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					Operationalising Pro Poor Growth: Ghana Case Study
Tables and Figures:
Draft of 30 April 2004


Table 1: Indices of poverty by in Ghana by locality, 1991/92 and 1998/99
Poverty Line = 900,000 cedis


                                           1991/92                                     1998/99
                        Population Incidence Severity of                   Population Incidence Severity
                             share of poverty   poverty                         share of poverty of poverty
                                         (P0)      (P2)                                     (P0)       (P2)


Accra                             8.2          0.231           0.017                 8.8         0.038          0.002
Urban Coastal                     8.7          0.283           0.024                 7.8         0.242          0.028
Urban Forest                     11.0          0.258           0.022                11.8         0.182          0.020
Urban Savannah                    5.3          0.378           0.069                 4.8         0.430          0.042
Rural Coastal                    14.2          0.525           0.067                14.6         0.452          0.061
Rural Forest                     29.6          0.616           0.106                31.6         0.380          0.044
Rural Savannah                   23.1          0.730           0.161                20.6         0.700          0.178

All                            100.0           0.517           0.088              100.0          0.395          0.066
Source: Authors’ calculation from the Ghana Living Standards Survey, 1991/92 and 1998/99.
Notes: sample share is expressed in percent. P 0, P2 denote values of the P poverty indices for =0, 2 respectively.




Table 3:                Trends in incidence of poverty by main economic activity of household,
                        1991/92 and 1998/99

Main economic                                 1991/92                                        1998/99
activity                    Population share                                    Population
                                                             P0                   share                     P0
Public sector empl.                 13.5                   0.347                  10.7                    0.227
Private formal                       3.9                   0.303                   4.9                    0.113
empl.
Private informal                     3.1                   0.386                     2.9                  0.252
empl.
Export farmers                       6.3                   0.640                     7.0                  0.387
Food crop farmers                   43.6                   0.681                    38.6                  0.594
Non-farm self                       27.6                   0.384                    33.8                  0.286
empl.
Non-working                          2.0                   0.188                     2.1                  0.204

All                                100.0                   0.517                   100.0                  0.395
Source: Authors’ calculation from the Ghana Living Standards Survey, 1991/92 and 1998/99.
Note: Notation as defined in table 1.
Figure 1: Poverty incidence curve, Ghana 1991/92 to 1998/99


          Poverty Incidence curve
     1             Y ear 1             Y ear 2




    .75




     .5




    .25




     0
          0                         10000000               20000000   30000000
                                           Welf are indicator
Table 4:              Trends in incidence of poverty by industry of main occupation of
                      household (national accounts classification), 1991/92 and 1998/99


Main economic activity                              1991/92                                 1998/99
                                         Population                           Population
                                           share               P0               share                   P0
  Agriculture and livestock                51.6              0.668              46.9                  0.558
  Forestry and logging                      0.8              0.200               0.2                  0.344
  Fishing                                   0.9              0.486               2.2                  0.336
Agriculture                                53.3              0.658              49.3                  0.547

  Mining and quarrying                        0.8            0.292                 1.2                0.071
  Manufacturing                               8.7            0.426                10.5                0.288
  Electricity, water & gas                    0.2            0.130                 0.3                0.237
  Construction                                1.6            0.450                 1.9                0.318
Industrial                                   11.4            0.414                13.9                0.272

  Wholesale and retail trade                 17.0            0.352                18.6                0.267
  Transport, storage & comms                  2.8            0.326                 3.4                0.108
  Finance, real estate and                    0.7            0.166                 1.0                0.147
  business services
  Public admin, defence and                  12.8            0.348                11.9                0.236
  other services
Services                                     33.3            0.344                34.8                0.238

Non-working                                   2.0            0.242                 2.0                0.210

All                                          100.0           0.517               100.0                0.395
Source: Authors’ calculation from the Ghana Living Standards Survey, 1991/92 and 1998/99.
Table 5:           Rates of pro-poor growth: Percentage changes in welfare measure
                   between 1991/92 and 1998/99 at different points (not annualised)


                          Total change at        Total change at         Total change at           Total change at
                               mean                  median              10th percentile           20th percentile
By locality
Accra                             6.0                    8.6                    10.1                     10.7
Other urban                       3.5                    3.1                     1.4                      1.2
Rural Coastal                     2.8                    1.7                    -0.2                      0.1
Rural Forest                      6.7                    7.5                     5.5                      6.5
Rural Savannah                    1.6                    -1.5                    0.7                      0.3
GHANA                             4.6                    4.2                     1.4                      1.8

Note: Authors’ calculation from the Ghana Living Standards Survey, 1991/92 and 1998/99.



Figure 2: Growth incidence curve, Ghana

Note: this graph and the following five say annual growth rates on the vertical axis,
THIS IS INCORRECT, it is the total percentage change over the period.



          Growth Incidence curve: Ghana
      8                                                                     Growth i nc idenc e c urve
                                                                            Mean growth rate for poores t p%
      7                                                                     Growth rate in m ean
                                                                            Growth rate at m edian

      6                                                                     Mean of growth rates



      5

      4




           0                 20                 40                 60                  80                100
                                                     Percentiles
Figures 3 to 5: Growth incidence curves: localities of Ghana (5 localities)

Figure 3: Accra
        Growth Incidence curve: Accra
                                                                 Growth i nc idenc e c urve
                                                                 Mean growth rate for poores t p%
                                                                 Growth rate in m ean
                                                                 Growth rate at m edian
                                                                 Mean of growth rates
    8
    7
    6
    5
    4




        0               20               40                 60              80                100
                                              Percentiles




Figure 4: Other Urban
        Growth Incidence curve: Other Urban
    8                                                            Growth i nc idenc e c urve
                                                                 Mean growth rate for poores t p%
    7
                                                                 Growth rate in m ean
                                                                 Growth rate at m edian
    6
                                                                 Mean of growth rates
    5

    4




        0               20               40                 60              80                100
                                              Percentiles
Figure 5: Rural Coastal
        Growth Incidence curve: Rural Coastal
    8                                                              Growth i nc idenc e c urve
                                                                   Mean growth rate for poores t p%
    7
                                                                   Growth rate in m ean
    6
                                                                   Growth rate at m edian
    5                                                              Mean of growth rates

    4




        0               20               40                   60              80                100
                                                Percentiles


Figure 6: Rural Forest
        Growth Incidence curve: Rural Forest
                                                                   Growth i nc idenc e c urve
                                                                   Mean growth rate for poores t p%
    8
                                                                   Growth rate in m ean
                                                                   Growth rate at m edian

    7                                                              Mean of growth rates




    6


    5


    4




        0               20               40                   60              80                100
                                                Percentiles
Figure 7: Rural Savannah
        Growth Incidence curve: Rural Savannah
    8                                                            Growth i nc idenc e c urve
                                                                 Mean growth rate for poores t p%
    7
                                                                 Growth rate in m ean
    6                                                            Growth rate at m edian
                                                                 Mean of growth rates
    5

    4




        0               20               40                 60              80                100
                                              Percentiles
Table 6:           Changes in the incidence of poverty 1991/92-1998/99, decomposed into
                   growth and redistribution effects, by geographic locality and by household
                   main economic activity

                           Total change           Growth effect           Redistribution   Residual
                                                                             effect
By locality
Accra                            -19.4                   -10.1                    -9.3        0.0
Other urban                       -4.2                    -9.8                     5.6        0.0
Rural Coastal                     -7.3                   -10.5                     3.2        0.0
Rural Forest                     -23.7                   -22.5                    -1.2        0.0
Rural Savannah                    -3.0                    -4.5                     1.5        0.0
GHANA                            -12.3                   -13.1                     0.9        0.0

By economic activity
Public sector                    -12.0                   -10.6                    -1.4        0.0
empl.
Private formal                   -19.0                   -16.4                    -2.6        0.0
empl.
Private informal                 -13.3                   -14.4                     1.0        0.0
empl.
Export farmers                   -25.4                   -23.0                    -2.4        0.0
Food crop farmers                 -8.6                    -8.6                    -0.0        0.0
Non-farm self                     -9.8                   -11.6                     1.9        0.0
empl.
Non-working                         1.6                   -8.1                     9.7        0.0

GHANA                            -12.3                   -13.1                     0.9        0.0

Note: Authors’ calculation from the Ghana Living Standards Survey, 1991/92 and 1998/99.
Table 7:          Reductions in poverty 1991/92-1998/99 by geographic locality,
                  decomposed into intra-group and migration effects (percentage
                  contributions)

                                           P0                          P1                   P2
Intra-group effects:
   Accra                                           12.94                        7.62               5.47
   Other Urban                                      8.49                        6.38               6.44
   Rural Coastal                                    8.37                        6.07               4.12
   Rural Forest                                    57.15                       76.99              86.27
   Rural Savannah                                   5.66                       -9.14             -18.17

Total intra-group effect                           92.62                       87.91              84.12
Total migration effect                              3.18                        5.48               7.94
Residual (interaction)                              4.20                        6.61               7.94

Total                                             100.00                      100.00             100.00
Source: Authors’ calculation from the Ghana Living Standards Survey, 1991/92 and 1998/99.



Table 8:          Reductions in poverty 1991/92-1998/99 by main economic activity,
                  decomposed into intra-group and migration effects (percentage
                  contributions)


                                                        P0                          P1
                                                                                                     P2
Intra-group effects:
   Public sector empl.                             13.22                       15.94              16.75
   Private formal                                   6.10                        4.57               4.63
        empl.
   Private informal                                  3.33                        2.25              1.88
        empl.
   Export farmers                                  12.98                       19.29              23.72
   Food crop farmers                               30.63                       26.85              21.23
   Non-farm self empl.                             22.00                       16.55              13.80
   Non-working                                     -0.25                       -0.87              -1.31

Total intra-group effect                           88.00                       84.59              80.69
Total migration effect                             10.60                       14.99              18.50
Residual (interaction)                              1.40                        0.43               0.80

Total                                             100.00                      100.00             100.00
Source: Authors’ calculation from the Ghana Living Standards Survey, 1991/92 and 1998/99.

				
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