Psychology 201 - Internet Module 1 Chapters 1 – 3 Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.(2 pts each) 1. Which of the following is the most accurate definition of the discipline of psychology today? a. the science of behavior b. the science of mental processes c. the science of behavior and mental processes d. the science of behavioral mental processes 2. Why can psychology be described as a science? a. Psychologists conduct research in laboratories. b. Psychologists conduct research on humans and animals. c. Psychologists use methods such as introspection and psychoanalysis. d. Psychologists uncover the causes of events by systematically collecting empirical evidence. 3. A clinical psychologist wants to understand the behavior of hyperactive children. He has decided to focus on Jenny, a little girl who has shown signs of hyperactivity. Which research method is the psychologist using? a. survey b. case study c. experiment d. correlational study 4. Which of these correlation coefficients indicates the strongest relationship between two variables? a. -.13 b. +.38 c. +.76 d. -.89 5. A researcher stops people at the mall and asks them questions about their attitudes toward gun control. Which research technique is being used? a. survey b. experiment c. case study d. naturalistic observation 6. If you participate in a study where researchers are studying the effects of sugar on performance, and you are part of the group which gets the sugar, we would say you are part of the __________ group. a. control b. uncontrolled c. experimental d. user 7. If within that same research, you instead are given a sugar-like substance, we would say you are in the ______________ group and have been given a ________________. a. uncontrolled, sweetener b. experimental, sucrose c. ethical, dilemma d. control, placebo 8. What provides a pathway for communication between the brain and the rest of the body? a. the brain b. receptor cells c. the spinal cord d. nerve pathways between receptors and the brain 9. Which division of the nervous system controls automatic bodily systems such as organ functioning? a. autonomic b. somatic c. sympathetic d. parasympathetic 10. Which of these activities involves activation of the parasympathetic division? a. unwinding after a hard day at work b. preparing to take a test c. walking in to your psych 201 course d. getting "psyched up" to play an important tennis match 11. Dion threw his bat into the dirt after he struck out for the third time during the softball game. Which part of the brain is involved in this expression of anger? a. corpus callosum b. limbic system c. reticular formation d. parietal lobe 12. Warren is processing visual information, which part of his brain is most probably being activated? a. parietal b. frontal c. temporal d. occipital 13. Which research method was used to study the effects of the brain damage experienced by Tan and Phineas Gage? a. case study b. biofeedback c. stereotaxic surgery d. computerized brain imagery 14. What are the short, branchlike structures of a neuron that receive signals from receptors or other neurons? a. axons b. somas c. dendrites d. cell membranes 15. ______________ refers to the waxy like insulation which forms around the axon. a. dendrites b. myelin sheath c. neuronal insulation d. synaptic clefts 16. The main divisions of the human nervous system are the a. central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. b. autonomic nervous system and the central nervous system. c. sympathetic nervous system and the somatic nervous system. d. somatic nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. 17. What system is made up of glands whose secretions pass directly into the. bloodstream or lymph system? a. endocrine b. somatosensory c. limbic d. reticular activating 18. Developmental psychology is the study of progressive changes in behavior and abilities from: a. infancy to adulthood. b. birth to death. c. conception to death. d. infancy to puberty. 19. A person's developmental level at any stage of life is determined by: a. one's heredity. b. one's environment. c. one's behavior. d. all of these. 20. Consistent child discipline leads to: a. anger in the child. b. a withdrawal of love by the child. c. stability for the child. d. confusion for the child. Identify with a T or F, whether each of the following statements are True or False (2 pts each). 21. A psychologist is typically a medical doctor who not only understands psychological theory, but can also prescribe psychiatric medications? 22. Attachment is that close emotional bond between parents (caregivers) and offspring. 23. In the Nature vs. Nurture debate, the effects of nurture do not begin until the child is born. 24. Causation is typically easy to prove in a psychological study or experiment. 25. A Neurotransmitter is a chemical used to carry messages across the synapse. Short Answer (5 pts each) 1. Explain the four goals of psychology. 2. Define the scientific method and list the six steps of the scientific method. 3. Explain the nature and the purpose of the control group and the experimental group in an experiment. Include a brief description of how a placebo might be utilized along with the importance of an operational definition. 4. Name the basic unit of the nervous system, state what it is specifically designed to do, and list and describe its four parts. Include a description of the means of transportation of the message (i.e. electrical v. chemical). 5. Chart the various subparts of the human nervous system and generally explain their functions. 6. Identify the brain’s four lobes and describe the function(s) of each. 7. Briefly discuss the concept of sensitive periods and give an example of this. 8. Define the term teratogen and give an example of one. 9. Describe Baumrind’s three major styles of parenting, including characteristics of both parents and children in each style. 10. With regard to Piaget’s stages of cognitive development, explain the concepts of assimilation and accommodation. list (in order) and briefly describe each stage. evaluate the usefulness of Piaget’s theory. Related readings (INFOtrac) and web sites: Sigmund Freud Museum Vienna http://www.freud-museum.at/e/index.html William James http://www.emory.edu/EDUCATION/mfp/james.html American Psychological Society http://psych.hanover.edu/APS/ B.F Skinner http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/bhskin.html American Psychological Association http://www.apa.org/ Ellis, A. (1999). Best of the Century. Psychology Today, (v. 32, 6), p. 34. Gross, R. (2002). Conditioned emotional reactions in Key Studies, we aim to provide in-depth accounts of some of the most important classic studies in psychology. Psychology Review, (v. 9, 12), pp. 32-35. Christensen, C., Fierst, D., Jodocy, A., Lorenz, D.N. (1998). Answering the call for prosocial behavior. The Journal of Social Psychology, (v. 138, n5), pp. 564-571. Neuroscience on the Internet http://www.neuroguide.com/index.html The Washington University School of Medicine Neuroscience Tutorial http://thalamus.wustl.edu/course/ The Whole Brain Atlas http://count51.med.harvard.edu/AANLIB/home.html Bower, B. (2003). Brain area may support fact and event memory (Neural Recall). Science News,(vol. 163, 116), pp. 244-245.. Mel, B.W. (2002). What the synapse tells the neuron. Science, (vol. 295, 5561), pp. 1845-1846. Zeman, A. (1998). The consciousness of sight. British Medical Journal, (vol. 317, 7174), pp. 1696- 1697. Developmental Psychology http://www.apa.org/journals/dev.html Erik Erikson http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/erikson.html Jean Piaget http://muskingum.edu/~psychology/psycweb/history/piaget.htm Pregnancy and Childbirth http://www.childbirth.org/ http://tigger.uic.edu/~lnucci/MoralEd/overview.html Alessi, H.D., & Ballard, M.B. (2001). Memory development in children: implications for children as witnesses in situations of possible abuse. Journal of Counseling and Development, 79, p. 398-405. Nobes, G. & Pawson, C. (2003). Children’s understanding of social rules and social status. Merrill- Palmer Quarterly, 49, pp. 77-200. Scher, A. & Mayseless, O. (2000). Mothers of anxious/ambivalent infants: maternal characteristics and child-care context. Child Development, 71, p.1629-1649.
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