We all know that durian smell strongly, that it was "stink to high heaven," is no exaggeration. But in Thailand, because of its high nutritional value, often used as a patient, postpartum women, the best food for nourishing the body. Durian of heat, can help people better blood circulation and cold, relieve dysmenorrhea, dysmenorrhea particularly troubled by the female for food. Rich in starch and durian, but a few very low fat content, if that can be used instead of dinner or breakfast, then there will be a good weight loss.
Agnote 664 No. D33 March 1996 Agdex No: 238/10 ISSN No: 0157-8243 Durian 2. Growing and Marketing T. K. Lim, formerly Horticulture Division, Darwin CULTURAL PRACTICES The planting distance commonly employed in northern Australia is a 10-12 x 10-12 m square or a triangle. A permanent natural windbreak needs to be established before crop establishment because of the strong winds experienced in the growing areas. Attributes of a good natural windbreak are: (a) vigorous growth with a non-spreading root system, (b) good durable lower limbs and permeable canopy, (c) resistance to termites and root diseases, (d) not an alternate host for pests and diseases of the main crop and (e) amenable to hedging, topping and root pruning. Durian requires some light shading (dried palm fronds or synthetic fabric) during the first two years after field establishment especially around Darwin. When the tree is 2-4 years old, some pruning of straight vertical and criss-cross tangling branches is carried out to open up the canopy. On mature bearing trees no pruning is carried out. Trials are in progress in Darwin on flower and fruit thinning. The aim is to have fruits evenly on a branch to obviate limb breakage because of overloading and to have uniformity in fruit size, shape and quality. IRRIGATION In the dry monsoonal environment of the Top End water shortage can play a critical role. Durian is extremely sensitive to drought stress from the seedling to the mature, bearing stage but varieties differ in drought susceptibility. 2 Durian is a shallow rooted tree with 60% of the total root length confined within 60 cm of the crown and 0-30 cm from the soil surface. Very little is known about the crop water requirement of the durian, tentative recommendation is to apply rates of up to 2,000 L/tree/week for trees with 4 m canopy during September to November and lower rates during other months. Mulching trees can also help to conserve soil moisture. FERTILISATION Since durian is planted on poor soils around Darwin fertilisation is paramount to successful crop establishment. However, very little is understood about durian nutrient demand and fertiliser rates used by growers are ad-hoc and subjective. Currently 3 basal fertiliser applications are employed by growers, with rates increasing with age of tree. In the Northern territory, a young seedling receives 4 applications of N:P2O5:K2O =15:15:15 fertiliser mixture. Trees after 4 years are given 3 applications in January/February, just after harvest; in May/June just before flowering and in September/October during fruit development. PESTS AND DISEASES In the Northern Territory, green ants Oecophylla smaragdina and mealy bugs deform and dry up flower buds and deform developing fruits while meat ants Iridomyrmex sp. devour flowers. Minor insect pests include Rhyparida beetles which damage young foliage and red banded thrips and mites on developing fruits. For tropical fruit trees in general, the Entomology Section recommends the use of the following chemicals for the pests listed. Growers are advised to contact Entomology Section for more detailed information and other pest problems. fruit fly dimethioate caterpillars trichlorophon flower caterpillars Bacillus thuringensis red banded thrips dimethioate, endosulfan swarming beetles endosulfan ants chlorpyrofos mealy bugs malathion, petoleum oil borers carbaryl dust, malathion broad mites sulphur, dicolfol two spotted mites fenbutin oxide clofentazine These chemicals are sold under several brand names and are available from rural suppliers. Follow the directions on the container when using them. In the Northern Territory stem lesions around wounds have been associated with Phomopsis and Lasiodiplodia theobromae. A Phytophthora sp. was isolated from a dead tree at Howard Springs. A minor disease observed around Darwin is leaf spot caused by the alga, Cephaleuros virescens. HARVESTING AND POSTHARVEST HANDLING Most growers pick ripe fruits when they drop from the tree. Such fruits have a very short shelf live of 2-3 days. To reduce the impact of the fall, tarpaulins or nets can be erected below the 3 tree during the ripening months to reduce fruit damage. Storing intact fallen ripe fruits at 5 to 10°C can extend the shelf-life by 1-2 days. Selective harvest before the fruit is ripe as is practised in Thailand, is the preferred way as the fruit will have a longer shelf life, but this needs skill and experience. Thai growers used a combination of harvesting indices in selective harvesting and these include the number of days from full bloom, colour, elasticity and disposition of the spines, intensity of the odour emitted, the sound heard when the fingertips are run through the furrows between the spines, changes in fruit stalks and water flotation tests. More investigations are needed in this area of harvesting indices for durian in northern Australia. Harvested fruit should be stored at 15°C which will extend their shelf life to 3 weeks and quick frozen fresh fruit retains its flavour for more than 3 months. More work on packaging of fresh durian is needed to eliminate the odour during long distance transport of the fruit. MARKET STATUS AND POTENTIAL No accurate estimate of the present production or sale figure is available because of the meagre size and the embryonic stage of the industry in Australia. However, based on prices ranging from $8-12/kg received by growers in Queensland and the Northern Territory, the potential of the industry is bright. Assuming an orchard with a 100 trees/ha having an average yield of 30 fruits/tree at year 10 and a farm price of $10/kg with an average fruit weighing 2 kg - a gross return of $60,000/ha can be realised. One grower in the NT harvested about 12 fruits from a five year old grafted tree. In Thailand and Malaysia average yields reported are around 10-18 tons/ha with 50 fruits per tree and each fruit weighing 1.5 to 4 kg. Main consumer demand lies with the ethnic Asian population, especially from Southeast Asia and Hong Kong. There is also an appreciable ethnic European demand. The domestic market can absorb production from 100 ha. Most connoisseurs prefer fresh fruit, but frozen products are possibly also acceptable. Currently, import of frozen fruit in slices or whole fruit comes from Thailand. The export potential for durian is good, as production in northern Australia can fill the market window from January to April (late December to early February in the Northern Territory and February to April in north Queensland). Recently, Japan started importing durian from Malaysia and Thailand in the form of excised flesh, minus the thorny skin, packed in sealed polythene punnets. This form of packaging alleviates the offensive smell, keeps produce fresh, and poses no problem with airline transportation. Taiwan imports huge quantities from Thailand. The vast market potential in China, and South Korea has not been tapped. Please visit us on our website at www.primaryindustry.nt.gov.au While all care has been taken to ensure that information contained in this Agnote is true and correct at the time of publication, the Northern Territory of Australia gives no warranty or assurance, and makes no representation as to the accuracy of any information or advice contained in this publication, or that it is suitable for your intended use. No serious, business or investment decisions should be made in reliance on this information without obtaining independent/or professional advice in relation to your particular situation.
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