إدارة مصادر المياه فى مصر

					   ENERGY for IRRIGATION WATER in EGYPT




OUTLINE
1- Background (water resources in specific)
2- Current and future Water Resources and requirements
3- Characteristics of the irrigation system in Egypt
4- Data & Estimates to calculate Energy required to lift irrigation water



                          Energy & Irrig. Water in EGYPT
          Background
•   Egypt is an arid country

•   Egypt area 1 million Km2
    Cultivated Land : 8.3 Million Fed. (@ 3.5 Million hectares)
    Cropped Area : 15 Million Fed. (@ 6.3 Million hectares)

    - Mean rainfall   : 18 mm / year
    - Max. avg. Temp. : 38-49 (C)

•   Population Census
     – was 25 millions in 1952
     – is 73 millions now (2007)
     – Will be 90 millions in 2025                                                                        MEDITERRANEAN SEA
                                                                                                                                                           aita
                                                                                                                                                           Dmet
     - Annual growth : @ 2.0 %                                                                                           LXNRA
                                                                                                                        AEADI                                 ot ad
                                                                                                                                                             Pr Si




                                                                                                                                                     ta
                                                                                                                                                  iet
                                                                                                                                     Ros

                                                                                                                                               Dam
                                                                                                                                                                             lSlm
                                                                                                                                                                             E-aa




                                                                                                                                        ett
                                                                                                                                                  s a ly
                                                                                                                                                  I m ia a S E
                                                                                                                                                            UZ
                                                                                                                                                                                rjc
                                                                                                                                                                               Poet




                                                                                                                                           a
                                                                                                                                                             AA
                                                                                                                                                            CNL
     - GDP (US$) : 1090                                                                                        QtaaDpeso
                                                                                                                atr ersin
                                                                                                                                   ia
                                                                                                                                   Gz                 CIO
                                                                                                                                                       AR
                                                                                                                                                            uz
                                                                                                                                                           Se
                                                                                                                                                                             0
                                                                                                                                                                             50
                                                                                         ia ersin
                                                                                        SwbDpeso                              Lk Qrn
                                                                                                                               ae au                        0
                                                                                                                                                           50                 IA
                                                                                                                                                                             SNI
                                                                                                                                   au
                                                                                                                                  Fym

•   Population Distribution                                                                                                                                                   00
                                                                                                                                                                              10
                                                                                                                                                                                   62
                                                                                                                                                                                   24m
                                                                                                                                                                                    SAUDI ARABIA




                                                                                LIBYA
     –    20% in greater Cairo                                                                                          aaia ai
                                                                                                                        Bhry Oss
                                                                                                                                                  WSEN
                                                                                                                                                  ETR
                                                                                                                                                   DSR
                                                                                                                                                    EET
                                                                                                                                                                  0
                                                                                                                                                                  50


     –    40% in Delta governates                                                            RA
                                                                                            GET                      aar ai
                                                                                                                    FrfaOss




                                                                                                                                                          Ni
                                                                                                                                                          le
     –    33% in Upper Egypt governates                                                       AD
                                                                                             SN
                                                                                                                             giutrl ad
                                                                                                                            Arclua Lns




                                                                                  L
                                                                                                                                                                                    RED SEA




                                                                                        I
                                                                                                 E
                                                                                                SA
     –


                                                                                        B
          6% in Costal governates                                                                                               50
                                                                                                                                0         hra
                                                                                                                                          Kag




                                                                                            Y
                                                                                                                   aha ai
                                                                                                                   Dkl Oss
                                                                                                     0
                                                                                                     50




                                                                                            A
                                                                                                N
     –
                                                                                                                                        hrg ai
                                                                                                                                        KaaaOss

          1% over rest of country                                                                                                                                       sa
                                                                                                                                                                        Awn
                                                                                                                   NwVle Poet
                                                                                                                    e aly rjc                         sa ih a
                                                                                                                                                      AwnHg Dm




                                                                                                     D E
•

                                                                                                         S E
                                                                                                 00
                                                                                                10
    95% of the Population Occupy 5% of the land area                                18m
                                                                                     02                                                                                         0
                                                                                                                                                                               50




                                                                                                             R T
                                                                                                                                                               Lake Nasser                 17
                                                                                                                                                                                          28m

                                                                                                                                                          SUDAN
                                               Energy & Irrig. Water in EGYPT            l giutrl ad
                                                                                        OdArclua Lns

                                                                                         e elmto rjcs
                                                                                        NwRcaainPoet
       Population growth and per capita water availability deterioration



    Major Issues Facing Egypt’s Sustainable Water Development

•    Unbalanced population distribution and continuous immigration from rural to urban areas.
•    Lack of suitable potable water and sanitation in some regions, especially the rural ones.
•    Decrease of per-capita agricultural land area and share in main food production.
•    Continuous decrease of per-capita water availability.
•    Sustainable Energy resources

                                            Energy & Irrig. Water in EGYPT
         Egypt’s Current & Future
    Water Resources and Requirements
•    Conventional Water Resources
    1.    Nile River
    2.    Ground water in Deserts
    3.    Rainfall and Flash Flood harvesting
    4.    Desalination of brackish water in remote areas


•        Non - Conventional Water Resources
     1.Ground water in the Nile Valley and Delta
    2. Reuse of Agricultural Drainage water
    3. Reuse of treated waste water
    4. Desalination


                       Energy & Irrig. Water in EGYPT
                                                                                                                8.4                                                              Seepage 8.4
                                                                                                                                                  Groundwater
Overall Water Balance for the Year 2005 as in NWRP

                                                                                                   7.4                       Official Reuse in The Delta and Fayoum
                                                                       E from Free                                                                                                              7.4
                                                                         Surfaces                  4.0                               Direct Return to the Nile Reuse                             4.0
                                                                               2.5
                                                                                                                        Effective Rainfall                                              Evaporation
                                                                                                                              1.3                                    Fishery
                                                                                                                                                                                              0.2                 Outflow to sea




                                                                                                                                                                                0.4
                                                                                                                                                                   0.6
                                                                                     46.4 68.6                        49.7            68.8                26.9                                       26.7
                                                               HAD      55.5                                                                                                                                          9.5 Sea &




                                                                                                                                                      21.7
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Lakes




                                                                                                                                           63.6
                                                                                                                              17.8
                                                                                                                      18.7
                                                                                                          0.2
                                                                               6.6

                                                                                       2.4                                                         Agricultural Land                     38.7                Fresh Water
                                                                                                                                                                                                               To Sea

                                                                                                                                                                                          3.2                               0.2
                                                     All Quantities                                                                          Industrial Use               0.9
                                                                                                                                                                                      Drainage to
                                                      in BCM                                                                                                                          desert and E
                                                     Inputs                                                                                                                           from fallow
                                                                                                                               Navigation                                             land
                                                                                      Sewage
                                                                                                                  2.4




                                                     Outputs                         Treatment                                                                           2.6
                                                                                                                                                                                      Water Balance 2017 – Nile System
                                                                                                                 Municipal Use                               1.6                                  (NWRP)

                                                                                             4.0                             3.9                                                                            0.3
                                                          DGW         4.0                                                                                                                                            0.3   Desert
                                                                                                                                                    0.3
                                                                                                                                     3.9
                                                                                                    0.1




                                                                                                                                                  Agricultural Land                     3.6         Evapotranspiration

                                                                                                                             Municipal Use                         0.1
                                                                                                                                                                                         Water Balance 2017 – Desert
                                                                                                            Energy & Irrig. Water in EGYPT                                                         (NWRP)
         Current & Future Water Resources in Egypt

                                                                                            Future – 2017                                           (Billion m3)
Current (Billion m3)
                                                                                            •    Nile Water                                                             55.5
•   Nile Water                                                        55.5
                                                                                            •    Drainage Reuse                                                          8.5
•   Drainage Reuse                                                     5.5
                                                                                            •    Ground water                                                           12.4
•   Ground water                                                       7.5
                                                                                            •    Treated Sewage                                                          2.0
•   Treated Sewage                                                     0.7
                                                                                            •    Jongli Canal                                                            2.0
•   Jongli Canal                                                       0.0
                                                                                            •    Rain Harvesting                                                         1.5
•   Rain Harvesting                                                    1.0                      ------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------
•   --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                                                                 Total 81.9
                                             Total 70.2
                                                                                            + Savings from Irrigation
                                                                                             Improvement projects                                                 @ 3.0




                                                                              Energy & Irrig. Water in EGYPT
Current & Future Water Requirements in Egypt

Current - 2007                                                                          (Billion m3)                            Future – 2017                                                                      (Billion m3)
•   Irrigated Agriculture                                                                                       59.0            •   Irrigated Agriculture                                                                                          68.1
•   Municipal                                                                                                    6.5            •   Municipal                                                                                                       6.2
•   Industrial                                                                                                   7.6            •   Industrial                                                                                                     10.5
•   Evaporation network                                                                                          2.2            •   Evaporation network                                                                                             2.1
•   Evaporation Fisheries                                                                                        0.3            •   Evaporation Fisheries                                                                                           0.4
•   Navigation or                                                                                                               •   Navigation or
•    Environmental needs                                                                                         0.2            •
                                                                                                                                •
                                                                                                                                    Environmental needs
                                                                                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0.2
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




                                                               – TOTAL                                          75.8                                                                                                     TOTAL                     87.5




                                                                                                                 Energy & Irrig. Water in EGYPT
                  Challenges

• Growing demand-supply gap.
• Deterioration of water quality.
• Intensification of inter-sectorial waters allocation
  problems.
• Inadequacy of governmental investments.
• Limited cost recovery and operational performance.
• Excessive government involvement.


                Energy & Irrig. Water in EGYPT
   Characteristics of the Irrigation System
    with respect to Energy Requirements

• Lifting Irrigation in Old Lands             (Nile Valley & Delta)

• Lifting Irrigation in New Lands (Reclamation Projects)
• Lifting Agricultural Drainage Water:
   – for Disposal
   – for Re-Use
• Recycling Water for Fisheries




                    Energy & Irrig. Water in EGYPT
       Characteristics of the Irrigation System with respect to Energy Requirements


• Irrigation in Old Lands (Nile Valley & Delta)
   – Gravity/surface irrigation where fields are covered by water (with high water
      duties ranging between 35 to 70 m3/fed/day) (@50 Billion m3/yr)
   - Branch canals and mesqas (tertiary channels) supply water below ground level
       (means lifting for average of @ 1.50 m)
   - Farmers are required to lift water at head of marwas (10 - 20 fed)
   -   Traditionally, lifting by animal-driven saqias
         • built-in controls helped to ensure equity
   -   Over last 20 to 30 years, saqias replaced by mobile pump-sets
         • higher pumping rate
         • multiplication of lifting points (huge number)
         • daytime irrigation - night storage
   –    Low water use efficiency of this system leads to excessive drainage water
   – Improvement projects started to collect these single random point lifting and
     use electric powered pumps
   – Illegal pumping from drains at canal tails (more lifting)


                                       Energy & Irrig. Water in EGYPT
      Characteristics of the Irrigation System with respect to Energy Requirements


• Irrigation in Old Lands




                            Energy & Irrig. Water in EGYPT
Characteristics of the Irrigation System with respect to Energy Requirements



• Irrigation in New Lands (Reclamation Projects)
    – Mainly in the deserts where water is pumped from groundwater
      wells or from canals to the reclaimed lands

    – Groundwater depths vary from 50 to 300 meters

    – Planned to use pressurized systems (Sprinkler & Drip - with typical
        farm size that needs @ 50 meters head)

    – Relatively High water-use efficiency, where Water duties range
      between 20-30 m3/fed/day

    – Land reclamation projects of the high lands in upper Egypt usually
      use series of pumping stations

    – Giant projects use large pumping stations:
          • Toshka: Upper Egypt & El-Salam: Sinai & West Delta, etc…

                                  Energy & Irrig. Water in EGYPT
                                                 Horizontal Expansion Plan Till Year
Horizontal Expansion Projects                      2017 of 3.4 Million Feddan

Intensive land reclamation projects in
Egypt started early in the fifties and
continued.
The present horizontal expansion plans aim
at adding about 3.4 million feddans (@1.4
million hectares) by year 2017.

The horizontal expansion plan would
ultimately increase the total irrigated area to
some 12 million feddans which is considered
absolute maximum to be irrigated using the
presently available water resources.                          Achieved from(97-2000)    0.36 Million Feddans

                                                          Under Implementation         through plan 2002
                                                                                        1.897 Million Feddans

                                                            Planned till 2017   1.29 Million Feddans




                                 Energy & Irrig. Water in EGYPT
Characteristics of the Irrigation System with respect to Energy Requirements



• Irrigation in New Lands




                                  Energy & Irrig. Water in EGYPT
Characteristics of the Irrigation System with respect to Energy Requirements



• Lifting Agricultural Drainage Water
     – for Disposal
           • About 10 Billion m3 of water are disposed by pumping to the sea
             each year
           • Some pumping is needed along some main drains
           • Some drainage water is pumped to lake Qarun in fayoum


     – for Re-Use
           • There are about 6 Billion m3 of water are mixed with canal waters
             for re-use (average lift is about 4-5 meters)




                                  Energy & Irrig. Water in EGYPT
Characteristics of the Irrigation System with respect to Energy Requirements



• Recycling Water for Fisheries
• Fish farming is a growing business in Egypt.
• Estimated area is roughly about 20,000 feddans, average depth
  about 1.50 meters
• Water is pumped from drains or canals to the fishery and back from
  the fisheries to the drains

• Average lift to the fisheries is about 2 meters, and thatto the drains
  is about 0.75 meters

• Flow rate is about 250-300 m3/day/feddan (to change all water once
    per month)

•   Breeding season is about 6 month only



                                  Energy & Irrig. Water in EGYPT
              Data & Estimates for
    Energy Calculations to Lift Irrigation Water
•   Data for demands and Estimates for lifting of irrigation water in the old lands
•   Data & Estimates for agricultural drainage water volumes & lifting for reuse
    and disposal
•   Data for demands and lifting for irrigation water in new lands (expansion
    projects) including pumping deep GW & in farm pumping
•   Data & Estimates for energy required for recycling water in fisheries
•
•   Most of these data vary Temporarily & Spatially

•   CURRENT & FUTURE Calculations are needed
•




                            Energy & Irrig. Water in EGYPT
     Temporal Variation of Irrigation Demands
                        Water Requirement Distribution as % from the year average
                                             (Low er Delta)
    18.0%


    16.0%


    14.0%


    12.0%


    10.0%
%




    8.0%


    6.0%


    4.0%


    2.0%


    0.0%
            Jan   Feb       Mar     Apr     May      june    july    Aug      Sep   Oct   Nov   Dec

                                                   Month



                                   Energy & Irrig. Water in EGYPT
Energy & Irrig. Water in EGYPT
Need for Data and Reasonable Calculations




              Energy & Irrig. Water in EGYPT
Gap between Oil Production and Consumption




           Energy & Irrig. Water in EGYPT
Natural Gas Production in Egypt (1980-2000)




             Energy & Irrig. Water in EGYPT

				
DOCUMENT INFO