METHODOLOGY - DOC by HC11120613329

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									            REPORT

AN ASSESSMENT OF VULNERABLE POPULATIONS IN
GAROWE




                JUNE 2005


                SUPPORTED BY

               UNDP-RRIDP


               CONDUCTED BY

           GUARDIAN LOCAL NGO

                   Garowe

            Puntland State of Somalia




                                             1
                              Table of Contents
Table of contents                                 Page
List of Acronyms                                     3
Executive Summary                                    4
1. Introduction                                      8

2.Scope and purpose of the study                     8

3.Overall objective                                  8

4.Specific objectives                                9
5. Methodology                                       9
5.1 Problems encountered                            10

6.Findings of the assessment                        10

6.1 Previous place of residence                     10

6.2 Population characteristics                      11

6.3 Water and sanitation                            13

6.4 General Maternal Health                          13

6.5 Shelter                                          17

6.6 Movements                                        19

6.7 Coping mechanisms                                21

6.8 Protection of rights                             22

6.9 Durable solutions                                22

6.10 Media                                           23

6.11 Priority areas of intervention                 23

7.0 Conclusion                                       24
7.1 Recommendations                                  24

 ANNEX 1                                             25
 ANNEX 11                                            37




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           List of Acronyms

1. IDPs     -    Internally Displaced People

2. HH       -    Household.

3. MCH      -    Maternal Child Health Centre.

4. TBA      -    Traditional Birth Attendant

5. FGM      -    Female Genital Mutilation.

6. RRIDP -       Reintegration of Returnees & Internally Displaced Persons.

7. LNGO -        Local Non Governmental Organization

8. INGO -        International Non Governmental Organization.

9. UNDP -        United Nations Development Programme.

10. UNHCR - United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.

11. UNOCHA - United Nations Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.

12. UNICEF - United Nations Children’s Emergency Fund.

13. WHO-         World Health Organisation

14. WFP         - World Food Programme.




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             EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Garowe, the capital town of Puntland State of Somalia is located in Nugal region
with an estimated of 70,000 people. Garowe also houses the Administration of
Puntland. Like any other parts of Somalia, Garowe was not spared from
experiencing the effects of the civil and natural disasters, which have caused an
influx of IDPs, returnees and urban poor into the town.

               KEY FINDINGS

Demographics
   The estimated number of households for the vulnerable population was
    1,500 or 12,605 people, thus Garowe has the third highest number of
    vulnerable populations in Puntland following Bossaso, and Galkayo.
   Most of these people arrived from the south/ central parts of Somalia,
    within Puntland, Somaliland and others from Ethiopia in search of
    economic opportunities, peace and stability.
   Households average 6 members
   Darood, Rahanweyn and Jareer clans dominate the IDPs, returnees and
    the urban poor in Garowe.
   There are more females (54,2%) than males (45,8%) in the town.
   53,8% of the population is below 17 years of age while 44,3% is between
    18 and 65 years.
   82,0% have attended Madrassa, despite that, they can neither read nor
    write.
   46,6% of the household members survive on casual labour, women are
    mostly engaged as housemaids, selling wares, clothes, tea, hired to sale
    mirror, garbage collection and washing clothes. Men are involved in
    digging toilets, water reservoirs, wells, assisting in the construction
    industry, loading vehicles, slaughtering of animals and working in small
    farms around Garowe.
   Common skills include masonry, carpentry, driving and mechanics that
    they acquired whilst they were in the south.

 Water and sanitation
   All the communities have access to water, however the main concern is
     poor quality of the water that is contaminated, and the main sources are
     shallow dug wells.
   Above 52,0% of the households use more than 40litres of water per day
     and children are also involved in water collection.
   75,0% of the households have no access to sanitation.

    General Maternal Health
       Majority of the households rely on traditional birth assistants (TBA),
         religious experts and traditional healers when sick. The study noted




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     that most of the communities have strong traditional believes which
     they resort to when a family member is sick.
    Economic hardships also make vulnerable populations rely on cheap
     and traditional methods of treatment.
    87,0% of the households travel for more than 2 kilometers to reach a
     health source.
    Through mobile teams UNICEF mostly provides vaccine sources for
     mothers with under five children. The study noted that some of the
     community members are suspicious of these vaccines, which they feel
     can cause HIV/AIDS transmission and can also affect their fertility.

 Nutrition
   72,7% of the households take one meal per day.

Shelter
 83,3% of the respondents acknowledged that they have some shelter,
  however rent is the biggest problem since they reside mostly on privately
  owned land.
 54,0% of the respondents noted that their biggest problem is safety of the
  huts, which they live in, given the continuous adverse weather conditions
  and unavailability of sanitary facilities.
 54,0% of the households pay between 0-40,000 Somali shilling, 24,7%
  pay more than 90,000 shillings, while 8,0% acknowledged that they do not
  pay rent.
 86,0% of the respondents acknowledged that they prefer to stay where
  they are due to security advantages.
 Poor sanitation is one of the biggest problem that they experience and
  they expressed fear of disease outbreak.

 Ownership of assets
   The study noted that due to the history of these communities, a
    significant proportion belong to the Darood, Jareer and Rahanweyn,
    clans who were well known for farming. They used to own farms before
    the war.
   The study also noted that households lost all the immovable assets;
    some lost their livestock due to drought and have been rendered
    destitutes.

 Movements
   The vulnerable communities indicated that they moved two to three
     times due to natural disasters, lack of protection, armed conflicts,
     search for basic needs and economic opportunities.
   70,0% agreed that they want to move within Garowe (local integration)
     if offered a better location with sanitation and other services.
   45,0% indicated that they prefer urban jobs, 24,7% (farming), 16,3%
     (pastoral) and 14,0% (fishing).



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    If a piece of land was provided, 95,0% would want to move and
     contribute towards the construction of latrines and building of their own
     houses.

  Coping mechanisms.
      The average daily household earning is 20,000 Somali shilling.
      73,3% households earn between 0-80,000 shillings per day while
        26,7% earn more than 80,000 shillings.
      The bulky of the expenditure, 46,5% goes towards food, followed
        by rent, education and health.
      Major source of income for both men and women is casual labour.

 Protection of rights.
 22,7% of the households acknowledged that they have encountered
   protection problems including armed robbery, torture, death and rape.
 Respondents noted that they have freedom of movement wherever they
   prefer to go in Garowe.

 Durable solutions.
 The study established that 83,3% of the respondents prefer to be locally
  integrated.
 77,6% indicated that they have no access to media

Priority areas of intervention
 Water and sanitation is the top priority followed by land and shelter
   provision.

Recommendations
 Properly planned shelter/land accompanied with the provision of other
  basic services especially water and sanitation for the vulnerable
  populations is vital. In support of sanitation, garbage collection and
  sanitary toilets are also important.
 More than 80,0% of the vulnerable population particularly IDPs and
  returnees are illiterate, there is need for integrated education programs
  through the establishment of education infrastructure including primary
  schools, a secondary school and vocational training centers.
 A fully functional MCH supported by the Ministry of Health within the
  locality is recommended. In addition to the services provided at the MCH
  to mothers and children, this should also serve as a primary health
  awareness center.
 Income generation projects are vital for these communities. Some of the
  projects possible in Garowe include construction of markets for women,
  support of bread winners including women with skills like carpentry,
  building, plumbing, plastering, machine operation, baking, fishing, farming,
  micro-finance in order for them to generate more income.




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    Humanitarian assistance has to be scaled up especially food aid to
     prevent malnutrition particularly young children.



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
GUARDIAN NGO would like to acknowledge the support that was received from
a number of people and Organisations. The first compliment goes to the data
collectors who worked tirelessly to ensure that all the necessary information was
compiled and analysed, Secondly, the Local Authority including the Mayor of
Garowe and Governor of Nugal region who helped as a key informants. The
gratitude also goes to UNDP/RRIDP, which funded and supported the project to
the end. Lastly the key role that UN Agencies like UNHCR, UNICEF, WHO, ILO,
UN-Habitat, UNESCO and NGOs including Diakonia that they are playing in
Garowe and the rest of Puntland helped the success of this assessment since for
the first time IDPs and returnees are acknowledging the assistance they are
getting from these organisations.

The Chairlady of Guardian would want to thank its entire staff especially the
Deputy Chairlady and the Project Co-ordinator who worked so hard for the
completion of the assessment. A number of lessons have been learnt which we
can apply in the future if another opportunity arises.




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1.Introduction
Garowe is the capital town of Puntland State of Somalia located in Nugal region.
Currently the estimated population is 70,000. In addition, Garowe houses the
Administration of Puntland. Like any other parts of Somalia, Garowe was not
spared from experiencing the effects of the civil, which has caused so many
people to be internally displaced while some who crossed international borders
are returning. Furthermore, IDPs have lost most of their assets and sources of
livelihood including livestock and land, and have little access to stable
employment.

According to estimates in 2004, IDPs, destitute and returnees households
totalled 1,500 implying that in Puntland, Garowe has the third highest number of
vulnerable populations following Bossaso, and Galkayo. Most of these have
arrived from the south/central parts of Somalia, within Puntland due to negative
effects of the weather especially drought, Somaliland and others from Ethiopia in
search of economic opportunities, peace and stability. Like any other towns, the
influx to towns of IDPs and other vulnerable populations is on the increase due to
drought and some of these communities have managed to mix with relatives.

2.Scope and purpose of the study
The assessment was born from a widespread recognition of the need for more
accurate and extensive demographic and socio-economic data for the vulnerable
population in Garowe and the rest of the Nugal region. In addition, since Garowe
is capital town of Puntland, an influx of more vulnerable population is anticipated.
In response, careful planning and detailed needs assessment are important.
Thus this assessment is aimed to establish more accurate and disaggregated
statistics for the vulnerable population, identify key issues faced by the
inhabitants and establish existing services. The information gathered is intended
to provide a more accurate snapshot of the vulnerable population than previously
existed, support program planning by local and international agencies and lead to
improved coordination among bodies seeking to provide services and relief.

The statistics and information gathered by this assessment will also help the
international community, local aid agencies, authorities and the private sector to
make well informed decisions in order to adequately support vulnerable
population for the immediate and long term needs.

3.Overall objective
The overall objective is to better inform program design, planning and strategy
development by collecting comprehensive and accurate data pertaining to
vulnerable populations in Garowe.

4.Specific objectives
Working closely with the with the Garowe communities, private sector, relevant
Ministries and other stakeholders in Puntland, both local and international,
involved with the vulnerable population-:


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     Collect, collate and analyze both primary and secondary data/ information
      about the conditions in the settlements and establish what current
      interventions are.
     Using a questionnaire and other data collection tools like focus group
      discussions, key informant interviews and participatory methodologies,
      collect information in Garowe on demographic characteristics of
      vulnerable population, available basic services including health,
      education, water and sanitation, shelter, economic activities, migration
      and displacement patterns, needs, priorities, expectations and plans for
      the future.
     Make recommendations as per prioritized needs for programme
      implementation and improved coordination among international and local
      partners as well as counterparts for effective and efficient service
      provision to returnees and IDPs population.
     Make recommendations as to the role of the State and Private Sector to
      assist the efforts of the international community to reintegrate the
      vulnerable population in the town.

5.Methodology
The assessment was based on quantitative and qualitative data collection of the
vulnerable population. This included demographic statistics, water and sanitation,
general maternity health, general characteristics of nutrition, shelter, household
assets before and after war, population movement, coping mechanism,
protection and rights, durable solutions and access of the media and prioritizing
of their needs (see ANNEX 1). The study focused on different villages of the
town. The assessment design included sampling of the following groups, that is,
the destitute, community devastated by the drought and those who moved from
the south, within Puntland and other parts the world.

The assessment covered Waberi, Wadajir and Hantiwadag villages. These were
identified as the locations with vulnerable populations including IDPs, returnees
and destitutes. Of the estimated 1,500 households of the vulnerable
communities, a 20,0,0% sample was considered appropriate. Thus a stratified
random sampling was applied to make sure that views of all categories of
vulnerable populations are represented. In view of this, 210 IDPs households, 60
destitute households and 30 returnees households were assessed.

Part of the data collection exercise involved a qualitative assessment of IDP,
destitute and returnees locations involving observations from site visits, focus
group discussions, interviews using semi-structured questionnaire with their
leaders, elders, women groups, children and local authority representatives. The
purpose of this was to obtain information on their social structure including their
clan origin [home area], dynamics of movement, personal security, coping
mechanisms and the humanitarian conditions. The second part consisted of
quantitative data collection and analysis of household questionnaires to obtain
information on household economy and other related characteristics.



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 Data collected was entered onto the computer to facilitate analysis and
 interpretations. Prior to a full-scale data collection exercise, a one-day workshop
 was conducted to train the enumerators on data gathering techniques.

 5.1 Problems encountered:
 A number of the respondents expressed fatigueness due to the length of the
 questionnaire. Some of the respondents were not available during the day since
 they do part time jobs in town; this meant that interviews for these households
 were conducted in the afternoon and evening. Respondents also complained of
 too many interviews without long-term interventions. In addition, due to limited
 literature on vulnerable population in Garowe, not much secondary data was
 reviewed.

 6.Findings of the assessment
 Below is a summary of findings of the study. The estimated number of
 households during the time of the assessment was 1,550. The assessment
 sampled 20,0% of the households implying a total population of 12,605
 vulnerable people living in Garowe.

 6.1 Previous place of residence
 Table 1 shows the places of previous residence immediately before coming to
 Garowe.

  Table 1: Previous place of residence.
 Places of Origin                                  Number             Percentage
 1       Mogadishu                                   148                  49,3
 2       Marka                                       44                   14.6
 3       Hudur                                       17                    5.6
 4       Qalafe                                      32                   10.7
 5       Jowhar                                      14                    4.7
 6       Baidoa                                      13                    4.1
 7       Others                                      32                   10.7
         Total                                       300                 100,0

Majority (49,3%) of the vulnerable population moved from Mogadishu, followed by
those who moved from Marka (14,6%), Qalafe (10,7%) while 10,7% came from other
places like Somaliland and Ethiopia. Key informants noted that communities which
moved from Mogadishu was a result of peace in Garowe and also some centuries
back, their grandparents used to stay in Nugal region around the environs of Garowe.
Before the war, Mogadishu was the commercial and economic center, which attracted
many people from across the country, and when the war erupted, many people
returned to places like Garowe where their grandparents were residing centuries back.

The study concluded vulnerable communities moved to Garowe to seek for protection
due to conflicts in Mogadishu and other previous places of residence. The


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respondents noted that they gained peace in Garowe, and are managing to live with
the local communities as well as job opportunities for their day-to-day needs. However
the implications of this inflow relate to overloading of the existing social and basic
services.

The assessment also established the clans of the vulnerable communities (see
Table 2). The majority (36,0)% are from Daarood, 29,0% are from Rahanweyn
while 28,3% are from the Jarer clan.

 Table 2: Clans
     Clan/Sub clan:                                 Number             Percentage
   Rahanwayn                                          87                  29.0
   Jarer                                              85                  28.3
   Hawiye                                             13                   4.3
   Darood                                             108                 36.0
   Others                                              7                   2.4
              Total.                                  300                 100.0

The Rahanweyn (29,0%) and Jareer (28,3%) clans are the Bantu mainly from the
south while the Darood (36,0%) were the main victims of the civil war since these
were associated with the ruling government. In addition, the Darood were mostly
farmers who lost their land during the war and have good farming skills the study
further noted that they also comprise the bigger part of the destitute and returnees.

6.2 Population characteristics.
Population distribution among the vulnerable communities is in favour of females.
As indicated in Table 3, 45,8% are males and 54,2% are females. The study noted
there are more males than females in Garowe since men were killed during the
war and also they serve as militia in other parts of the country. The age groups 18
and 65 comprise 44,3% of the population, while 53,8% of the population is below
the age of 17. Very few people (1,9%) survive above 65 years.

 Table 3:Age-Sex composition
   Age- groups     #Male     Percent               #       Percent     Total   Percent
                                                Female
    a)
    Under 5             228         19,8          252        18,4      480      19,0
    b)
    Between 6-17        462         40,0          415        30,4      877      34,8
    c)
    Between 18-65       432         37,4          685        50,1     1117      44,3
    d)
    Above 65 Yrs         32          2,8           15         1,1       47       1,9
       Total.          1 154        45,8         1,367       54,2     2 521     100,0

The concluded that due to the destruction caused by the civil war and the larger size of
the under 17 years, there is need to provide educational opportunities and infrastructure
from pre-school to tertiary level. It also recommended that more WFP rations be
provided to the children under 5 years who constitute 19,0% of the population in order
to prevent malnutrition.


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The study further noted that 82,0% (Table 4) have attended Madrassa, despite that,
they can neither read nor write.

 Table 4:Educational Institutions
 Institutions                                    Number              Percentage
    Madrassa                                     246                 82,0
    Mixed Public                                 24                  8.0
    Mixed Private                                14                  4.7
    Others                                       16                  5,3
 Total.                                          300                 100.0

 Elders also noted that the low percentage of children attending formal education is
 due to the fact parents cannot to pay fees for the children and also there is a shortage
 of books. In addition, children from the vulnerable communities find it difficult to attend
 same schools with those of the host communities. The assessment further established
 that majority of the adults did not managed to attain even primary level of education.
 This was due to lack of schools, teachers and also money to pay for the fees.

  The study concluded that more awareness in needed to encourage parents from the
 IDPs, returnees and urban poor communities to send their children to school. An
 example of such an initiative is the current school, which has enrolled children from
 these groups. However the school needs to be supported and strengthened in the
 form of books, more space and teachers. There are a number of children who are
 rooming the streets and these can also be assisted through educational opportunities.

 As presented in Table 5, the study established that majority (46,6%) of the household
 members survive on casual labor since they lack specialized skills, Women are mostly
 engaged in casual labor as housemaids, selling wares, clothes, tea, hired to sale
 mirror, garbage collection and washing clothes. On the other hand, men are involved
 in digging toilets, water reservoirs, wells, assisting in the construction industry, loading
 vehicles, slaughtering of animals, working in small farms around Garowe. However,
 30,9% of the respondents noted that they have skills in masonry, carpentry, driving
 and mechanics, which they acquired whilst they were in the south and elsewhere in
 their previous places of origin. Some household members rely on begging (9,0%) and
 remittances (8,5%) from relatives.

 Table 5:Skills
  Skills                                         Number             Percentage
   Mason/carpentry/driver/mechanic.              345                30,9
   Casual                                        520                46,6
   Begging.                                      100                9,0
   Remittance                                    95                 8,5
   Others                                        57                 5,1
   Total.                                        1117               100,0



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The study noted that the Rahanwayn are mostly involved in begging, the reason
that was advanced by the elders was that this activity is more related to their
culture.

6.3 Water and Sanitation
Source of drinking water is important to ensure that communities have access to
clean water. The study established that all the communities have access to
water. Respondents indicated that they get their water from wells and sometimes
from the river during the rain season, however the main concern relates to the
poor quality of the water.

The study attempted to establish travel time to the source of water. As indicated
in Table 6, majority (54,3%) take lees than 10 minutes to reach a source of
water, 37,3% take between 11 and 30 minutes while 8,3% take more than 30
minutes.

Table 6:Travel time to water source
Time in minutes                             Number                  Percentage
  0-10                                      163                     54.3
  11-30                                     112                     37.3
  More than 30                              25                      8.3
  Total.                                    300                     100,0

The study also noted that, the destitute groups mostly take more time to reach a
source of water compared to the other groups of populations. The assessment
recommends the provision of clean water within the locality especially of the
disadvantaged groups.

This below table shows that 52,0% of the households use more than 40 litres of
water per day. The containers are mostly 3 litres, 5 litres and 20 litres and
children are also involved in water collection.

Table 7 Daily Water consumption
 Quantity in liters    Number                        Percentage
 0-20                     59                             20,0
 20-40                    85                             28,1
 40 and above            156                             52,0
 Total.                  300                            100,0

In conclusion, there is need to improve on the income sources for vulnerable
populations so that they can afford to purchase and access clean water. In
addition, there is also need to ensure that water and sanitation are given top
priority wherever new developments are being planned.

In terms of sanitation, the study established that 75,0% of the households
interviewed have no access to such an important facility. The elders in the


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settlements and those representing the destitutes noted that there is an urgent
need to improve on sanitation including public health education to prevent the
outbreak of diseases like dysentery which would affect more people especially
women and children.

In terms of the types of latrines available, the study established that mostly it is
the bush system. It was also noted that communities settled along the stream
use the riverbed as bush latrines, which at the same time are some of the water
sources. During the rain season, contamination pauses a serious health hazard.
Respondents also indicated that due to absence of toilets, human waste is found
in most of the camps. A small proportion of the respondents noted that they use
private paid latrines, although it is expensive given their merger financial
resources. In addition, the study also established that there is absence of
municipal public toilets accessible to the vulnerable communities.

The study concluded that there is need for land to be provided, so that sanitation
can be improved without any hindrance from the private landowners. In addition,
garbage collection needs to be intensified and also improve on the conditions of
the dumping sites in order to reduce disease occurrence.

The assessment further noted that 42,4% of the communities wash their hands
outside prayers, 57,6% indicated that they sometimes wash their hands while no
one admitted never washing.

The study further investigated the most commonly used item when people are
washing their hands (see Table 8).

Table 8: Washing hands
Frequency #                    Percentage      # Using ash     Percentage
            Using soap
Always       39                13.0            30              10.0
Sometimes 101                  33.7            69              23.0
Never       160                53.3            201             67.0
Total       300                100.0           300             100.0

From the table above, majority of the households revealed that they never use
either soap or ash when washing their hands. In view of this, there is need for
more awareness for these communities to wash their hands more frequently.

6.4 General Maternal Health
The assessment sort to find out whether households seek any help when a child
is sick. A proportion of 72,7% noted that they do seek help and as reflected in
Table 9. Majority (32,3%) rely on traditional birth assistants, 22,0% visit religious
experts, 18,7% rely on traditional healers, very few households indicated that
they use modern sources of treatment.



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Table 9: Health sources
Health facilities used                       Number            Percentage
  Traditional healer                         56                18.7
  Friend /Relative                           24                8.0
  Public facility                            22                7.3
  Private clinic                             9                 3.0
  Religious expert                           66                22.0
  Pharmacy                                   26                8.7
  Traditional Birth Assistant (TBA)          97                32,3
  Total                                      300               100.0

The study noted that most of the communities have strong traditional believes
which they resort to when a family member is sick. In addition, the study
concluded that due to economic hardships, vulnerable populations rely on cheap
and traditional methods of treatment. There is an urgent need to improve on
incomes of the communities complimented with the provision of better medical
facilities. The study recommends the provision of a fully functional MCH for these
communities, within their locality.

An important observation from the study is the distance by which the
communities travel to access a health facility. As reflected in Table 10, majority
(87,0%) of the households travel for more than 2 kilometers to reach a health
source.

Table 10: Distance to nearest health facility
Distance in km             Number                               Percentage
  0-1                      7                                       2,3
  1-2                      32                                     10,7
  More than 2              261                                    87,0
  Total                    300                                   100,0

The study concluded that the long distances the sick walk might also be a limiting
factor to the use of available health facilities. The study also noted that a
proportion of 20,0% of the respondents have a household member with learning
disabilities. Most of the household attributed this to civil war. Majority (85,3%)
resort to other methods including religious solutions and traditional healers to
help the problems. A proportion of 33,7% relies on self medication (see Table
11).

Table 11: Remedy sought
Remedy                  Number                          Percentage
Self medication (pills) 41                              33.7
Doctor                  3                               1.0
Other                   256                             85.3
Total                   300                             100.0


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 Physical disabilities were also established among the households. 19,3% of the
 respondents acknowledged that they have a family member who is physically
 disabled. The major cause as reflected in Table 12 accident, followed by cause
 at birth and diseases.

  Table 12:Types of disability
   Type                           Number                       Percentage
    No disability                 246                          82,0
    Birth                         9                            3.0
    Disease                       4                            1.3
    Accident                      41                           13,7
    Total                         300                          100.0

 The study noted that UNICEF mostly provides vaccine sources for mothers with
 under five children through mobile teams. A proportion of 20,0% acknowledged
 that they do not rely on any vaccine source. The study further noted that some of
 the community members are suspicious of these vaccines, which they feel might
 cause HIV/AIDS transmission and affect their fertility. It is recommended that
 more awareness and mobilization are critical to prevent such misperceptions.

 In terms of nutrition, the assessment established that 72,7% of the households
 take only one meal per day, 20,0% take two meals while only 7,3% take more
 than one meal (see Table 13).

 Table 13: Nutrition.
   Average HH Meals per day                  Number            Percentage
   One Time.                                 218               72.7
   Two Times.                                60                20.0
   More than two.                            22                7.3
     Total                                   300               100.0

In addition, the study noted that only 7,3% of the households consume fresh milk,
33,0% take powdered milk while the majority (59,7%) do not consume any milk.
The reasons that were advanced by households, which do not consume any milk,
include lack of money to purchase the commodity.

6.5 Shelter
A majority of 83,3% of the respondents acknowledged that they have some shelter,
while a proportion of 16,7% noted that they do not have shelter. The study noted
that the destitute community is the most affected. However, during the time of the
study some households received NFI including some plastic sheets from UNHCR
and UNICEF and this has improved the quality of their shelter and also an increase
in the number of households with somewhere to sleep. The study noted that while
most of the vulnerable communities have access to shelter, rent is the biggest
problem. The following is an excerpt of an interview with an IDP women, this


                                                                               16
shows the extent to which the IDP population suffers from a wide range of social
and economic hardships

 “I stay in one small hut, 2mx2m and pay rent to the tune of 40,000 shillings
 per month despite that I am located in the middle of other 22 small huts.
 This space shelters my husband and 7 children. I cook food in front of the
 huts without enough space; no pit latrine and I can easily see the stools of
 children as I prepare dinner for my family. I was displaced from the south,
 and the majority of other neighbors also pay very high rent per month. After
 paying this exorbitant rent, we are not left with enough to buy food for our
 children nor do we obtain decent jobs, we have no other opportunities but to
 work as petty traders, shoe-makes, shoe shiners, butchers or domestic
 workers. We also do not have any relatives to depend on like many other
 clans in the area, and we have received little assistance from international
 agencies and the Puntland government”.

The study also established that majority (79,0%) of the communities reside on
privately owned land, 20,7% reside in public buildings which they forcefully
occupied just after the civil war while only 0,3% stay with a relative or friend (see
Table 14).

Table 14: Land ownership
 Land ownership                                     Number            Percentage
    Government                                         62                20.7
    Private person                                    237                79.0
    Relative/Friend                                    1                  0.3
     Total                                            300                100.0

A proportion of 54,0% of the respondents noted that their biggest problem is safety
of the huts, which they live in, given the continuous adverse weather conditions as
well as unavailability of sanitary facilities. In terms of rentals per month, majority
(54,0%) pay between 0-40,000 Somali shilling, 24,7% pay 90,000 shillings and
above while 8,0% acknowledged that they do not pay rent (see Table 15).

 Table 15:Rent per month per hut
  Average in shillings                              Number            Percentage
   0-40,000                                           162                54,0
   40,001-90,000                                       40                13,3
   90,001 and above                                    74                24,7
   No rent                                             24                 8.0
    Total                                             300                10.00

 The study noted that some families (3,7%) share one room especially in the
 former public buildings. In terms of choice of the present location, the
 assessment noted that most of the households (86,0%) prefer this because of



                                                                                   17
 good security. Elders in the settlement noted that armed conflict was the main
 reason why they ran away from their previous places of residence and in the
 present location, there is peace. In addition, only 8,0% indicated that they meet
 their basic needs, 2,7% gain employment and 3,3% said that there is no
 advantage in the present location (see Table 16).

 Table 16:Advantages of present location
  Advantages                                      Number            Percentage
   Employment                                        8                   2.7
   Security                                         258                 86.0
   Basic needs                                      24                   8.0
   No advantage                                     10                   3.3
    Total                                           300                100.0

The study also assessed the disadvantages of the present location (see Table 17).

Table 17: Disadvantages of present location.
        Disadvantages                        Number                 Percentage
       No shelter                              59                       19.7
       No latrine (poor sanitation)            171                      57.0
       No education                            70                       23.3
        Total                                  300                     100.0


 Poor sanitation is the biggest problem that is experienced by 57,0% of the
 communities, followed by lack of education for their children and lack of shelter.
 During focus group discussions, respondents expressed great fear of disease
 outbreak. Mothers also expressed concern over lack of education facilities for
 their children. The major reason that they advanced over their children not going
 to school was the fact that schools are privately owned and they cannot afford to
 pay the fees.

 The study recommends that in order to resolve shelter problems, land provision
 is an important step, which must be supported with basic services, income
 generation projects and some skills provision. The assessment also note that in
 order to ensure ownership and commitment, the IDPS, returnees and other
 vulnerable groups need to make contributions through labour for the
 construction, digging latrines and water wells. In the long run, they must also
 make contributions to the municipality for the services they use.

 The study recommends urgent provision of sanitation facilities. If possible
 agreements can be arranged with landowners to provide temporary latrines
 whilst long-term solutions are being planned.

 In terms of assets before the war, the study noted that due to the history of these
 communities, a significant proportion belong to the Darood, Jareer and


                                                                                 18
Rahanweyn, clans who were well known for farming. These owned land and the
farms, which they used to cultivate crops and raise livestock. As shown in Table
18, 50,0% indicated that they owned farms before the war, 39,0% had houses
while 11,0% owned livestock.

Table 18:Assest before the war
Assets                                          Number           Percentage
  With Houses                                     117                39.0
  With farm lands                                 150                50.0
  With livestock                                  33                 11.0
   Total                                          300               100.0

However, the study noted after the war, interviewed households lost all the
immovable assets; some lost their livestock due to drought and have been
rendered destitutes. They now own few movable items like pots, jerry cans and
blankets.

In terms of assistance, 83,3% noted that they have received some form of
assistance, although this is mostly emergency. Camp leadership acknowledged
that they received assistance from WFP, UNICEF and UNHCR in the form of
food (WFP), shelter materials (UNHCR) and UNICEF. In addition, before this
assistance, respondents noted that they received some help from both
International and local NGOs including educational support for their children.
Some respondents also noted that they received assistance from relatives and
friends from within Puntland and elsewhere although this is not adequate.

6.6 Movements.
The assessment sort to establish the causes of movements of the vulnerable
communities. As shown in Table 18, majority (37,3%) have moved due to natural
disasters, followed by lack of protection (28,3%), armed conflicts (15,3%), basic
needs and economic 13,7% and 5,0% respectively (see Table 19).

Table 19: Causes of initial displacement
       Causes                                   Number           Percentage
  Armed Conflicts                                  46               15.3
  Economic Reasons                                 15                5.0
  Basic needs                                      41               13.7
  Lack of protection                               85               28.3
  Natural disasters                               173               37.3
   Total.                                         300               100.0

Most of the respondents indicated that so far they moved three times (see Table
20). The study noted that the 28,0% who moved only once are mostly the
destitutes who have lost their livestock due to the recent drought.




                                                                              19
Table 20: Frequency of movement
  Frequency                                        Number             Percentage
    One                                              84                   28.0
    Two                                              38                   12.7
    Three                                            173                  59.3
    Total                                            300                 100.0

 In terms of preference to stay or move away from the current location, 70,0%
agreed that they want to move if offered a better location with sanitation and
other basic services while 30,0% prefer to remain where they are. The majority of
the destitute who have lost their livestock would want to return to their traditional
livelihoods of livestocking if assistance is provided.

The assessment also established that 45,0% of the respondents need urban
jobs, 24,7% (farming), 16,3% (pastoral) and 14,0% (fishing) (see Table 21). The
majority of the respondents expressed their willingness to be integrated in town.
During the focus group discussions, a number of the respondents argued that
urban life is now easy and more comfortable compared to the rural life they
experienced before the shocks.

Table 21: Preferred livelihoods
 Livelihoods.                                      Number             Percentage
  Fishing                                            42                   14.0
  Pastoral                                           49                   16.3
  Farming                                            74                   24.7
  Urban jobs                                         135                  45.0
   Total.                                            300                 100.0

If peace prevails or conditions improve in the previous places of origin, 45,0%
indicated they would want to return. Those who chose to return indicated that
they would want to go back to their farms and continue with agricultural
production.

If a piece of land were provided, 95,0% noted that they would want to move. The
respondents also indicated that their wish is to make a contribution towards the
construction of latrines and also building their own houses. This they feel would
rescue them from paying rent. The major reason for wanting to move includes
ownership of land as echoed by 66,7% of the respondents and fresh environment
(31,3%).

A proportion of 81,7% noted that they would want to move to the land allocated
by the Mayor of Garowe. They argued that the site is near town and can easily
walk to the town city if they are in need of anything. However, the respondents
were cautious not to move if basic services are not provided. A proportion of
31,3% argued that if ever they are to be moved, they prefer integration within
town.


                                                                                  20
6.7 Coping mechanisms.
The study established that the average daily household earning is 20,000 Somali
shilling. A proportion of 73,3% households indicated they earn between 0-80,000
shillings per day while 26,7% earn more than 80,000 shillings. The study went
further to determine the weekly expenditures of the communities (see Table 22).

Table 22: Average weekly expenses
Item                      Amounts in Shillings.      Percentage
   Food                   105,000                    46,5
   Shelter (Rent)         61,000                     27,0
   Water                  -                          -
   Education              40,000                     17,7
   Health                 20,000                     8,8
   Sanitation             -                          -
   Transport              -                          -
     Total.               226,000                    100,0

Note: Exchange rate during the time of the study was 1 USD=15,000 shilling

The table above shows that the bulky of the expenditure (46,5%) goes towards
food, followed by rent (27,0%), education (17,7%) and health (8,8%). The major
type of employment is casual labour as indicated by 49,3% of the households.
Small scale trading takes 21,3% while 28,3% are involved in begging and only
1,0% receive remittances from friends and relatives (see Table 23).

Table 23: Employment for household members
Types of employment            Number                  Percentage
  Small scale trade            64                      21.3
  Casual labour                148                     49.3
  Begging                      85                      28,3
  Remittance                   3                        1,0
  Total.                       300                     100.0




                                                                            21
The respondents were also asked whether they would want to relocate to the
coast if opportunities arise. Majority (89,7%) do not want to relocate. The
possible reason is that most of these communities have pastoral and agricultural
background thus their interest on fishing is low. For those who want to relocate,
the preferred coastal destinations are Bender Beyla and Eyl.

6.8 Protection of rights.
The study further attempted to establish protection problems. As shown in Table
24, 22,7% of the households acknowledged that they have encountered
protection problems. These include armed robbery (7,7%), torture (4,7%), death
(2,3%) and rape (7,3%).

Table 24: Protection
Incidence                                     Number out of 300        Percentage
   Armed robbery                                    25                     7,7
   Torture                                          14                     4.7
   Killed                                            7                     2.3
   Raped                                            22                     7.3
    Total.                                          68                    22,7

The study recommends enhancement of awareness programmes on protection
and the provision of better infrastructure for the police force to work effectively.

Respondents also noted that they have freedom of movement wherever they
prefer throughout Garowe. In addition, the focus group discussions agreed that
they have equal access to protection like the host communities if the need arises.
However, when the same question was raised to individual households, 18,7%
expressed that they do not have equal access like the host communities while
81,7% expressed satisfaction.

6.9 Durable solutions.
The study established that 83,3% of the respondents prefer to be locally
reintegrated while only 16,7% prefer to return to their places of origin on
condition that peace prevails. It is recommended that Agencies in support of the
authorities should provide adequate services and income generation activities to
ensure that the vulnerable communities are well integrated

6.10 Media
As shown in Table 25, majority (77,6%) indicated that they have no access to
media, 13,7% have access to radio while 8,7% have access to TV.




                                                                                 22
Table 25: Access to media
Media                                          Number               Percentage
  TV                                           26                   8.7
   Radio                                       41                   13.7
  No media                                     233                  77.6
   Total                                       300                  100,0

The study also noted that for those who have access to TV, it is mostly men who
watch in the restaurants especially during the night time.

6.11 Priority areas of intervention
Top on the list is the need for water and sanitation as noted by 94,0% of the
households, followed by shelter (90,0%), education for the children (76,0%),
health care (70,0%) and income generation (60,0%).

Table 26: Priority needs
Need                                    # of households out of      Percentage
                                                 300
    Water and Sanitation                         282                    94,0
    Shelter                                      270                    90,0
    Education                                    228                    76.0
    Health care                                  210                    70.0
    Income generation                            180                    60,0


The study concluded that land provision is a top priority, this would also enable
easy provision of water and sanitation and other basic services. The study
concluded that for long-term solutions, in order to adequately reintegrate the
vulnerable communities, the planning must take cognisance to address the
provision of basic services.


7.0 Conclusion
The study has derived a number of conclusions, which are critical to the future
needs of vulnerable populations in Garowe. These include:
    The numbers of vulnerable populations are increasing due to the
      continuous disasters. A significant observation is the corresponding
      increase in the number of destitute including street children.
    Sanitation is one of the most critical problems in the different villages
      where the vulnerable communities are residing, which if not addressed
      can result in disease outbreak.
    Vulnerable populations including IDPs, returnees and the urban poor are
      eager to see their livelihood changing through local reintegration while
      some prefer to return to their pastoral and agriculture practices.
    Little assistance has been provided for medium and long-term needs,
      responses are mostly humanitarian.


                                                                               23
7.1 Recommendations
The following recommendations are necessary to ensure improved livelihoods for
the vulnerable populations in Garowe.
    Properly planned shelter/land accompanied with the provision of other
       basic services especially water and sanitation for the vulnerable
       populations is vital. In support of sanitation, garbage collection and
       sanitary toilets are also important.
    More than 80,0% of the vulnerable population particularly IDPs and
       returnees are illiterate, there is need for integrated education programs
       through the establishment of education infrastructure including primary
       schools, a secondary school and vocational training centers.
    A fully functional MCH supported by the Ministry of Health within the
       locality is recommended. In addition to the services provided at the MCH
       to mothers and children, this should also serve as a primary health
       awareness center.
    Income generation projects are vital for these communities. Some of the
       projects possible in Garowe include construction of markets for women,
       support of bread winners including women with skills like carpentry,
       building, plumbing, plastering, machine operation, baking, fishing, farming,
       micro-finance in order for them to generate more income.
    Humanitarian assistance has to be scaled up especially food aid to
       prevent malnutrition particularly young children.




                                                                                24
25
ANNEX: 1

QUESTIONNAIRE: ASSESSMENT OF VULNERABLE POPULATIONS IN
GAROWE

April-May 2005
Date of interview: …………………………………
Place (Camp) of interview: ……………………….
Name of Interviewer: …….…………………….

Start time……………………..                       Finish time……………………

(A) HOUSEHOLD DETAILS AND EDUCATION INFORMATION

1. Name (Head of Household): _________________ Male / Female 2. Age: ___
3. Total household size at settlement: _____
4.. Household members in Puntland, NOT living in the settlement (Camp):
(a) # of household members: _____
(b) Place of Origin (settlement, district, region, country):
    __________________________________
5. Sub-clan/clan: _____________________ (“√” the box, if self-identified
minority)

6. List all household members and provide bio data, education and skills of each:
           Name                 Sex    Age     Edu       Level of        Skill(s)
                                                 c      Education
                                               Inst.




                                                                               26
Educational Institution – select a number: (1) unisex-public; (2) mixed-public;
(3) unisex-private; (4) mix- private; (5) Madrassa; (6) Informal; (7) Technical
School (8) Other (specify above)…………
Skills/Knowledge – select all that apply: A = Agricultural, B = Business/Market
activities, C = Carpentry/ Masonry, D = Driving, E = Educator, F =
Finance/Accounting, G = Military/Law enforcement/ Security,
H = Health Worker, I = Information Technology/Computers, J =
Restaurant/Catering/Cooking, K = Sale of livestock, L = Accounting, M =
Managerial, N = Cleaning/Service Industry, O = Fishing, P = Pharmacist,
, Q = Cosmetologist, R = Secretarial & Office, S = Performance art, T = Visual
art/handicrafts,
U = Veterinarian, V = Writer/Poet, W = Engineering, X = Humanitarian/Aid/NGO
work, Y = Other: _________

7. List of skills household would like to have: (Use Skills List from above)..

………………………
(B) WATER AND SANITATION

1     What is the main source of drinking      a.Gumco, b.Private taps, c.Well,
      water for your household? (Circle all    d.Vendor/Booyad,
      that apply.)                             e. Natural body of water, f. Other …………..
2     How long does it take you to walk to     ……………..Minutes
      you water point. Get water, and
      return here?
3     How much water does your                 a.3 litter cans b.5 litter cans c.10 litter cans
      household use / day, (# of jerry         d.20litter cans e. other (specify)…….
      cans=……………).
4.    What kind of latrines does this          1. Municipality public latrine
      household use?                           2. Private pay latrine
                                               3. Shared private latrine
                                               4. Unshared private latrine
                                               5. No latrine
5.    Aside from before prayers, how           1.Always 2. Sometimes 3. Never
      often to you wash your hands?
6.    When washing hands, how often do
      you use (i) soap?                        1. Always; 2. Sometimes; 3. Never
      (ii) Ash?                                1. Always 2. Sometimes 3. Never


(C) GENERAL MATERNAL HEALTH

1.     When your child becomes sick, do you seek          1. Yes 2. No
      help from any one?
2.    If YES, where do you seek help? (Circle all         1.     Traditional healer
      that apply.)                                        2.     Friend/Relative


                                                                                    27
                                                      3.    Public Facility
                                                      4.    Pharmacy
                                                      5.    Religious Expert
                                                      6.    Private clinic
                                                      7.    Traditional Birth Assistant
                                                         (TBA)
                                                      8.    Other :

3.   If NO, why? (explain)
4.   Distance to nearest health facility?             1. ________ km; 2. ________
                                                      mins
5.   Do any members of your household have            1. Yes        2. No
     learning disabilities and/or emotional
     difficulties?
6.   If YES, what remedy is sought?                   1. Self-medication (i.e. pills)
                                                      2. Doctor
                                                      3. Other (Specify)…
7.   Do any members of your household have a          1. Yes         2. No
     physical disability?
8.   If YES, What kind of disability is it?           1. From the war
                                                      2. Birth
                                                      3. From disease
                                                      4. From accident
9.   *Only for households with children under 5        1.Mobile Team
     years.                                           2. MCH
     (a) Where did you receive vaccine during your    3. Hospital
         most recent pregnancy to prevent             4. Private clinic
         convulsion?

     (b) Did you see a trained health person in the   1. Yes            2. No
         months before you delivered the most
         recent child?
     (c) Who helped you deliver your most recent      1. Untrained friends/relative
         baby?                                        2. Doctor/Nurse
                                                      3. Traditional birth attendant
                                                      4. Midwife
                                                      5. Other Specify_______




(D) GENERAL NUTRITION




                                                                                28
1.    How many meals do you have per day?            1. One
                                                     2. Two
                                                     3. More than two
2.    Do you most often purchase powdered milk or    1. Does not purchase milk
      fresh milk?                                    2. Powdered milk
                                                     3. Fresh milk


(E SHELTER

 1     How many houses/huts are there in the         …………….Structures
      camp? (Check by observation)
 2.   OBSERVATION: Look at the best-made             1.      Sar, stone/brick house
      structure in compound; note what it is made    2.      Baraako, wood house
      of.                                            3.      Carish, stick/mud
                                                        house
                                                     4.      Modul, hut
                                                     5.      Aqal, traditional mobile
                                                        collapsible hut
                                                     6.      Bush, plastic covered
                                                        structure
                                                     7.      Jingad, iron sheets
                                                        only
                                                     8.      Other,
                                                        ……………………
 3.   Do you have a room or structure, in which no   1. Yes 2. No
      one sleeps? (i.e., used for cooking, for
      instance)?
 4.   Are your sharing your house/hut with other     1. Yes 2. No
      families?                                      if Yes (#): __________




                                                                              29
 5.       Who owns the land upon which you live?        1. The Government
                                                        2. The household
                                                        3. A friend/relative
                                                        4. A private individual
                                                        5. Other …………..
 6.       If the household owns its own land, how was 1. Bought it
          in obtained?                                  2. Government allocated
                                                        3. Given it
                                                        4. Grabbed it.…
 7.       If you are renting, how much is the household Somali
          paying per month                              Shilling………………….
 8.       What are the advantages and disadvantages Advantages:
          of the present location?                      i.          …………………………
                                                             …………
                                                        ii.         …………………………
                                                             …………
                                                        iii.        …………………….……
                                                             …………
                                                        Disadvantages:
                                                        i.          …………………………
                                                             …………
                                                        ii.         …………………………
                                                             …………
                                                        iii.        ……………………........
                                                             ...............

(F) HOUSEHOLD ASSETS:

1. Household assets BEFORE the war.

      (a) Land/ Houses/ farm (inc location: settlement, district, region):
          ……………………………….

      (b) Movable property: ____ #blankets; _____ #jerry cans; _____ #cooking
          pots; ___#other (specify):
          ____________……………………………………………………….

      (c) Other (specify)…………………………………………………………..

2. Household assets AFTER the war:

      (a) Land/ Houses/ (Incl. where)……………………………………………….

   (b) Movable property: e.g
       ____ # blankets; _____ # jerry cans; _____ # cooking pots; ______# other
(specify)………


                                                                                30
3. Any assistance received? 1. YES  2. NO (If YES, answer the below
questions)
 (a) International aid community:
        (i) Name: …………………………………………… Date (most recent):
    ………………………..
        With what frequency? ….……… per year or One-time assistance: …...….
    (“√”, if applicable)

       (ii) Name: …………………………………………… Date (most recent):
   ………………………..
       With what frequency? ….……… per year or One-time assistance: …...….
   (“√”, if applicable)

       (iii) Name: …………………………………………… Date (most recent):
   ………………………..
       With what frequency? ….……… per year or One-time assistance: …...….
   (“√”, if applicable)
           (iv) Name: …………………………………………… Date (most recent):
   ………………………..
       With what frequency? ….……… per year or One-time assistance: …...….
   (“√”, if applicable)

 (b) Local NGOs:
       (i) Name: …………………………………………… Date (most recent):
   ………………………..
       With what frequency? ….……… per year or One-time assistance: …...….
   (“√”, if applicable)

       (ii) Name: …………………………………………… Date (most recent):
   ………………………..
       With what frequency? ….……… per year or One-time assistance: …...….
   (“√”, if applicable)
       (iii) Name: …………………………………………… Date (most recent):
   ………………………..
       With what frequency? ….……… per year or One-time assistance: …...….
   (“√”, if applicable)

       (iv) Name: …………………………………………… Date (most recent):
   ………………………..
       With what frequency? ….……… per year or One-time assistance: …...….
   (“√”, if applicable)

   (c) Relatives/Friend/Neighbour: (Name, relationship to Head of Household,
       location of person)
       Name: …………………………………………… Relationship:



                                                                          31
   ………………………………
       Location of relative:..………………………… Date (most recent):
   ………………………..
       With what frequency? ….……… per year or One-time assistance: …...….
   (“√”, if applicable)

       Name: …………………………………………… Relationship:
   ………………………………
       Location of relative: …..………………………… Date (most recent):
   ………………………..
       With what frequency? ….……… per year or One-time assistance: …...….
   (“√”, if applicable)

   (d) Other (specify):
       Name: …………………………………………… Date (most recent):
   ………………………..
       With what frequency? ….……… per year or One-time assistance: …...….
   (“√”, if applicable)

(G) MOVEMENTS:

1. Cause(s) of initial displacement from place of origin: 1) …...…; 2) …...…; 3)
   …...…
   (Choose up to 03 from the list of issues, which were problematic/lacking, in
order of importance)
       a) Economic/financial       b) Political situation c) Tribal/ethnic/racial
               d) Armed conflict
       e) Individual Security      f) Expulsion, inc threat      g) Gender-based
               h) Natural disaster
       i) Religion freedom j) Property             k) Education          l) Basic
       needs
       m) No reason                n) Other: ___________________________

2. Total number of movements, since initially displaced: ………………
   List final THREE movement(s) – most recent first (settlement, district, region,
and country):
      Present location: ……………………………………………… Arrival
   Month/Yr: …………
      Causes (use choices above, up to 3, in order of importance): 1) …...…; 2)
   …...…; 3) …...…
      Previous: ……...……………………………………………  Arrival
   Month/Yr: …………
      Causes (use choices above, up to 3, in order of importance): 1) …...…; 2)
   …...…; 3) …...…
      2nd previous: ……....……….………………………………  Arrival
   Month/Yr: …………


                                                                                32
      Causes (use choices above, up to 3, in order of importance): 1) …...…; 2)
   …...…; 3) …...…

NOTE: “√” Box, if one is Place of Origin (which should match answer in Section
A-4-b).

3. Living and lifestyle preferences (also indicate main reason):
   (a) Do you prefer to stay where you are?             1.Yes                    2. No 
        If Yes, give reasons (i)……………………………………..
                          (ii)……………………………………
                              (iii)

   (b) If No, to which location do you want to move? (Please tick)
           i.     Within the settlement? 
           ii.    Within the district?           
           iii.   Within the region?             
           iv.    Within Puntland?               
           v.     Other (specify)……………….
       Give reasons for wanting to move (i)………………………………………
                                           (ii):
   (a) What livelihood would you prefer? (in order of preference)

         i.            Farming                     
         ii.           Pastoralist                            
         iii.          Coastal (i.e. fishing)                 
         iv.           Urban employment 
       Reasons                     (i)………………………………………
                             (ii)…………………………………:
                             (iii)....................................................……
   (b) Would you want to return to place of origin?                                1 Yes  2 No 
       If Yes, give reasons                     (i)……………………………………..
       :
       ......................................(ii)…………….......................………………………
       ……

4. If proposed a piece of land by the local authority in the district, would you
   move?
       1 Yes       2. No.

   a) If YES, are you willing to pay for the land?
      1 Yes       2. No.

   b) If YES, are you willing to contribute to:
      i.     Building your shelter                                                
      ii.    Digging your pit latrine                                             
      iii.   Other: ………………………………..…….……. 



                                                                                                33
   c) If YES, state preferred environment/characteristics of the new location
      (i)……………………………………………..……………………………………
      …………….
      (ii)…………………………………………….……
      ……………………………………………
      (iii)…………………………………………………
      ……………………………………………

   d) If YES, which is your favourite site (i) In town; (ii) land allocated by the
      Mayor…..(iii) Other: Specify………

5. If NO, why do you prefer to stay where you are? 1) …...…; 2) …...…; 3)
    …...…
    (Choose up to THREE from list in Question H-1, which were positive, in order
of importance)

(H) COPING MECHANISMS:
1. Average daily earnings per household: (Somali Shillings) ..…………….

2. How much (Somali shilling)do you spent per week on?
    Education:           _______
    Food:                _______
    Health care:         _______
    Clean water:         _______
    Sanitation:          _______
    Shelter:             _______
    Security:            _______
    Transport            _______

3. Other coping mechanisms/ sources of income:
   …………………………………….........................

4. Types of employment held by household members: (select from below and
    describe, as necessary)
                   # of
                            Types of Employment
                employed                                Job Description(s)
                            (select from #’s below)
                members
Adult
males:
Adult
females:
Girl
children.
Boy


                                                                                     34
children.
Employment Categories: 1 = Small scale trade, 2 = Market activities, 3 =
Casual employment (day labour),
4 = Sale of livestock, 5 = Permanent employment, 6 = Revenues from movable
or immovable property (i.e., landlord), 7 = Others (specify):
_______________________

5. Besides what you are doing now, do you see other possibilities for
   employment?
   1. Yes 2. No
   If YES, specify:
       ………………………………………………………………………..

6. If offered the opportunity to relocate to the coastal areas to be involved in
fishing or any other activity, would you prefer to move? 1. Yes            2. No

7. If Yes, which location would you prefer. 1.Hafun 2. Bender Beyla 3. Garacad
4. Eyl 5.Other (specify)……………………..

8. Constraints to access employment opportunities:
…………………………………………………..

(I) PROTECTION/ RIGHTS:

1.Since 1991, has the individual or family member experienced acts, attempts
and/or threats of the following (include number of persons affected plus date and
location) :

(a)Armed robbery: # of persons……………Date……… Location………

b) Torture       …# of persons……………..Date…………Location…….

c) Killings: …… ..# of persons……………..Date………….Location…….

(d) Rape:………. # of persons……………..Date………….Location……..

(e) Any other physical, mental, emotional violation directed specifically against
girls/women (i.e., domestic violence, FGM, harassment, exploitation, etc):
……………………………………

(f) Any other exploitation/human rights violation (of any
form)………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………

2.Freedom of movement: Rate your ability to move around without fear (1 to 5,
bad to good or NA)



                                                                                    35
i.               Within settlement     ……………
ii.              Within district       ……………
iii.             Within region         ……………

3.Describe possibilities/ constraints):
……………………………………………………...…………

4.Right to equal protection under the law: Rate your access to following (1 to 5,
bad to good or NA)
   i. Effective law enforcement          ……………
       ii. Non-discriminatory judicial institutions   ……………

5.Describe possibilities/ constraints):
……………………………………………………..…………

(J) DURABLE SOLUTIONS

1. Repatriation expectations (with brief
   reasons):_________________________________________
             _________________________________________
             ________________________________________

2. Prefers     local    integration    (with                  brief      reasons):
   __________________________________________

(K) MEDIA

Do you have access to  (i) Radio            1. Yes              2. No
                       (ii) Television       1. Yes             2. No
3. What are your immediate needs in order of priority?
          i.     ……………………………………………………...................................
          ii.    ………………………………………………………………………………
          iii.   ………………………………………………………………………………
          iv.    ………………………………………………………………………………
          v.     ………………………………………………………………………………

(L) Free Space for any other issues/ comments raised by interviewee
………………………………………………………………………………………………
…
………………………………………………………………………………………………
…




                                                                                    36
ANNEX 11

PROFILE FOR GUARDIAN

REGISTERED WITH MINSTRY OF PLANNING AND INTENATIONAL CO-
OPERATION

e-mail dahabshiilgrw@hotmail.com

        ismail_abdihirsi@yahoo.com

Tel 252 5 746249/252 5 746096/252 5 746013

Background of GUARDIAN
The Guardian, is a local, Non-Governmental Organization, which is non-political
and a non-profiting entity and it is against tribalism, nepotism and discrimination
of race, creed and religion.

After the collapse of Somali Central Government in 1991, all social ser vices and
public institutions were all ceased to function. Many internally displaced (IDPS)
have been arriving to the northeastern regions now known as Puntland State of
Somalia. These displaced families’ left behind long life savings, property and lost
income sources. On arrival in Garowe and other parts of Puntland, they did not
receive needed assistance or welfare as there was no a single relief or
international agency to help them. In addition to this, the commercial economy of
Somalia collapsed due to civil war.

A group of young women and men decided to come together and assist IDPs
whose livelihoods were deteriorating to tantalizing proportions. As a result
Guardian was established in 1993.

Vision
To assist internally displaced persons and reintegrate them with the host
communities through research and provision of basic services like education,
health, income generation and any other needed facilities.

Mission
To ensure that IDPS are given due consideration since they lack basic services.

Overall Objectives of Guardian
 (i)     To continuously carry out research on IDPs and Returnees and update
          stakeholders and partners on needs.
   (ii)    To provide relief and advocate for better life for IDPs
   (iii)   To provide educational opportunities to IDP children including the host
           communities.
   (iv)    To re-integrating IDPs the local people.



                                                                                37
   (v)    To improve the Somali women skills and employment opportunities in
          order to improve women’s economic status.
 Projects implemented
   1. Sesame oil extracting plant in Garowe in 1996, which was funded by
      Diakonia Swedish group.
   2. Tailor training program for young displaced women to create an income
      generating sources in Garowe in 1996 which was funded by UNHCR
   3. Handicap training and welfare program in Garowe in 1994 funded by
      UNICEF and food for work support by WFP
   4. Participated in relief distribution program during 1996 drought when water,
      food and medicine supplies distributed to drought affected rural population
      in Nugal region.
   5. Anti-circumcision program to discourage Genital mutilation, traditional
      pheronic circumcision had been practicing in Somalia. The training was
      given to GUARDIAN staff and after course they have trained women in
      Burtinle district. UNICEF funded it in 1996.
   6. Registration Survey of IDPs in 1993
   7. Needs assessment of IDPs children in 2002

Activities that GUARDIAN can carry out
If resources permit, Guardian can carry out the following activities:
     a) Logistic food and non-food distribution.
     b) Educating children and adult as well as women skilled improvement.
     c) Building constructions for the IDPS families shelter, schools, stores, health
        centers etc at relocating area.
     d) Training teachers and health workers
     e) Research, identification, registering of IDPs and returnees
     f) Capacity building for better future of IDPs
     g) Female genital motivation campaigns improving with in Somali community

                       MEMBERS OF GUARDIAN
   1.    Maymuun Bashir Nor              Chairperson
   2.    Edil Said Farah                 Vice Chairperson
   3.    Dr. Mohamed Abdi Mohamud        Administration/financial
   4.    Safia Cabdulaahi Cali           Secretary
   5.    Dr. Bashir Sheik
   6.    Sheikh Yusuf                   Program Manager
   7.    Mahad Bashir Nor               IDPs Program officer
   8.    Dr. Ahmed Mohamed Ali          Auditor




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