Content Objectives: Students will be able to:
   (1) Describe the role played by geography in the development of early cultures in the
   (2) Describe the cultures of the peoples who lived in the Americas before the arrival of
   (3) List and locate on the map the American culture areas.
   (4) Describe live in medieval Europe.
   (5) Discuss how religion contributed to the economic and social development of the
       medieval world.
   (6) Describe how trade influenced life and relations in the medieval world

       1. The Earliest Americans
          Main Ideas: (1) Climate changes allowed Paleo-Indians to begin the first
          migration to the Americas. (2) Early societies existed in Mesoamerica and South
          HW 1: Read pages 6-9. Page 9 answer questions 1 and 2.
          HW 2: Read pages 6-9. Page 9 answer questions 3 and 4.
          HW 3: Page 9-Aztec and Inca Civilizations-Answer questions 1 and 2.
       2. Native American Cultures
          Main Ideas: (1) Several early societies developed in North America long before
          Europeans explored the continent. (2) Geographic areas influenced Native
          American cultures. (3) Native American cultures shared beliefs about religion and
          land ownership.
          HW 4: Read pages 10-15. Page 15 answer questions 1,2 and 3.
          HW 5: Read pages 10-15. Page 15 answer questions 4 and 5.
       3. Trading Kingdoms of West Africa
          Main Ideas: (1) West Africa developed three great kingdoms that grew wealthy
          through their control of trade. (2) Slaves became a valuable trade item in West
          HW 6: Read pages 16-20. Page 20 answer questions 1 and 2.
          HW 7: Read pages 16-20. Page 20 answer questions 3 and 4.
       4. Europe Before Transatlantic Travel
          Main Ideas: (1) The Greeks and Romans established new forms of government.
          (2) During the Middle Ages, society eventually changed from a feudal system to a
          system with a middle class of artisans and merchants. (3) The Renaissance was a
          time of rebirth in the arts and learning.
          HW 8: Read pages 22-27. Page 27 answer questions 1,2 and 3.
          HW 9: Read pages 22-27. Page 27 answer questions 4 and 5.
          HW 10: Grade 8 Intermediate-Level Test Preparation Questions on Page 33.

   (1) In groups, students will conduct library research on one of the Native American
       societies or culture areas mentioned in the lesson. They will prepare an oral
       presentation of their findings. The presentation will include a map showing where
       the people lived and something about their myth of origin.
   (2) In groups of two students will write their own creation myths.
   (3) Students will assume the roles of medieval Europeans and write journal entries
       describing a typical day in their life.
   (4) Half the class will imagine that they are Muslims present at the fall of Jerusalem in
       1099 and the other half will imagine they are Christians who were also there.
       Students will write letters home describing their experiences during the battle and
       their feelings over the outcome.
   (5) Students will imagine that they are medieval knights, nobles, serfs, or travelers. They
       will choose one of the technologies that they have learned about and write a
       paragraph telling how it has changed their life.
   (6) In groups, students will imagine traveling with a famous explorer of the period—
       Mansa Musa, Marco Polo, Bartolomeu Dias, Leif Eriksson,

Chapter 2: New Empires in the Americas
New York State Social Studies Standards: (2) World History (3) Geography (4) Economics (5)
Civics, Citizenship and Government
Content Objectives: Students will be able to:
   (1) Discuss the nature of the early slave trade.
   (2) Identify and discuss the significance of specific explorers and their explorations.
   (3) Locate the places in the Americas explored by Columbus and describe the short-term
       consequences of Columbus‟ explorations.
   (4) Describe the Aztec and Inca Empires in the America before and after the Spanish
   (5) Trace the paths of various explorers and list the significance of their explorations.
   (6) Identify the role that the conquistadores played in the settlement of New Spain.
   (7) Describe the social, cultural and political structure of New Spain, specifically noting
       the roles that the different groups played in this structure.
(8) Identify and describe the places in the Americas where the Spanish settled and
    planted their civic and cultural traditions.
(9) Compare and contrast the first settlements in the Americas, specifically noting
    factors that influenced political events.
(10)        Describe how Europeans, American Indians and Africans interacted in the

   1. Europeans Set Sail
      Main Ideas: (1) Vikings were skilled sailors and they were the first Europeans to
      reach North America. (2) Prince Henry the Navigator established a school for
      sailors and provided financial support that enabled the Portuguese to start
      exploring the oceans. (3) Portuguese sailors sailed around Africa and found a sea
      route to Asia.
      HW 11: Read pages 38-41. Page 41 answer questions 1-5.
      HW 12: Analysis Skill on Page 40 and Geography Skills on Page 41 answer
      questions 1 and 2.
   2. Europeans Reach the Americas
      Main Ideas: (1) Christopher Columbus sailed across the Atlantic Ocean and
      reached a continent that was previously unknown to him. (2) After Columbus‟
      voyages, other explorers sailed to the Americas. (3) Columbus‟ voyages led to
      new exchanges between the New and Old World.
      HW 13: Read pages 42-45. Page 45 answer questions 1-3.
      HW 14: Geography Skills on Page 43, Analysis Skill on Page 44 and the Analysis
      Skill on page 45.
   3. Spain Builds an Empire
      Main Ideas: (1) Spanish conquistadors conquered the Aztec and Inca Empires. (2)
      Spanish explorers traveled through the borderlands of New Spain, claiming more
      land. (3) Spanish settlers treated Native Americans harshly forcing them to work
      on plantations and in mines.
      HW 15: Read pages 46-51. Page 51 answer questions 1-4.
      HW 16: Linking To Today Page 47 answer questions 1 and 2. Analysis Skill on
      Page 48.
      HW 17: Geography Skills on Page 49 answer questions 1 and 2. Geography Skills
      on Page 50 answer questions 1 and 2.
   4. The Race for Empires
      Main Ideas: (1) Events in Europe affected settlement of North America. (2)
      Several explorers searched for a Northwest Passage to the Pacific Ocean. (3)
      European nations raced to establish empires in North America.
      HW 18: Read pages 52-57. Answer questions 1-4 on page 57.
          HW 19: Geography Skills on Page 55 answer questions 1 and 2. Geography Skills
          on Page 56. Answer questions 1 and 2.
       5. Beginnings of Slavery in the Americas
          Main Ideas: (1) European diseases wiped out much of the Native American
          population causing colonists to look for a new labor force. (2) Europeans enslaved
          millions of Africans and sent them to work in the colonies. (3) Slaves in the
          Americas created a distinct culture.
          HW 20: Read pages 58-61. Answer questions 1-4. Grade 8 Intermediate-Level
          Test Preparation on Page 67.

Chapter 3: The English Colonies
New York State Social Studies Standards: (1) History of the United States and New York (3)
Geography (4) Economics (5) Civics, Citizenship and Government
Content Objectives: Students will be able to:
   (1) Identify the economic, political, social and religious factors in Europe in the 1500s
       and 1600s that spurred English colonization of North America.
   (2) Describe Jamestown and explain how geography influenced the nature of the colony.
   (3) Examine the New England, Middle and Southern colonies.
   (4) Identify the main figures in the founding of the English colonies.
   (5) Discuss the influence of religion in the colonies.
   (6) Describe government, labor and daily life in the English colonies.
   (7) Discuss how English colonists interacted with other groups in North America.
   (8) Explain the organization of the colonial governments.
   (9) Define mercantilism and explain how it influenced the economic activity in the
   (10)        Analyze how the English government regulated trade in the colonies and
       identify major economic regions and products.
   (11)        Discuss changes in thought and culture in the English colonies during 1600s
       and 1700s.
   (12)        Trace the conflicts that the American Indians and French had with the English
       and identify the significant events that led to the French and Indian War.

       1. The Southern Colonies
          Main Ideas: (1) Jamestown was the first permanent English settlement in
          America. (2) Daily life in Virginia was challenging to the colonists. (3) Religious
          freedom and economic opportunities were motives for founding other southern
          colonies. (4) Farming and slavery were important to the economies of the
          southern colonies.
          HW 21: Geography Skills on Page 73-answer questions 1 and 2. Analysis Skill on
          Page 74. Analysis Skill on Page 76.
            HW 22: Read pages 72-77. Answer questions 1-5 on Page 77.
       2.   The New England Colonies
            Main Ideas: (1) The Pilgrims and the Puritans came to America to avoid religious
            persecution. (2) Religion and government were closely linked in the New
            England colonies. (3) The New England economy was based on trade and
            farming. (4) Education was important in the New England Colonies.
            HW 23: Analysis Skill on Page 79-Answer questions 1 and 2. Analysis Skill on
            Page 81.
            HW 24: Read pages 78-84. Answer questions 1-4 on Page 84.
       3.   The Middle Colonies
            Main Ideas: (1) The English created New York and New Jersey from former
            Dutch territories. (2) William Penn established the colony of Pennsylvania. (3)
            The economy of the middle colonies was supported by trade and staple crops.
            HW 25: Read pages 85-87. Answer questions 1-4 on Page 87.
       4.   Life in the English Colonies
            Main Ideas: (1) Colonial governments were influenced by political changes in
            England. (2) English trade laws limited free trade in the colonies. (3) The Great
            Awakening and the Enlightenment led to ideas of political equality among many
            colonists. (4) The French and Indian War gave England control of more land in
            North America.
            HW 26: Geography Skills on Page 91, 92 and 96.
            HW 27: Read pages 90-97. Answer questions 1-5 on Page 97.
       5.   Conflict in the Colonies
            Main Ideas: (1) British efforts to raise taxes on colonists sparked protest. (2) The
            Boston Massacre caused colonial resentment toward Great Britain. (3) Colonists
            protested the British tax on tea with the Boston Tea Party. (4) Great Britain
            responded to colonial actions by passing the Intolerable Acts.
            HW 28: Analysis Skill on Page 101.
            HW 29: Read pages 98-103. Answer questions 1-5 on Page 103.
            HW 30: Grade 8 Intermediate-Level Test Preparation on Page 107.

Chapter 4: The American Revolution
New York State Social Studies Standards: (1) History of the United States and New York (3)
Geography (5) Civics, Citizenship and Government
Content Objectives: Students will be able to:
   (1) Explain the causes of the American Revolution.
   (2) Analyze how and why the colonists shifted from wanting greater self-rule and
       autonomy to wanting complete independence.
   (3) Discuss the significance of the Declaration of Independence and explain the key
       phrases that justified revolution.
(4) Identify and describe theaters, major battles and turning points in the Revolutionary
(5) Identify the important figures of the Revolution.
(6) Compare and contrast the Patriots and the Loyalists.
(7) Report on the social, global and political effects of the American Revolution.
(8) Discuss how various groups of people contributed to the American Revolution and
    assess their contributions.

   1. The Revolution Begins
      Main Ideas: (1) The First Continental Congress demanded certain rights from
      Great Britain. (2) Armed conflict between British soldiers and colonists broke out
      with the shot heard „round the world. (3) The Second Continental Congress
      created the Continental Army to fight the British. (4) In two early battles, the
      army lost control of Boston but then regained it.
      HW 31: Read pages 112-116. Answer questions 1-5 on Page 116.
      HW 32: Geography Skills on Page 115-Answer questions 1 and 2.
   2. Declaring Independence
      Main Ideas: (1) Thomas Paine‟s Common Sense led many colonists to support
      independence. (2) Colonists had to choose sides when independence was
      declared. (3) The Declaration of Independence did not address the rights of all
      HW 33: Analysis Skill on Page 119.
      HW 34: Read pages 118-121. Answer questions 1-4 on Page 121.
      HW 35: Read the Declaration of Independence on Pages 122-125. Answer all
      Exploring The Document Questions.
   3. The Struggle for Liberty
      Main Ideas: (1) Many Americans supported the war effort. (2) The Patriots won
      and lost battles during the years 1775-1777. (3) France and Spain helped the
      Patriots fight the British. (4) The winter at Valley Forge tested the strength of
      Patriot troops. (5) The war continued at sea and in the West.
      HW 36: Geography Skills on Page 127-Answer questions 1 and 2. Analyzing Skill
      on Page 132.
      HW 37: Read pages 126-134. Answer questions 1-6 on Page 134.
   4. Independence
      Main Ideas: (1) Patriot forces faced many problems in the South. (2) The
      American Patriots finally defeated the British at the Battle of Yorktown. (3) The
      British and the Americans officially ended the war by signing the Treaty of Paris
      of 1783.
      HW 38: Analysis Skill on Page 137 and Page 138. Geography Skill on Page 139.
      HW 39: Read pages 135-139. Answer questions 1-4 on Page 139.
          HW 40: Grade 8 Intermediate-Level Test Preparation on Page 143.

Writing Projects
  1. “Discovering” America: Christopher Columbus is often credited with “discovering”
      America, although the land that he discovered was already inhabited. Imagine that
      you are one of the Native Americans who was living in North America when
      Columbus arrived. You later learn that he has taken credit for the discovery of your
      home. Write a response to his claim.
  2. God, Gold,
  3. and Glory: During the Age of Discovery, European adventurers explored North
      America. Some historians say that these men were motivated by God, gold and glory.
      What do you think historians mean by this?
  4. Trader on the Coast: Imagine that you are a trader aboard a ship that is traveling the
      Triangle Trade route. Create three journal entries that describes stops along the
      African coast. Include details about the goods you traded there and the people with
      whom you traded>
  5. Forced to Eat Dogs: The first permanent English settlement in North America was
      Jamestown, Virginia. The conditions were bad: settlers clashed with Native
      Americans and, once the food ran out, were forced to eat rats, mice, dogs and cats.
      Write a letter back to your family back in England describing your situation.
  6. Native American: Write a one-page biography about the Native American leader
  7. A War Against the Native Americans: During the Pequot War, American settlers
      burned a Native American village. The fire killed hundreds of Native Americans,
      including women and children. Imagine you are a survivor of this fire who lives in the
      devastated village. Write a one page account of what happened.
  8. Not One Community, but Many: Some of the first colonies in North America were
      founded by people looking for a place to practice their religion freely. Instead of
      creating one large community open to all faiths, the first settlers created a number of
      different religious communities. Why do you think this happened?
  9. A Few Trinkets: In a remarkable transaction, the Dutch West India Company bought
      what is now Manhattan-all 22,000 acres of it-from the Native Americans living there
      for a few trinkets worth about $24. Imagine that you are a journalist present during
      the transaction and write a one page newspaper article describing the transaction.
  10. Fire and Brimstone: A religious revival called the Great Awakening swept across the
      colonies in the 1730s and 1740s, taking the colonies by storm. With their “hellfire
      and brimstone” sermons, preachers ignited scores of followers, some of whom tried
      to convert the Native Americans and the slaves. A divide separated the older, more
      traditional clergy and the people who participated in the Great Awakening. The
      traditionalists were taken aback by the new methods of preaching and by the
    passionate responses of the people who experienced the revival. Why do you think
    the traditionalists reacted as they did?
11. The United States of France: When Britain controlled the colonies, France tried
    several times to take control of North America. Imagine what North America might
    be like if France had succeeded: What would we eat, wear, do for fun? What would
    we believe?
12. Goods and Crops: According to the theory of mercantilism maintained by British
    colonialists before the American Revolution, colonies existed solely for the economic
    benefit of the mother country. Why would it be beneficial for Britain to permit the
    selling of colonial goods and crops in England only and not in any other nations? Do
    you think restricting the sale of goods and crops was a win-win situation for Britain
    and the colonies? Explain
13. A Tax on Paper: In 1764 and 1765, Britain raised taxes in the colonies to beef up the
    British budget and to pay for an increased military presence in the colonies. The
    Stamp Act, for example, taxed all sorts of paper items, including legal documents,
    newspapers, pamphlets, marriage licenses and even playing cards. Colonists didn‟t
    appreciate these taxes and insisted that only the colonial legislators could raise the
    colonies taxes. They argued that they should not suffer from British taxation without
    representation in British Parliament. Imagine that you are one of the colonists. Write
    a letter to Parliament expressing your concern about the Stamp Act.
14. Defending Taxes: When North American colonists protested at the taxes Britain was
    levying, Parliament replied that the colonists were still British subjects under British
    law, so they were subject to British taxation. Parliament said that it represented all
    British subjects, even subjects across the Atlantic Ocean, who didn‟t have
    representatives in Parliament. Using this information, imagine that you are a member
    of the British Parliament and write a response to the colonists who are complaining
    about taxation without representation.
15. Getting Tough with the Colonists: After such incidents as the Boston Tea Party and
    the decision by the Continental Congress to boycott British goods, the British
    government decided to get tough with the rebellious colonists. In your opinion, was
    there a good guy and a bad guy in this situation? If so, which was which and why?
16. The Shot Heard Round the World: In April 1775, British troops nicknamed redcoats
    because of their uniforms, descended on Lexington, Massachusetts, in an attempt to
    stop a mounting opposition and to seize colonial guns and ammunition. They fired
    into a crowd, killing eight people. Ralph Waldo Emerson called the fighting in
    Lexington “the shot heard around the world.” What do you think Emerson meant by
17. Hiding Behind Rocks: Britain‟s army was taught to fight in an orderly fashion,
    marching in straight lines and moving as a large group. The colonists, a more ragtag
    bunch, resorted to hiding behind trees and rocks and making sneak attacks on their
       opponents. Which method of fighting would you rather use if you were involved in a
       battle and why?
   18. Revolution and Independence?: Some historians refer to the war between the
       American colonies and Britain as the American Revolution. Others say it should be
       known as the War for American Independence. Which do you favor? Write two
       paragraphs explaining why you believe one name or the other is more appropriate.
   19. Choosing Rebellion: On June 7, 1776, the Continental Congress met in Philadelphia.
       Members of the Congress spent nearly a month debating the best course of action for
       the Americans and ultimately decided to declare themselves independent of British
       rule. What might have been some arguments in favor of remaining loyal to Britain?
       What might have been some arguments in favor of declaring independence?
   20. We‟re for Real: The Declaration of Independence didn‟t make the Americans
       independent of Britain-they had to fight a war to gain independence. After the war
       was over, the Declaration of Independence didn‟t earn the United States automatic
       respect in the eyes of other nations. To become an official nation, the United States
       needed other nations to recognize it formally. What do you think were some of the
       obstacles the United States might have had to overcome in order to convince other
       nations that the new nation was for real?

Unit 2: A New Nation (1777-1800)

Chapter 5: Forming a Government (1777-1791)
New York State Social Studies Standards: (1) History of the United States and New York (5)
Civics, Citizenship and Government
Content Objectives: Students will be able to:
   (1) Describe the historic origins of self-government in England and in the American
   (2) Recognize the importance of state constitutions and why states limited the federal
       government‟s power.
   (3) Explain how and why the United States settled the territory beyond the Appalachian
       Mountains and why expansion renewed the debate over slavery.
   (4) Identify significant events at the Constitutional Convention that led to the ratification
       of the United States Constitution.
   (5) Discuss the status of women, free and enslaved African Americans and American
       Indians as reflected in the United States Constitution as well as state constitutions.
   (6) Examine the daily life of people in the new nation, including women, free and
       enslaved African Americans, American Indians, farmers, children and immigrants.
   (7) Recognize the importance of compromises during the writing and adoption of the
       United States Constitution.
   (8) Outline certain rights guaranteed under the United States Constitution.
       1. The Articles of Confederation
          Main Ideas: (1) The American people examined many ideas about government.
          (2) The Articles of Confederation laid the base for the first national government
          of the United States. (3) The Confederation Congress established the Northwest
          HW 41: Geography Skills-Page 154-Answer Questions 1 and 2.
          HW 42: Read Pages 152-155. Page 155-Answer Questions 1-4.
       2. The New Nation Faces Challenges
          Main Ideas: (1) The United States had difficulties with other nations. (2) Internal
          economic problems plagued the new nation. (3) Shays‟ Rebellion pointed out the
          weaknesses in the Articles of Confederation. (4) Many Americans called for
          changes in the national government.
          HW 43: Read Pages 158-162. Page 162-Answer Questions 1-5.
       3. Creating the Constitution
          Main Ideas: (1) The Constitutional Convention met to improve the government
          of the United States. (2) The issue of representation led to the Great
          Compromise. (3) Regional debate over slavery led to the Three-Fifths
          Compromise. (4) The US Constitution created federalism and a balance of
          HW 44: Analysis Skill-Page 166. Analysis Skill-Page 167.
          HW 45: Read Pages 163-168. Page 168-Answer Questions 1-3.
          HW 46: Read Pages 163-168. Page 168-Answer Questions 4-5.
       4. Ratifying the Constitution
          Main Ideas: (1) Federalists and Anti-Federalists engaged in debate over the new
          Constitution. (2) The Federalist Papers played an important role in the fight for
          ratification of the Constitution. (3) Ten amendments were added to the
          Constitution to provide a Bill of Rights to protect citizens.
          HW 47: Analysis Skill-Page 172
          HW 48: Read Pages 170-173. Page 173-Answer Questions 1-3.
          HW 49: Read Pages 170-173. Page 173-Answer Questions 4-5.
          HW 50: 8th Grade Intermediate-Level Test Preparation-Page 177.

Chapter 6: Citizenship and the Constitution (1787-Present)
New York State Social Studies Standards: (1) History of the United States and New York (5)
Civics, Citizenship and Government
       1. Understanding the Constitution
           Main Ideas: (1) The framers of the Constitution devised the federal system. (2)
           The legislative branch makes the nation‟s laws. (3) The executive branch enforces
          the nation‟s laws. (4) The judicial branch determines whether or not laws are
          HW 51: Analysis Skill-Page 185-Answer Questions 1 and 2.
          HW 52: Read Pages 182-186. Page 186-Answer Questions 1-3.
          HW 53: Read Pages 182-186. Page 186-Answer Questions 4-5.
       2. The Bill of Rights
          Main Ideas: (1) The First Amendment guarantees basic freedoms to individuals.
          (2) Other amendments focus on protecting citizens from certain abuses. (3) The
          rights of the accused are an important part of the Bill of Rights. (4) The rights of
          states and citizens are protected by the Bill of Rights.
          HW 54: Read Pages 216-221. Page 221-Answer Questions 1-3.
          HW 55: Read Pages 216-221. Page 221-Answer Questions 4-5.
       3. Rights and Responsibilities
          Main Ideas: (1) Citizenship in the United States is determined in several ways. (2)
          Citizens are expected to fulfill a number of important duties. (3) Active citizen
          involvement in government and the community is encouraged.
          HW 56: Read Pages 222-225. Page 225-Answer Questions 1-3.
          HW 57: Read Pages 222-225. Page 225-Answer Questions 4-5.
          HW 58: Analysis Skill-Page 225.
          HW 59: Social Studies Skills Page 226.
          HW 60: 8th Grade Intermediate Test Level Preparation Page 229.

Chapter 7: Launching the Nation (1789-1800)
New York State Social Studies Standards: (1) History of the United States and New York (4)
Economics (5) Civics, Citizenship and Government
Content Objectives: Students will be able to:
   (1) Examine the ideas, and policies of Hamilton, Jefferson, Washington and Adams.
   (2) Identify conflicts the United States had with other nations.
   (3) Discuss actions taken by Alexander Hamilton to put the nation on firm financial
   (4) Explain the significance of the Bill of Rights and discuss its specific guarantees.
   (5) Discuss the issues surrounding the interpretation and implementation of the United
       States Constitution.
   (6) Explain why political parties emerged at the local, state and national levels.
       Distinguish between these parties and describe the effects they had on the elections.
   (7) Identify the new nation‟s relationship with and policies towards Native Americans.
   (8) Describe the daily lives of ordinary people.
       1. Washington Leads a New Nation
           Main Ideas: (1) In 1789, George Washington became the first President of the
           United States. (2) Congress and the president organized the executive and judicial
         branches of government. (3) Americans had high expectations for their new
         HW 61: Analyzing Skills-Page 235.
         HW 62: Read Pages 234-237. Page 237-Answer Questions 1-4.
      2. Hamilton and the National Finances
         Main Ideas: (1) Hamilton tackled the problem of settling national and state debt.
         (2) Thomas Jefferson opposed Hamilton‟s views on government and the
         economy. (3) Hamilton created a national bank to strengthen the United States
         HW 63: Case Study-Benjamin Banneker-Page 240. Analyzing Skill-Page 241.
         HW 64: Read pages 238-242. Page 242-Answer Questions 1-2.
         HW 65: Read pages 238-242. Page 242-Answer Questions 3-4.
      3. Challenges for the New Nation
         Main Ideas: (1) The United States tried to remain neutral regarding events in
         Europe. (2) The United States and Native Americans came into conflict in the
         Northwest Territory. (3) The Whiskey Rebellion tested the administration of
         George Washington. (4) In his Farewell Address, Washington advised the nation.
         HW 66: Analyzing Skill-Page 245. Analyzing Skill-Page 246. Analyzing Skill-Page
         248-answer questions 1-2.
         HW 67: Read Pages 243-249. Page 249-Answer questions 1-5.
      4. John Adams‟ Presidency
         Main Ideas: (1) The rise of political parties created competition in the election of
         1796. (2) The XYZ Affair caused problems for President John Adams. (3)
         Controversy broke out over the Alien and Sedition Acts.
         HW 68: Geography Skills-Page 251. Analysis Skill-Page 252.
         HW 69: Read Pages 250-253. Page 253-Answer questions 1-4.
         HW 70: Grade 8 Intermediate-Level Test Preparation-Page 257.

Writing Projects
      1. Writing Down the Rules: The English Constitution was not a written document-
          it was more informal. When the time came for the Americans to draft their own
          constitution, they decided they needed a written constitution. Why do you think
          a written constitution seemed like such a good idea?
      2. Strong Government: Some founding fathers, called Federalists, favored a strong
          central government. Others, called Anti-Federalists, favored a weak one. Imagine
          you are a Federalist. What are some of your reasons for wanting a strong central
      3. Weak Government: The first constitution that the United States adopted was
          known as the Articles of Confederation. The Articles created a very weak central
          government, especially compared with the monarchy of Britain. Considering the
    government under which most of the colonists had spent their lives, why do you
    think the writers of the Articles wanted such a weak central government?
4. Whiskey Rebellion: You‟ve heard of people rebelling over oppression or unjust
    rulers, but whiskey? In 1794, a group of Pennsylvania farmers did just that,
    rebelling over the drink. Write a one page report about the Whiskey Rebellion.
5. Saving the People From an Autocrat: In 1926, Supreme Court Justice Louis
    Brandeis said of America‟s principle of separate branches of government, “The
    purpose was, not to avoid friction, but, by means of the inevitable friction
    incident to the distribution of the governmental powers among three
    departments, to save the people from autocracy (government by one person).”
    What did Justice Brandeis mean by this? Translate his statement into simpler
6. Power to the States: The framers of the Constitution decided that some powers
    should only be held by the federal government and not to be shared by the state
    governments. Some of these powers include coining money, conducting foreign
    affairs, declaring war and fixing standard weights and measures. What kind of
    problems might have been created if, for example, states had the power to
    conduct foreign affairs? Imagine one such problem and write a paragraph about it.
7. We the People: A preamble is a statement of purpose, Below is the preamble to
    the United States Constitution, broken down into several lines. Rewrite each of
    the following lines in your own words---We the people of the United States, in
    order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility,
    provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the
    blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this
    Constitution for the United States of America.
8. Taking on the Creditors: Financial guru Alexander Hamilton believed that the
    new federal government should assume each state‟s burden of debt. Hamilton felt
    that the federal government, not the states, should deal with creditors. How do
    you think states with small debts might have reacted to the news that the federal
    government would assume even the largest of state debts?
9. The First Five: Read the first five amendments of the Bill of Rights. Which do you
    think are the most important for American citizens? Why? Place the first five
    amendments in order of greatest importance to least importance, as you see it?
10. Speaking Freely: The First Amendment guarantees Americans freedom of speech,
    religion and assembly and the freedom to petition the government. How do you
    think your everyday life might change if you were not guaranteed freedom of
11. We‟re Here and We‟re Hungry: Imagine that the Third Amendment did not exist
    and that troops have just arrived in your living room, demanding food and a place
    to sleep. Write an email to a friend describing your reaction and feelings
12. Speedy and Public: The Sixth Amendment guarantees those accused of crimes a
    speedy and public trial as well as the right to call their own witnesses. Explain
    how a trial might be unfair without these provisions.
13. The Veep: Under the Constitution of the United States, what are the vice
    president‟s duties?
14. The Freedom to Accuse: In 1735, the governor of New York sued a German-
    born editor, John Peter Zenger, for seditious libel. The only problem was that
    the accusations that Zenger had made in the paper were true. Zenger was found
    not guilty, which marked an immense victory for freedom of the press. Imagine
    that Zenger had been found guilty and from then on newspapers weren‟t allowed
    to publish true accusations. What would some of the consequences be?
15. Making the Compromise: The Great Compromise said that states‟ populations
    would determine their representation in the House of Representative but would
    have no effect on their representation in the Senate-every state would get equal
    representation in the Senate. Why do you think both large and small states were
    comfortable with this arrangement?
16. Create a Cabinet: As President, George Washington created a group of advisors
    called a cabinet. The first cabinet had three members: Secretary of State,
    Secretary of the Treasury and Secretary of War. If you were President, what kind
    of cabinet would you have? Which three secretaries would you appoint first?
17. Sticking to Two Terms: Many of George Washington‟s friends and supporters
    urged him to run for a third term as president, but President Washington decided
    against running. He believed that it was important not to give one person too
    much time and therefore power in office. By refusing a third term and
    encouraging others to limit their terms to two, Washington created a precedent.
    Make a list of positive and negative consequences of limiting the presidential
18. Fifty Times More Efficient: Eli Whitney invented a machine called the cotton gin
    that separated cotton from the cotton seed. Using the machine was fifty times
    more efficient than separating the cotton and the seed by hand. What effects do
    you think the cotton gin had on the cotton business in the South?
19. Making Slow Progress: John Adams once said: “America is a great, unwieldy
    body. Its progress must be slow.” What do you think Adams meant by this?
    Describe a current event that proves his statement true or false.
20. You Can‟t Say That: Under the Sedition Act (sedition means to stir up a
    rebellion), a man named James Callender was fined and imprisoned for making
    the following statement about then-President John Adams: “He has never opened
    his lips or lifted his pen without threatening and scolding. The grand object of his
    administration has been to exasperate the rage of contending parts, to calumniate
    and destroy every man who differs from his opinions.” Would you approve or
           disapprove of a modern politician who tried to bring back the Sedition Act? What
           would you say to such a politician?

Unit 3: The New Republic (1800-1855)

Chapter 8: The Jefferson Era (1800-1815)

New York State Social Studies Standards: (1) History of the United States and New York (2)
World History (3) Geography (4) Economics (5) Civics, Citizenship and Government
Content Objectives: Students will be able to:
   (1) Identify significant issues of the Jefferson, Madison and Monroe administrations and
       evaluate the actions of each administration.
   (2) Report on the landmark case Marbury v. Madison.
   (3) Describe global politics behind the Louisiana Purchase, explain its significance for the
       United States and analyze its effect on groups living in the region.
   (4) List the causes of the War of 1812 and explain sectional differences over support for
       the war.
   (5) Describe the important battles, strategies, and leaders in the War of 1812 and
       evaluate the impact of the war on Native Americans.
   (6) Describe the rise of American patriotism and nationalism in the early 1800s.

       1. Jefferson Becomes President
          Main Ideas: (1) The election of 1800 marked the first peaceful transition in
          power from one political party to another. (2) President Jefferson‟s beliefs about
          the federal government were reflected in his policies. (3) Marbury v. Madison
          increased the power of the judicial branch of government.
          HW 71: Analysis Skill-Page 268. Analysis Skill-Page 269-Answer questions 1-2.
          HW 72: Read Pages 266-270. Page 270-Answer questions 1-4.
       2. The Louisiana Purchase
          Main Ideas: (1) As American settlers moved West, control of the Mississippi
          River became more important to the United States. (2) The Louisiana Purchase
          almost doubled the size of the United States. (3) Expeditions led by Lewis and
          Clark and Zebulon Pike increased Americans‟ understanding of the West.
          HW 73: Geography Skills-Page 273-Answer questions 1-2. Analysis Skill-Page
          HW 74: Analysis Skill-Page 276. Analysis Skill-Page 277.
          HW 75: Read Pages 272-277. Answer Questions 1-4 on Page 277.
       3. The Coming of War
          Main Ideas: (1) Violations of American neutrality led Congress to enact a ban on
          trade. (2) Native Americans and Great Britain came into conflict with the United
          States in the West. (3) The War Hawks led a growing call for war with Great
          HW 76: Analysis Skill-Page 279-Answer questions 1-2. Analysis Skill-Page 281-
          Top/Bottom. Analysis Skill-Page 282.
          HW 77: Read Pages 278-283. Page 283-Answer Questions 1-4.
       4. The War of 1812
          Main Ideas: (1) American forces held their own against the British in the early
          battles of the war. (2) United States forces stopped British offensives in the east
          and the south. (3) The effects of the war included prosperity and national pride.
          HW 78: Geography Skills-Page 285-Answer questions 1-2.
          HW 79: Read Pages 284-287. Page 287-Answer Questions 1-4.
          HW 80: Grade 8 Intermediate-Level Test Preparation-Page 293

Chapter 9: A New National Identity (1812-1830)

New York State Social Studies Standards: (1) History of the United States and New York (2)
World History (3) Geography
Content Objectives: Students will be able to:
   (1) Identify significant issues of the Monroe administration and evaluate the actions of the
   (2) Describe the rise of American patriotism and nationalism in the early 1800s.
   (3) Describe the territorial expansion of the United States between 1801 and 1830.
   (4) Explain the controversy leading up to the Missouri Compromise and evaluate the
       impact of the compromise on sectional tensions in the United States.
   (5) Describe the distinct American culture that emerged during this period.

       1. American Foreign Policy
          Main Ideas: (1) The United States and Great Britain settled their disputes over
          boundaries and control of waterways. (2) The United States gained Florida in an
          agreement with Spain. (3) With the Monroe Doctrine, the United States
          strengthened its relationship with Latin America.
          HW 81: Geography Skills-Page 299-Answer Questions 1 and 2. Analysis Skills-
          Page 300-Answer Questions 1-2.
          HW 82: Read Pages 298-301-Answer Questions 1-4 on Page 301.
       2. Nationalism and Sectionalism
          Main Ideas: (1) Growing nationalism led to improvements in the nation‟s
          transportation systems. (2) The Missouri Compromise settled an important
          regional conflict. (3) The outcome of the election of 1824 led to controversy.
          HW 83: Geography Skills-Page 303-Answer Questions 1-2.
          HW 84: Geography Skills-Page 304-Answer Questions 1-2.
          HW 85: Read Pages 302-305-Page 305-Answer Questions 1-2.
          HW 86: Read Pages 302-305-Page 305-Answer Questions 3-4.
       3. American Culture
          Main Ideas: (1) American writers created a new style of literature. (2) A new
          style of art showcased the beauty of America and its people. (3) American ideals
          influenced other aspects of culture including religion and music. (4) Architecture
          and education were affected by cultural ideals.
          HW 87: Read Pages 308-311. Page 311-Answer Questions 1-5.
          HW 88: Literature of the American Frontier-Page 312/13-Answer Questions 1-3
          on Page 313.
          HW 89: Identifying Central Issues-Page 314-Answer Questions 1-3.
          HW 90: 8th Grade Intermediate-Level Test Preparation-Page 317.

Chapter 10: The Age of Jackson (1820-1840)

New York State Social Standards: (1) History of the United States and New York (3)
Geography (4) Economics (5) Civics, Citizenship and Democracy
Content Objectives: Students will be able to:
   (1) Explain the significant economic issues that Andrew Jackson faced during his
   (2) Evaluate President Jackson‟s Indian removal policies and their effect on American
   (3) Discuss political events between 1824 and 1860.

       1. Jacksonian Democracy
          Main Ideas: (1) Democracy expanded in the 1820s as more Americans held the
          right to vote. (2) Andrew Jackson‟s victory in the election of 1828 marked a
          change in American politics.
          HW 91: Analysis Skill-Page 323
          HW 92: Analysis Skill-Page 324
          HW 93: Read Pages 322-324-Page 324-Answer Questions 1-3
       2. Jackson‟s Administration
          Main Ideas: (1) Regional differences grew during Jackson‟s presidency. (2) The
          rights of the states were debated amid arguments about a national tariff. (3)
          Jackson‟s attack on the Bank sparked controversy. (4) Jackson‟s policies led to the
          Panic of 1837.
          HW 94: Read Pages 326-331-Page 331-Answer Questions 1-3.
          HW 95: Read Pages 326-331-Page 331-Answer Questions 4-5.
          HW 96: Analysis Skill-Page 329. Analysis Skill-Page 330.
       3. Indian Removal
          HW 97: (1) The Indian Removal Act authorized the relocation of Native
          Americans to the West. (2) Cherokee resistance to removal led to disagreement
          between Jackson and the Supreme Court. (3) Other Native Americans resisted
          removal with force.
          HW 98: Read Pages 332-335-Page 335-Answer Questions 1-4
          HW 99: Analysis Skill-Page 334. Geography Skills-Page 335. Geography Skills-
          Page 337-Answer Questions 1-2.
          HW 100: Grade 8 Intermediate-Level Test Preparation-Page 341

Chapter 11: Expanding West (1800-1855)

New York State Social Studies Standards: (1) History of the United States and New York (3)
Geography (4) Economics
Content Objectives: Students will be able to:
   (1) Identify and describe the causes, major battles and important figures of the Texas
       Revolution and the Mexican War.
   (2) Describe the life and culture of Mexicans and American Indians in the Southwest
       during this period.
   (3) Explain the controversy over the annexation of Texas and the significance of Texas
       and Oregon in the 1844 Presidential Election.
   (4) Discuss the spirit of manifest destiny and analyze factors that contributed to its
       popularity among Americans.
   (5) Explain why Americans migrated west and identify the main overland and water
       routes which they moved.
   (6) Explain the importance of rivers and water rights in the West.
   (7) Evaluate what life was like for various groups living in the West and how these
       groups interacted.

       1. Trails to the West
          Main Ideas: (1) During the early 1800s, Americans moved west of the Rocky
          Mountains to settle and trade. (2) The Mormons traveled west in search of
          religious freedom.
          HW 101: Read Pages 346-349-Page 349-Answer Questions 1-3.
          HW 102: Geography Skills-Page 347-Answer Questions 1-2.
       2. The Texas Revolution
          Main Ideas: (1) Many American settlers moved to Texas after Mexico achieved
          independence from Spain. (2) Texans revolted against Mexican rule and
          established an independent nation.
          HW 103: Settling Texas-Page 351. The Texas Revolution-Pages 352-353.
          HW 104: Read Pages 350-353-Page 353-Answer Questions 1-3.
       3. The Mexican-American War
          Main Ideas: (1) Many Americans believed that the nation had a manifest destiny to
          claim new lands in the West. (2) As a result of the Mexican War, the United
          States added territory in the Southwest. (3) American settlement in the Mexican
          Cession produced a conflict and a blending of cultures.
          HW 105: Analysis Skill-Page 356. Geography Skills-Page 359-Answer Questions
          HW 106: Battle of Buena Vista-Page 361. Geography Skills-Page 362-Answer
          Questions 1-2.
          HW 107: Read Pages 354-363-Page 363-Answer Questions 1-4.
       4. The California Gold Rush
          Main Ideas: (1) The discovery of gold brought settlers to California. (2) The gold
          rush had a lasting impact on California‟s population and economy.
          HW 108: “Gold Fever”-Page 365. Striking a Claim-Pages 366-67. San Francisco
          Grows-Page 369. Geography Skills-Pages 370-371-Answer Questions 1-2.
          HW 109: Read Pages 364-369-Page 369-Answer Questions 1-3.
          HW 110: Grade 8 Intermediate-Level Test Preparation

Writing Projects
      1. The Court Puts Its Foot Down: For the first time in United States history, in the
          decision of Marbury v. Madison, the United States Supreme Court determined that
          an act of Congress was unconstitutional. What is the significance of the Supreme
          Court‟s ability to determine the constitutionality of an act of Congress or a law?
      2. Entangling Alliances: In his inaugural address, President Thomas Jefferson
          remarked, “Peace, commerce and honest friendship, with all nations-entangling
          alliances with none.” What did Jefferson mean by “entangling alliances”? Do you
          believe this was a wise policy for such a wise nation? Why or why not?
      3. Slimming Down the Army: Thomas Jefferson believed that a large standing army
          might lead to a dictator or a dictatorial government. As a result of his distrust of
          armies, he reduced the army to 2,500 men. Do you agree with Jefferson that a
          large army is risky? Why? Why not?
      4. You Are James Monroe: Imagine that you are James Monroe. Thomas Jefferson
          has sent you to Paris to purchase the port city of New Orleans from Napoleon for
          no more than $10 million. Write a letter to President Jefferson explaining that
          you went over budget, buying all 820,000 square miles of the Louisiana Territory
          from Napoleon for $15 million, or about three cents per acre. With this
          purchase, you have more than doubled the size of the American lands. Justify
          your actions to why you did this.
5. Making a Statement: When the United States defeated Britain in the War of
    1812, the United States made a statement not only to Britain but also to the rest
    of the world. What do you think this statement was? Describe it in one or two
6. Our Neighbor to the North: Canada and the United States may feel mild dislike
    for each other now, but feelings once ran stronger on both sides: the year
    America tried to conquer Canada, which was a colony of Britain at the time.
    America burned what is now Toronto and British forces burned Washington,
    DC. What effect do you think this war had on Canada-United States relations?
    Can you imagine the two nations clashing again? Explain your answers.
7. Memo to Europe: Mind Your Own Business: In 1823, President James Monroe,
    with the help of his advisors, developed what became known as the Monroe
    Doctrine. The Monroe Doctrine said that the United States would not allow any
    European country to interfere or colonize nations in the Western Hemisphere in
    any way at any time for any reason. Do you believe that Monroe had the right to
    tell other nations to stay out of the Western Hemisphere? Explain.
8. Bear Hunter: Andrew Jackson, famous for hunting bear and fighting Indians,
    swept the South and West during the presidential election of 1828. Why do you
    think the rugged Jackson had such appeal in these regions? Why do you think he
    didn‟t carry any state in the Northeast?
9. Thanks for Your Help: After Andrew Jackson became President, he rewarded
    many of his supporters with high-level jobs. This practice became known as the
    spoils system, and many of Jackson‟s critics objected to it, calling it unethical.
    What do you think? If you were president, would you give your friends plum
    jobs? Why? Why not?
10. To the Bad Lands: The United States government wanted to expand America‟s
    borders westward, but Native Americans inhabited that land. The government
    dealt with this by forcibly relocating many Native Americans to reservations on
    arid (dry) land far from their homes. Imagining that you are an advisor to
    President Jackson, create a proposal for westward expansion that is favorable to
    both the government and the Native American population.
11. Two Parties Have the Power: From the 1840s on, Americans have essentially
    employed a two party system, meaning that only two political parties vie for
    power during major elections. Make a list of some of the advantages and
    disadvantages of having only two major parties in power.
12. The Nation of Texas: Texas won a precarious independence from Mexico in
    1836, but Mexico would not recognize Texas as an independent country. In an
    attempt to win recognition as a nation, Texas negotiated with Belgium, France
    and Holland. However, it turned out to be Britain that was most interested in
           Texas‟s bid to be a recognized nation. Why do you think Britain wanted to see
           Texas become a full-fledged nation?
       13. Westward Bound: Manifest Destiny is the idea that it was the United States‟
           destiny to expand westward across the continent, all the way to the Pacific
           Ocean. Do you think westward expansion was truly our destiny? Why or why
       14. California: Rock-bound and Cheerless?: Daniel Webster is reported to have said
           of what is now California. “What do we want with this vast, worthless area? This
           region of savages and wild beasts, of deserts and shifting sands and whirlwinds of
           dust, of cactus and prairie dogs…What can we ever hope to do with the western
           coast, a coast of three-thousand miles, rock-bound, cheerless, uninviting and not
           a harbor on it?” Write Webster a short letter about what California is like today.
       15. Heading West in a Wagon: Imagine that you and your family have loaded a wagon
           and are heading for unsettled land in the Oregon Territory. Write a journal entry
           about things you have seen along the way and what you plan to do once you arrive
           in Oregon.
       16. Striking It Rich: In 1848, miners discovered a precious substance in California:
           gold. Within a year, prospectors flocked to California determined to strike it
           rich. Write a letter to your family explaining that you have gold fever and are
           headed to California to make your fortune.

Unit 4: The Nation Expands (1790-1860)

Chapter 12: The North (1790-1860)
New York State Social Studies Standards: (1) History of the United States and New York (4)
Content Objectives: Students will be able to:
   (1) Analyze how the Industrial Revolution changed the politics, economy and society of
       the Northeast.
   (2) Explain how European people and ideas influenced American politics, economy and
       society characteristics.
   (3) List inventions between 1790 and 1850 and explain how these inventions affected
       how people lived and worked.
   (4) Discuss working and living conditions for factory workers and why they organized
   (5) Compare and contrast the different forms of transportation that were developed
       during their period and discuss how the transportation revolution linked the
       American economy.
       1. The Industrial Revolution
          Main Ideas: (1) The invention of new machines in Great Britain led to the
          beginning of the Industrial Revolution. (2) The development of new machines
          and processes brought the Industrial Revolution to the United States. (3) Despite
          a slow start in manufacturing, the United States made rapid improvements during
          the War of 1812.
          HW 111: Analysis Skill-Page 385. Elements of Mass Production-Page 386.
          Analysis Skill-Page 388.
          HW 112: Read Pages 384-389-Page 389-Answer Questions 1-4.
       2. Changes in Working Life
          Main Ideas: (1) The spread of mills in the Northeast changed workers‟ lives. (2)
          The Lowell System revolutionized the textile industry in the Northeast. (3)
          Workers organized to reform working conditions.
          HW 113: Analysis Skill-Page 391.Analysis Skill-Page 393. Analysis Skill-Page
          HW 114: Read Pages 390-395-Page 395-Answer Questions 1-2.
          HW 115: Read Pages 390-395-Page 395-Answer Questions 3-4.
       3. The Transportation Revolution
          Main Ideas: (1) The Transportation Revolution affected trade and daily life. (2)
          The steamboat was one of the first developments of Transportation Revolution.
          (3) Railroads were a vital part of the transportation revolution. (4) The
          Transportation Revolution brought many changes to American life and industry.
          HW 116: The Steam Train-Page 398. Geography Skills-Page 400-Answer
          Questions 1-2.
          HW 117: Read Pages 396-401-Page 401-Answer Questions 1-5.
       4. More Technological Advances
          Main Ideas: (1) The telegraph made swift communication possible from coast to
          coast. (2) With the shift to steam power, businesses built new factories closer to
          cities and transportation centers. (3) Improved farm equipment and other labor-
          saving devices made life easier for many Americans. (4) New inventions changed
          lives in American homes.
          HW 118: Case Study-Samuel F.B. Morse-Page 403.
          HW 119: Read Pages 402-405-Page 405-Answer Questions 1-5
          HW 120: Grade 8 Intermediate-Level Test Preparation

Chapter 13: The South (1790-1860)

New York State Social Studies Standards: (1) History of the United States and New York (4)
Economics (5) Civics, Citizenship and Government
Content Objectives: Students will be able to:
   (1) Explain how technology and agriculture shaped southern life.
   (2) Describe factors that influenced the South‟s economic development.
   (3) Report on the roles, cultures, and day-to-day lives of different social groups in the
   (4) Identify the effects of slavery on the political, social, economic and cultural
       development of the South.
   (5) List the ways African Americans resisted slavery.
   (6) Trace ways in which slaves‟ African heritage contributed to American life.
   (7) Examine the role of slave narratives as American literature and autobiography.
   (8) List leading figures in the abolition movement and explain how they worked to
       abolish slavery.

       1. Growth of the Cotton Industry
          Main Ideas: (1) The invention of the cotton gin revived the economy of the
          South. (2) The cotton gin created a cotton boom in which farmers grew little
          else. (3) Some people encouraged southerners to focus on other crops and
          HW 121: Cotton Gin-Page 415.
          HW 122: The Cotton Kingdom-Page 416-Answer Questions 1-2. The South‟s
          Cotton Economy-Pages 418-419-Analysis Skill-Page 419
          HW 123: Read Pages 414-419-Page 419-Answer Questions 1-4.
       2. Southern Society
          Main Ideas: (1) Southern society and culture consisted of four main groups. (2)
          Free African Americans in the South faced a great deal of discrimination.
          HW 124: Analysis Skill-Page 421. Free African Americans in the South-Page 422.
          HW 125: Read Pages 420-423-Page 423-Answer Questions 1-3.
       3. The Slave System
          Main Ideas: (1) Slaves worked at a variety of jobs on plantations. (2) Life under
          slavery was difficult and demanding. (3) Slave culture centered around family,
          community and religion. (4) Slave uprisings led to stricter slave codes in many
          HW 126: A Nurse‟s Work-Page 425.A Slave‟s Daily Life-Pages 426-427.
          HW 127: Analysis Skill-Page 428-Answer Questions 1-2. Analysis Skill-Page 429.
          HW 128: Read Pages 424-429-Page 429-Answer Questions 1-3
          HW 129: Read Pages 424-429-Page 429-Answer Questions 4-5
          HW 130: Grade 8 Intermediate-Level Test Preparation-Page 433.

Chapter 14: New Movements in America (1815-1860)

New York State Social Studies Standards: (1) History of the United States and New York (3)
Geography (4) Economics (5) Civics, Citizenship and Government
Content Objectives: Students will be able to:
  (1) Examine factors that influenced immigration to the United States and describe the
      life of both urban and rural immigrants.
  (2) Examine excerpts from literature and then use these excerpts to explain political
      economic and social aspects of the Industrial Revolution.
  (3) Analyze how the Industrial Revolution changed the political, economic and social
      characteristics of the United States
  (4) List ways in which African Americans resisted slavery.

      1. Immigrants and Urban Challenges
         Main Ideas: (1) Millions of immigrants, mostly German and Irish, arrived in the
         United States despite anti-immigrant movements. (2) Industrialization led to the
         growth of cities. (3) American cities experienced urban problems due to rapid
         HW 131: Analysis Skill-Page 439. Analysis Skill-Page 441
         HW 132: Read Pages 438-442-Page 442-Answer Questions 1-4
      2. American Arts
         Main Ideas: (1) Transcendentalists and utopian communities withdrew from
         American society. (2) American Romantic painters and writers made important
         contributions to art and literature.
         HW 133: Read Pages 443-445-Page 445-Answer Questions 1-3
         HW 134: Literature in History-Page 447-Answer Questions 1-2
      3. Reforming Society
         Main Ideas: (1) The Second Great Awakening sparked interest in religion. (2)
         Social reformers began to speak out about temperance and prison reform. (3)
         Improvements in education reform affected many segments of the population. (4)
         Northern African American communities became involved in reform efforts.
         HW 135: Reform Movements-Page 449. Horace Mann-Page 451. Analysis Skill-
         Page 451
         HW 136: Read Pages 448-453. Page 453-Answer Questions 1-5
      4. The Movement to End Slavery
         Main Ideas: (1) Americans from a variety of backgrounds actively opposed
         slavery. (2) Abolitionists organized the Underground Railroad to help enslaved
         Africans escape. (3) Despite efforts of abolitionists, many Americans remained
         opposed to ending slavery.
         HW 137: Read Pages 454-459-Page 459-Answer Questions 1-4.
         HW 138: Geography Skills-Page 457-Answer Questions 1-2
      5. Women‟s Rights
         Main Ideas: (1) Influenced by the abolition movement, many women struggled to
         gain equal rights for themselves. (2) Calls for women‟s rights met opposition
          from men and women. (3) The Seneca Falls Convention launched the first
          organized women‟s movement in the United States.
          HW 139: Read Pages 461-466-Page 466-Answer Questions 1-4
          HW 140: Grade 8 Intermediate-Level Test Preparation

Chapter 15: A Divided Nation (1848-1860)

New York State Social Studies Standards: (1) History of the United States and New York (3)
Geography (5) Civics, Citizenship and Government
Content Objectives: Students will be able to:
   (1) Explain why the addition of new territories to the United States created political
       controversy both at home and abroad.
   (2) Compare and contrast the compromises that were proposed and/or passed in order
       to satisfy both sides of the slavery issue.
   (3) Report on major political issues from 1848 to 1860.
   (4) Discuss the Kansas-Nebraska Act and analyze its importance on northern-southern
   (5) Examine the impact of both Dred Scott and the Fugitive Slave Act.
   (6) Describe the reaction to John Brown‟s raid on Harper‟s Ferry.
   (7) Evaluate how states rights, southern nationalism and the election of 1860 caused
       South Carolina to secede.

       1. The Debate over Slavery
          Main Ideas: (1) The addition of new land in the West renewed disputes over the
          expansion of slavery. (2) The Compromise of 1850 tried to solve the disputes
          over slavery. (3) The Fugitive Slave Act caused more controversy. (4)
          Abolitionists used antislavery literature to promote opposition.
          HW 141: Geography Skills-Page 477. Analysis Skill-Page 478.
          HW 142: Analysis Skill-Page 479.Analysis Skill-Page 480
          HW 143: Read Pages 476-481-Page 481-Answer Questions 1-5
       2. Trouble in Kansas
          Main Ideas: (1) The debate over the expansion of slavery influenced the election
          of 1852. (2) The Kansas-Nebraska Act allowed for voters to allow or prohibit
          slavery. (3) Pro-slavery and anti-slavery groups clashed violently in what became
          known as “Bleeding Kansas”.
          HW 144: Literature in History-Page 482-Answer Questions 1-2.
          HW 145: Geography Skills-Page 485-Answer Questions 1-2. “Bleeding Kansas”-
          Page 486.
          HW 146: Read Pages 483-487-Page 487-Answer Questions 1-4.
       3. Political Divisions
         Main Ideas: (1) Political parties in the United States underwent change due to the
         movement to expand slavery. (2)The Dred Scott Decision created further
         division over the issue of slavery. (3) The Lincoln-Douglas debates brought much
         attention to the conflict over slavery.
         HW 147: Analysis Skill-Page 489. Analysis Skill-Page 491.
         HW 148: Read Pages 488-492-Page 492-Answer Questions 1-4
      4. The Nation Divides
         Main Ideas: (1) John Brown‟s raid on Harpers Ferry intensified the disagreement
         between free and slave states. (2) The outcome of the election of 1860 divided
         the United States. (3) The dispute over slavery led the South to leave the union.
         HW 149: Read Pages 493-497-Page 497-Answer Questions 1-4
         HW 150: Grade 8 Intermediate-Level Test Preparation-Page 501

Writing Projects
      1. Spinning Yarn: The Boston Manufacturing Company employed mostly young
          women, who worked for a few years after leaving school and before getting
          married. Conditions for these women were often dangerous and their private
          lives were closely controlled. Imagine you are one of these young workers and
          write a diary entry about your life.
      2. Slave States, Free States: Under the Missouri Compromise, the United States
          admitted Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state. This compromise
          maintained a balance in the Union of free states and slave states. Why do you
          think both slave states and free states wanted an equal number of each kind of
          state in the Union?
      3. A Price on Your Head: Harriet Tubman, an ex-slave, was famous for helping over
          300 people escape slavery via the Underground Railroad. Many people wanted
          her dead; at one point, the price on her head was $40,000. If you knew there was
          a huge price on your head, do you think you would continue to risk your life to
          help others or would you try to keep yourself safe? Explain your answer.
      4. One Room Schoolhouse: Some of the earliest public schools in America were
          schoolhouses where eight grades were taught by one teacher in the room. How
          does your school differ from the first public schools in America?
      5. Mary Lyon and Mount Holyoke: In 1837, Mary Lyon opened what is now Mount
          Holyoke College as an institution of higher learning for women. Almost from the
          start, there were more applicants than slots available. Many other such
          institutions experienced the same boom in applications. If you were a woman of
          college age in 1837, do you think you would have wanted to attend Mount
          Holyoke? Explain your answer.
      6. Studying the States: The Frenchman Alexis de Tocqueville spent ten months in
          America before writing his famous book, Democracy in America. If you were going
    to write a book about another nation, How long would you want to spend in that
    nation? What nation would you choose? What kind of things would you want to
    observe? Explain.
7. A National Road: In 1852, the famed Cumberland Road or National Road, was
    finally completed. It stretched from Maryland to Illinois covering 600 miles and
    five states. How do you think the towns along the highway benefited from the
    new traffic?
8. Hinton Helper‟s Manuscript: Imagine that you are an editor at a major publishing
    company in 1857. You have just read a manuscript entitled The Impending Crisis of
    the South by Hinton Helper. Helper, a Southerner who hates both African
    Americans and slavery argues in his manuscript that non-slave owners in the
    South are badly off as a result of slavery. As an editor, how would you respond to
9. I Dunno: Who were the Know-Nothings and how did they get their name? If you
    are not sure come up with an educated guess.
10. 1,000 Steamboats: By 1860, there were an estimated 1,000 steamboats on the
    Mississippi River. How do you think river transportation, especially by
    steamboat, changed such things as travel, trade, communication and military
11. On the Railroad: Compile a list of ten reasons why railroad transportation was
    more desirable and potentially more profitable than river transportation.
12. Not-So-Famous: Take a look at the lists I have typed and then answer the
    question that follows. Famous Presidents: Washington, Jefferson, Jackson, and
    Lincoln, Not-So-Famous Presidents: Van Buren, Fillmore, Pierce, and Buchanan.
    Pick one of the famous presidents and explain why you think he is better known
    than one of the more obscure presidents.
13. Free Soil: In 1846 in Missouri, a slave named Dred Scott sued his owner for his
    freedom in state and federal court. Scott claimed that he had been living on free
    soil in Illinois and the Wisconsin Territory for more than five years and that in
    consequence, he was free. The Supreme Court ultimately decided that to make
    Scott free would be to deprive his owner of property. If the Supreme Court had
    granted Dred Scott his freedom, what would it have meant for slaves throughout
    the South?
14. Settling in the North: Although there were perhaps hundreds of thousands of
    European immigrants in the United States in the first half of the nineteenth
    century, relatively few European immigrants settled in the South. Why do you
    think most European immigrants settled permanently in the North rather than the
15. A Letter to the Editor: Imagine that you are an abolitionist in the 1850s. Write a
    letter to the editor of your local newspaper arguing against slavery. Use one of
           the following statements as the main idea of your letter-(a) Slavery directly goes
           against the religious principles of this nation. (b) Slavery directly contradicts the
           American principles of liberty and equality. (c) Slavery is a wedge that is going to
           divide the nation.
       16. North and South: Dating back to the days of the American colonies, the North
           and the South were fundamentally different. The economy of the North was
           industrial, whereas the economy of the South was agricultural. These differences
           greatly contributed to the tensions that led to the Civil War. Do you think that
           today the North and the South are more similar than they are different? Explain.
       17. Slave and Master: White plantation owners often responded to critics of slavery
           by claiming that the relationship between a slave master and a slave resembled the
           relationship between a father and a member of his family. Write a one paragraph
           response to this statement.
       18. An Interview with Mr. Douglass: Frederick Douglass was born a slave in
           Maryland around 1817. He escaped captivity and fled to the North, where he
           became the famous and influential spokesman of the African-American
           abolitionists and a highly successful author and speaker. If you could interview
           Douglass, what would you ask him? Compile a list of ten questions.
       19. Murderer or Martyr?: A passionate abolitionist named John Brown came up with
           an interesting scheme in 1857. His plan was to invade the South, free the slaves
           and create a free state for the ex-slaves. In an attempt to provide slaves with
           weapons, he attacked a weapons house in Harpers Ferry, Virginia and several
           innocent people lost their lives. Brown was tried for treason and murder, found
           guilty and hanged. Was John Brown a murderer or martyr? Explain your views.

Unit 5: The Nation Breaks Apart (1861-1877)

Chapter 16: The Civil War (1861-1865)

New York State Social Studies Standards: (1) History of the United States and New York (3)
Geography (4) Economics (5) Civics, Citizenship and Government
Content Objectives: Students will be able to:
   (1) List and locate the states in the Confederacy and explain the significance of the
       border states.
   (2) Examine the differences between the North and the South and explain how these
       differences affect the war‟s outcome.
   (3) Describe and evaluate strategies employed by the North and South during the Civil
   (4) Explain the role of global politics in the Civil War.
(5) List and locate the major battles of the Civil War and analyze their significance.
    Identify major turning points and theaters in the war.
(6) Analyze the role that science and technology played in the war.
(7) Analyze how the Civil war affected American rights and freedoms.
(8) Discuss how various groups of people contributed to the Civil War and assess their

   1. The War Begins
      Main Ideas: (1) Following the outbreak of war at Fort Sumter, Americans chose
      sides. (2) The Union and Confederacy prepared for war.
      HW 151: Geography Skills-Page 511-Answer Questions 1-2. Analysis Skill-Page
      512. Analysis Skill-Page 513. Analysis Skill-Page 514.
      HW 152: Read Pages 510-514-Page 514-Answer Questions 1-3.
   2. The War in the East
      Main Ideas: (1) Union and Confederate forces fought for control of the war in
      Virginia. (2) The Battle of Antietam gave the North a slight advantage. (3) The
      Confederacy attempted to break the Union naval blockade.
      HW 153: Geography Skills-Page 517-Answer Questions 1-2. Analysis Skill-Page
      519. Case Study-Page 519. Geography Skills-Pages 520-521.
      HW 154: Read Pages 516-521-Page 521-Answer Questions 1-4
   3. The War in the West
      Main Ideas: (1) Union strategy in the West centered on control of the Mississippi
      River. (2) Confederate and Union troops struggled for dominance in the Far
      HW 155: Geography Skills-Page 523-Answer Questions 1-2. Case Study-Page
      523. Analysis Skill-Page 524.
      HW 156: Read Pages 522-524-Page 524-Answer Questions 1-4.
   4. Daily Life during the War
      Main Ideas: (1) The Emancipation Proclamation freed slaves in Confederate
      states. (2) African Americans participated in the war in a variety of ways. (3)
      President Lincoln faced opposition to the war. (4) Life was difficult for soldiers
      and civilians alike.
      HW 157: Emancipation Proclamation-Page 529. Geography Skills-Page 529.
      Analysis Skill-Page 531. Analysis Skill-Page 533.
      HW 158: Read Pages 528-534-Page 534-Answer Questions 1-5.
   5. The Tide of the War Turns
      Main Ideas: (1) The Union tried divide the Confederate Army at Fredericksburg
      but the attempt failed. (2) The Battle of Gettysburg in 1863 was a major turning
      point in the war. (3) During 1864, Union campaigns in the East and South dealt
          crippling blows to the Confederacy. (4) Union troops forced the South to
          surrender in 1865 ending the Civil War.
          HW 159: Read Pages 536-543-Page 543-Answer Questions 1-5.
          HW 160: Grade 8 Intermediate-Level Test Preparation-Page 547.

Chapter 17: Reconstruction (1865-1877)

New York State Social Studies Standards: (1) History of the United States and New York (3)
Geography (4) Economics (5) Civics, Citizenship and Government
Content Objectives: Students will be able to:
   (1) Report on the significant political events during this period.
   (2) Discuss what was life was like for African Americans during and after
   (3) Evaluate constitutional amendments and civil rights legislation enacted to protect the
       rights of African Americans.
   (4) Identify the role of northerners in Reconstruction and evaluate their work from both
       southern and northern perspectives.
   (5) Analyze and discuss how northerners and southerners responded to Reconstruction.
   (6) Discuss how the political, social and economic lives of both Black and White
       southerners changed during Reconstruction.
       1. Rebuilding the South
           Main Ideas: (1) President Lincoln and Congress differed in their views as
           Reconstruction began. (2) The end of the Civil War meant freedom for African
           Americans in the South. (3) President Johnson‟s plan began the process of
           HW 161: Testing New Freedoms-Page 555. Helping the Freedpeople-Page 556.
           HW 162: Read Pages 552-557-Page 557-Answer Questions 1-4.
       2. The Fight over Reconstruction
           Main Ideas: (1) Black Codes led to opposition to President Johnson‟s plan for
           Reconstruction. (2) The 14th Amendment ensured citizenship for African
           Americans. (3) The Radical Republicans in Congress took charge of
           Reconstruction. (4) The 15th Amendment gave African Americans the right to
           HW 163: Analysis Skill-Page 559. Analysis Skill-Page 560.
           HW 164: Geography Skills-Page 561-Answer Questions 1-2.
           HW 165: Read Pages 558-563-Page 563-Answer Questions 1-3.
           HW 166: Read Pages 558-563-Page 563-Answer Questions 4-5
       3. Reconstruction in the South
           Main Ideas: (1) Reconstruction governments helped reform the South. (2) The
           Ku Klux Klan was organized as African Americans moved into positions of
          power. (3) As Reconstruction ended, the rights of African Americans were
          restricted. (4) Southern business leaders relied on industry to rebuild the South.
          HW 167: Geography Skills-Page 565-Answer Questions 1-2. The Ku Klux Klan-
          Page 566.
          HW 168: Analysis Skill-Page 568-Answer Questions 1-2. The New South-Page
          HW 169: Read Pages 564-571-Page 571-Answer Questions 1-5.
          HW 170: Grade 8 Intermediate-Level Test Preparation-Page 575.

Writing Projects
      1. The Civil War Begins: After the election of 1860, in which Abraham Lincoln was
          elected President, South Carolina left the Union. Ten other states followed its
          lead, forming the Confederate States of America. President Lincoln decided that
          he could not allow the nation to break apart and that only military force could
          save the United States. The Civil War began. What other options did Lincoln
          have, if any, in his attempt to save the nation?
      2. Our Side vs. Our Side: How did the size of the populations of the Union and the
          Confederacy compare to each other?
      3. Pants and Shirts and Dresses: We now ask for large shirts or pants in size six but
          it was not always thus. What brought about the standardization of clothing sizes?
          If you are not sure try to come up with a reasonable explanation.
      4. A Little Now, a Lot Later: The Homestead Act set aside millions of acres of land
          for settlers in the Western states. Settlers had two ways to get approximately 160
          acres of land. They could either live on the land for five years and pay about $30
          or live on the land for six months and then pay $1.25 per acre. If you were a
          settler, which option would you choose and why?
      5. I Am Going to Fight for the North/South: Imagine that you are a young man who
          has volunteered to fight as a Union soldier/Confederate soldier in the Civil War.
          Write a letter to your parents explaining why you are going to fight.
      6. March to the Sea: What did General Sherman‟s March entail? Why did it cause
          such lasting resentment in the Southern United States?
      7. The Little Lady: When Abraham Lincoln met Harriet Beecher Stowe, author of
          the novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin, he reportedly said to her: “So you‟re the little lady
          who made this big war.” Based on Lincoln‟s comments, what do you think
          Harriet Beecher Stowe‟s novel was about?
      8. Southern Independence: The American Revolution has been called the War for
          American Independence. The War of 1812 has been called the Second War for
          Independence. Could the Civil War be called the War for Southern
          Independence? Explain your answer.
9. Four Score and Seven Years Ago: Read the first two sentences of Abraham
    Lincoln‟s famous Gettysburg Address and then summarize them in your own
10. Teaching Freedmen: In 1865, Congress created the Freedmen‟s Bureau to
    educate, feed and clothe former slaves and white refugees. If you were in charge
    of the education of the freedmen in 1865, what would you teach them so that
    they would be well-equipped to succeed in the post-war South? Explain.
11. Sticking it to the South: During the process of Reconstruction, many Northern
    politicians, including President Johnson, wanted to show no mercy towards the
    South. These men wanted to punish the South for leaving the United States and
    for supporting slavery. If you were a Northern legislator, would you rule and
    rebuild the South with an iron fist or would you show mercy? Explain your
12. Scalawags and Carpetbaggers: During Reconstruction, the South was flooded
    with scalawags and carpetbaggers. Scalawags were Southerners who cooperated
    with the Reconstructionists and carpetbaggers were Northerners who went south
    to make a profit from the rebuilding of the region. Why might Southerners have
    resented these groups?
13. The President on Trial: President Andrew Johnson will go down in history as the
    first president to be impeached. Do you think that a President should be exempt
    from being formally charged with a crime while in office? Should there be any
    exceptions? Explain.

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