VIII. Animal Diversity I Invertebrates (Chapter 22) A. Characteristics shared by all animals 1. Are they single celled, colonial, and multicellular? 2. What is the mode of nutrition? 3. What type of reproduction and what dominants haploid or diploid? 4. Do they have cell walls? 5. Are motile at some stage in their life? 6. Do they respond to external stimuli? B. Develop in one of two ways 1. Protostome a Where does the body cavity form? b What kind of cleavage? c What develops from blastopore? 2 Deuterostome a Where does the body cavity form? b What kind of cleavage? c What develops from blastopore? C. Phylum Porifera 1. Characteristics a. Where are they found? b. Single cellular, colonial or multicellular? c. What type of symmetry? d. How do they circulate water? e. How do they feed? f. What type of digestion? g. What type of skeleton? h. What type of reproduction? i. When are they motile and when are they sessile? 2. List the 3 major cell types a. b. c. 1) How did they get this name? 2) List 4 of there many functions a) b) c) d) 3. Reproduction a. asexual includes 1) budding a) Briefly explain what happens with external budding. b) What are gemmules and what do they do? 2) What is regeneration in sponges? b. Sexual 1) Where are the sperm released? 2) How do they get into another sponge? 3) What occurs once in the other sponge? 4) What results from step 3 and how does it get out of the sponge? 5) Once they are dispersed to new location what do the larvae do? 4. What is classification is based on? a. Class Calcarea 1) What kind of spicules does the Scypha have and what are they made of? b. Class Hexactinellida 1) What genus is a demo for lab? What kind of spicules does it have? 2) What is it give as in the Orient and why? c. Class Demospongia 1) What kind of spicules are found in this class? 5. Reaggregation – a. Who forced a sponge through a cloth and what happened? b. What did he let it stand in for several weeks and what eventually happened? 6. Uses & Importance a. What are they used for after spicules are removed? b. What do fish & mollusks use them for? c. What do marine animals use them for? D. Phylum Cnidaria 1. Characteristics a. Where are they found? b. What kind of symmetry? c. How are the cells organized? Do they have organs? d. What kind of digestive system do they have? e. How are the nerve cells organized? f. What defensive cells do they have? g. Name the two body forms. h. What kind of reproduction? i. What is the name of their larval form? 2. Reproduction a. What are their two ways of asexual reproduction? b. sexual – What do the zygotes do until the right conditions come? 3. Body plan a. What is the outer layer called ? What is the innermost layer called? b. What is the mesoglea? List its 4 main functions 1) 2) 3) 4) 4. Classification a. Class Hydrozoa – What does the name mean? 1) What is it considered? 2) List the 4 examples covered in the lab manual a) b) c) d) b. Class Scyphozoa -What does the name mean? 1) 2) Do they have both polyps & medusa stage? 3) List the example from lab c. Class Anthozoa – What does the name mean? 1) Do they have both polyps & medusa stage? 2) List examples from lab manual a) 1] b) 1] c) d) 5. Uses & Importance a. In orient what are some jellyfish used for? b. What is coral used for? c. What is a medicinal use given in lecture? E. Platyhelminthes - Flatworms 1. Characteristics a. Where are they found? b. How many tissue types? c. What term is used to describe their absence or presence of a body cavity? d. What kind of symmetry? e. What kind of digestive system? f. What kind of excretory system? g. Monoecious or dioecious? 1) What type of asexual reproduction? a) 2) What type of sexual reproduction? a) h. What type of development direct or indirect? i. More developed nervous system: moderate cephalization List the different type of receptors they have: 1) 2) 3) 4) 2. Classification a. Class Turbellaria 1) Where and how do they live? 2) List their two main Sensory organs – a) b) 3) What example was given in lecture? b. Class Trematoda 1) Where and how do they live? 2) What kind of digestive system? 3) List 3 adaptations to parasitism a) b) c) 4) Life cycle of Clonorchis sinensis a) How do humans pick them up b) Where are they common? What would be a way to reduce occurrence in humans? c. Class Cestoda 1) Where and how do they live? 2) What type of digestive system? Do they have any special sense organs? 3) Life cycle – see page 433 4) List two ways to avoid infection a) b) 5) List 2 types of tapeworms that infect humans a) b) 3. Importance that was covered in lecture a. b. Pseudocoelomates List the advantages of a false body cavity given in lecture F. Phylum Nematoda 1. Characteristics a. Where and how do they live? b. What type of symmetry? c. What type of body cavity? d. How many tissue layers? e. What type of digestive tract? f. What systems do they lack? g. Monoecious or dioecious? h. Do they have an excretory system? 2. Classification a. Nematoda (thread) 1) special characterisitcs a) Where and how do they live? b) Describe their body shape? c) Are they segmented? Do they have appendages? d) What type of muscles? e) Where is the cuticle and what is it made of? f) Do they have asexual reproduction? g) Direct or indirect development? 2) Where are the many free-living forms found? And what do they do for us? a) How many in 1 sq meter? How many in 1 rotting apple? b) Caenorhabditis elegans - What is it used in? 3) parasites - How many different species? a) Trichinella spiralis causes b) Ascaris lumbicoides c) Ancylostoma caninum What is their common name? d) Enterobious vermicularis What is their common name? b. Phylum Rotifera 1) characteristics a) Why are they called wheel bearers? b) What color are they? c) Where and how do they live? 4. Importance - from lecture a. b. c. Coelomates - all triploblastic G. Phylum Mollusca 1. Characteristics a. Where are they found? b. What type of body cavity? What type of symmetry? c. How many organ systems present? d. Monoecious or dioecious? e. What is the body covered by and what is it used for? f. What do most produce? g. What do they have that they use for creeping or burrowing or propulsion? h. What contains internal organs? 2. Classification a. Class Polyplacophora 1) What do they look like? 2) What is the dorsal surface usually covered by? 3) Where do they live? 4) Do they have a head? 5) How quick can they move? 6) What do they consume? b. Class Gastropoda 1) Do they have a head? 2) Do they have a shell? 3) Where are they found? 4) 5)What do they eat? 6) Monoecious or dioecious? c. Class Bivalvia 1) How many shells? 2) Do they have a head? 3) Where are they found? 4) What type of feeders are they? 5) How do they get oxygen? 6) Do they have a radula? 7) What is special about their foot? 8) in lab will look at Anodonta freshwater mussel. c. Class Cephalopoda What is included here? 1) Do they have a shell? 2) What does their head have? 3) Where are they found? 4) What do they eat? 5) What has their foot been modified into? 6) How do they move? 7) What type of circulatory system? 3. Importance & Uses a. b. What are shells use for in some cultures? c. What do oysters produce? d. What did island peoples use them for? e. What used to be made out of shells? f. What is extracted from cuttle fish? g. What is a cuttlebone used for? h. What is extracted from a Mediterranean snail? H. Phylum Annelida 1. Characterisitcs a. Are they segmented? b. What kind of appendages? c. What is the body covered with? d. What type of circulatory system? e. Monecious or dioecious? f. How do they respire? g. What type of digestive system? h. What does the excretory system consists of? i. What does the nervous system consist of ? 2. Class Polychaeta a. Where are they found and when are they active? b. Are they segmented? c. Do they have a distinct head? d. Lateral appendages 1) What do they have on them? 2) What are they used for? e. Monoecious or dioecious? 3. Class Oligochaeta a. Where are they found? b. Do they have a head? c. Do they have setae? Parapodia? d. Are they segmented? e. How do they get their food? f. Monoecious or dioecious? 4. Class Hirudinea a. How many segments? b. Do they have setae? Parapodia? c. Do they have suckers? d. Where are they found? e. Monoecious or dioecious? e. Do they have a head? f. 5. Importance & uses a. What do earthworms do for us? b. What are nightcrawlers used for? c. What do they feed? d. leeches 1) What is their bad side? 2) What is their good? List two advantages of Coelom 1) 2) List the major advantages of segmentation 1) I. Phylum Arthropoda 1. Characteristics a. What kind of appendages? b. Do they have segmented bodies? c. What are their exoskeleton made of? What allows for movement? d. What type of digestive system? What adaptations? e. What type of circulatory system? f. How do they respire? g. What do they use for excretion? h. What is their nervous system? i. Monoecious or dioecious? What type of fertilization? j. How do they compare with other animal phyla? 2. Classification a. Subphylum Trilobita – When did they flourish? 1) Are they extinct? 2) Where did they live? 3) List the 3 body parts: a) b) c) b. Subphylum Chelicerata 1) What do they lack? What are first pair of appendages adapted for? 2) 3) What are the last four pairs modified into? 4) classification a) Class Merostomata – Name the one genus? 1] Where do the ancient marine group date from? 2] Where are they found? 3] When & what does it feed on? 4] Where are its gills? How many eyes and where are they located? b) Class Arachnida What does it include? 1] How many chelicerae? Pedipalps? walking legs? What are they all attached to? 2] What is their food type? 3] How many body parts? Name them? 4] Order Araneae – Common name? a] How many eyes? b] How many have poison glands? c] How many in US have toxins that are dangerous to man? Name them. 1. 2. -How many eyes? What else identifies it? Where is it found outdoors? Where is it found indoors? 5] Scorpions a] Where are they found in the U.S.? b] Are their stings fatal? 6] Harvestman a] How many body parts? b] What do they feed on? 7] Ticks & mites a] Where are they found? b] What do ticks consume and what diseases do they transmit diseases? c. Subphylum Mandibulata 1. Characteristics a. How many regions is the body divided into? b. How many pairs of antennae? c. What do they have instead of chelicerae? d. How many pair of maxilla? 2. Classification a. Class Crustacea - How many antennae? What does it includes? b. Class Chilopoda - What do they have that can make them dangerous? 1) Common name? 2) How many pair of legs per body segment? 3) Where are they found? 4) When are they out and what do they eat? 5) What are the leg numbers? c. Class Diplopoda - What does it include? 1) How many pairs of legs per segment? 2) What do they feed on? 3) How does their movement compare with centipedes? 4) Where do they prefer to be? d. Class Insecta - 1) How many pairs of legs? 2) How many pairs of wings? 3) What are they compared to all land animals? 4) List the three distinct body parts a) b) c) Includes: 5) What is the study of called? 3. Importance & uses a. Which ones give us food? b. Which ones carry disease? c. What do they destroy? d. List some useful products e. What do they do for plants? J. Echinodermata 1. Characteristics a. Where are they all found? b. What type of symmetry as adults? as larva? c. Is the body segmented? d. Do they have a head? e. What kind of endoskeleton? f. How do they move? g. How do they respire? i. Monoecious or dioecious? Internal or external fertilization? 2. Class Asteroidea a. What is their common name? b. What is their shape? c. What distinguishes them from brittle stars? d. What is used for locomotion? e. When not breeding season how are they sexed? f. What do they eat? 3. Class Ophiuroidea a. How are they similar to Asteroidea and how are they different? b. Do they have tube feet? How do they move? c. Common names? d. Where are they found? e. Where do they feed? 4. Class Echinoidea a. Do they have arms? What is their shape? b. Do they have tube feet with suckers? c. What do they have for protection? d. What does this class include? e. What do they eat? 5. Class Holothuoidea a. What is their shape? Do they have arms or spines? b. Do they have tube feet w/ suckers? c. What is around mouth? d. What is their common name? e. What do they eat and how? f. What is their interesting defense technique? 6. Class Crinoidea a. What are they as adults? b. Do they have spines or pedicellariea? c. How many arms? Do they have tube feet? d. Common names? e. 7. Importance & uses a. b. Which of this group are destructive to aquaculture of oysters, clams & mollusks? c. What are they used to study?
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