word_processing_script by keralaguest


									Word processing
It is difficult to believe but the first commercial word processing software was in
1979! It was called WordStar. Gradually our use of typewriters faded and now
we produced word processed documents rather than typed documents. Of course
the great advantage of word processing over using a typewriter is that you can
make changes without retyping the entire document. Nowadays, a document can
include text displayed in various ways such as in paragraphs, columns, tables,
text frames , table of contents and header and footer information. But when you
plan to create a document what basic elements do you need to consider in the

The tabs on the right look at some basics such as:

      Text

      Space and spacing

      Images
Relating readability levels to adult literacy levels is not an easy task if you’re
unsure who the readers of your document are. SMOG is a formula that gives a
readability level for written material. Readability is an attempt to match the
reading level of written material to the "reading with understanding" level of the
reader. “successful reading is about far more than word recognition: it's about
style, content, physical presentation, complexity of intellectual engagement
required, learner interest, confidence and skill.” Quote from National Literacy
Trust Research into different readability tests commissioned by NIACE and
carried out by Professor Colin Harrison at Nottingham University produced a
useful SMOG calculator and guide.



Line spacing
Line spacing determines the amount of vertical space between the lines of text in
a paragraph. Paragraph spacing determines the amount of space above or below
a paragraph.In Microsoft Office Word 2007, the default spacing is 1.15 between
lines and a blank line between paragraphs. The default spacing in Office Word
2003 documents is 1.0 between lines and no blank line between paragraphs.In
Word 2003 the easiest way to change the line spacing for an entire document or
paragraph is to highlight the text and press CTRL + 5 for 1.5 spacing and Ctrl + 2
for double line spacing. In Word 2007 go to the Home tab and click Change Styles
in the Styles group. Point to Style Set, and then click the style set that you want
to use.

Colour Contrast

When adding images first check out the contrast. Go to Insert >
Picture > From File. Then go View > Toolbars > Picture and select
Grayscale. Is the image still visible? Why not check the image with
the Colour Blind Simulator? Upload an image and then choose
options such as for protanopia, dueteranopia and tritanopia.

Alternative text.

Adding a description means that a screen reader user will be able to
listen to the content, context and feeling the image brings to the
document. If the image is complex display of a chart, data or
complicated visual display care needs to be taken when adding the
description. If the image is not required to understand the
document then don’t add alternative text. To add alternative text
right click on the picture and choose Format Picture > Web. In the
Alternative text box write a reasonable description of the image.

Captions and pop ups


When inserting images it may be appropriate to insert a caption for
the image, giving it a reference number. This will be displayed on
the page and help readers know what to look at when prompted.
Go to Insert > Picture > From File. Select the image and navigate
to Insert > Reference > Caption. Within the Caption dialogue box
use the 'Caption' option to write the appropriate title for the image

Pop ups

When browsing webpages we tend to see popup information when
the mouse hovers over elements on the screen. These popups are
screen tips. But screen tips can be added to Office applications.In
MS Word you can add these screen tips to provide 'pop-up' and
additional information about different parts of an image or object.
This can be useful when annotating a diagram for example.For full
instructions about how to add many screen tips to one image see
the next slide.

Text in Columns
Using columns within your document means that you will generally
fit more text on the page than if you laid it out so the lines stretch
full width of the page. The shorter lines of text are also easier to
read. The reader doesn't need to read across the page before
returning to read the next line of text. A document laid out in
columns can look more approachable too, as there is white space
within the page, which offers readers a place to rest their eyes. It is
far more accessible than great chunks of text. So try not to use
columns if possible but if you need to break text for interest always
use the Columns feature and not Tab or Space to create columns.
The video on the right shows how to place text into columns and
the links below show how to use column breaks and modify

Insert a Column Break in Word 2007

Modify Columns in Word 2007


Slide: Text in Tables
Most screen reader users have the capability of reading tables within MS Word.
The reading order of tables is linear starting from the top left cell to the bottom
right cell. The contents of each cell, including nested cells, are read before
moving to the next cell. It is important to identify the column and row header
cells so that screen readers can easily associate the cell content with their
headers. In MS Word the first row and first column are considered as header

      Tips for adding tabular content

      Keep tables simple.

      Avoid complex nested tables with multiple split and merged cells.

      Avoid splitting or merging cells after data has been entered, as this can
       confuse the reading order of the cells.

      Use percentage rather than pixels to set table and cell size.

      Keep heading labels short and descriptive.

      Use comments if they need longer explanations.

      Add captions before the table to provide information about the table.

      How to get started with tables link


If you're not a screen reader user, let's pretend that you are for just a moment.
You're going to a web site to find out where the biology 205 class is going to be
held. You go to a web page that has this information, and this is what you
hear:Table with 10 columns and 7 rows. Department Code, Class Number,
Section, Max Enrollment, Current Enrollment, Room Number, Days, Start Time,
End Time, Instructor, BIO, 100, 1, 15, 13, 5, Mon,Wed,Fri, 10:00, 11:00, Magde,
100, 2, 15, 7, 5, Tue,Thu, 11:00, 12:30, Indge, 205, 1, 15, 9, 6, Tue,Thu, 09:00,
10:30, Magde, 315, 1, 12, 3, 6, Mon,Wed,Fri, 13:00, 14:00, Indge, BUS, 150, 1,
15, 15, 13, Mon,Wed,Fri, 09:00, 10:00, Roberts, 210, 1, 10, 9, 13, Mon,Wed,Fri,
08:00, 09:00, Rasid.

Now click on More for a question.
After listening to this information, do you have any idea where biology 205 is
supposed to be held? Probably not.

It is important to present tabular information in vertical or horizontal fashion
depending on the quantity and complexity of the contents. See WebAim's advice
about tabulated information. http://webaim.org/techniques/tables/

Slide: Inserting a sound file
You can add objects such as a file, an image or an audio file to a Word document
by linking or embedding. The main difference is where the data are stored and
how they are updated after they where linked or embedded. When you embed an
Excel object for example, information in the Word file doesn't change if you
modify the source Excel file.

When you link an Excel object information is updated in the Word document if the
Excel spreadsheet is updated. Let's consider adding a sound file to a Word
document. Adding a sound file to a Word document can enhance the reading. The
author can explain in more detail, vocabulary can be spoken to aid language
development or provide verbal feedback to an essay.

See the video on the right for how to embed audio into Word 2007 within XP.

Embed audio file in Word 2007 within Vista or Windows 7 -

To link a document to a sound file (or video) you need to make sure both the
document and the sound file are held together in the same location. Go to the
Insert menu, click Object, and then click the Create from File tab. Click Browse,
and then locate the sound file you want to insert. Select the Link to file check
box. To display the file as an icon, select the Display as icon check box.

Slide: Hyperlinks and bookmarks
Hyperlinks with meaningful screen tips can really help a document reader identify
whether they can access the webpage. Go to Insert > Hyperlink > Existing file or
webpage. In Text to Display box write the text to be displayed in the document.
If you have highlighted the text this text will be picked up anyway.Add a screen
tip to indicate whether the webpage is textual or multimedia heavy.


A hyperlink can link internally to places within the document. To create a
bookmark place your cursor in place in the document. Go to Insert > Bookmark
and create a name for that place. Then highlight a place at the beginning of the
document. Go to Insert > Hyperlink and select Place in this Document. Select the
named bookmark. If your document is styled with headings they will be listed as
bookmark places within the document.

Where would you add the hyperlink description if the following sentence is within
your Word document?

Click here for more information about Jupiter.
When you have considered how you would add the hyperlink click on Reveal.


Click here for more information about Jupiter. – in this sentence information
about Jupiter has been highlighted An “accessible link” therefore, is a link that
imparts as much information to as many users as possible. It enables the reader
to preview the link, making an informed decision about whether to follow it or
not, and helps to differentiate between links that may share link text but refer to
different targets. http://webaim.org/techniques/hypertext/

Slide: Forms and interactive elements
If you purchased a product on a webpage you are likely to have completed an
online form. Microsoft Word allows you to add these types of form elements
within a document to control areas of input. These form elements are dropdown
box, checkbox and free text entry and provides you with a way to create
interactive learning objects.

Drop Down box allows you to provide suggestions or options within a list. The
learner can select from that list - similar to a multiple choice test question.

CheckBox allows the learner to click into a box sitting next to a chosen answer.
Ideal for Yes/No type questions or for self assessment checklist.

Free Text Entry allows the learner to type within a set area. Ideal for labeling
against a picture or diagram.

See animated instructions in Word 2003

The ways to create interactive documents vary according to the version of Word.
The video on the right shows how to create forms within Word 2003.

Creating simple forms in MS Word 2007

Microsoft advice about form elements in Word 2007


Slide: Structuring a document

Structuring a document from the beginning helps you to navigate the document
(which is especially useful if it is a long document) and allows you to use a Table
of Contents, convert the document to become an accessible pdf and once a
document has been structured it allows the reader to quickly amend the styles to
suit their own preferences.

For example a dyslexic reader may prefer colour coded headings and sub-
headings or larger body text font. Once you have created a document using
styles and headings there are a number of benefits in terms of accessibility,
which can be used by those reading the document and creating them.
Why not browse the tabs on the right for information about Styles and Headings,
Document Map, Table of Contents and Outline View?

Styles and headings

Word 2007 has nine built-in Heading styles which are formatting instructions.
They are called Heading 1, Heading 2 etc. Word applies the formatting
instructions when you apply a style. To apply styles highlight the text or click
anywhere within a paragraph. In Word 2003 or any earlier version of Word, go to
the Formatting Toolbar, click on the Style box. Choose a style from the drop
down list.In Word 2007 or Word 2010, click on the name of a style in the Quick
Styles gallery on the Home tab.

How to control the Quick Styles gallery on the Home tab in Word


How to modify styles in Microsoft Word

Document Map

Word has an inbuilt navigation system which can enable users to navigate a long
document which has been appropriately styled. Clicking the Document Map will
allow the user to expand and contract headings or jump to the relevant section of
a large document. From the menu select View > Document Map.

Table of contents

Create a table of contents frames page when you need to publish a document for
others to view in a Web browser or in Word. A table of contents provides a quick
reference point for your document, giving the reader an overview of where to find
content including page numbers. When you insert a table of contents in Word
2010, Word searches through your document looking for styled items.Click where
you want to insert the table of contents, usually at the beginning of a
document.On the References tab, in the Table of Contents group, click Table of
Contents, and then click the table of contents style that you want.

Video showing how to add styles and then create a Table of Contents in Word



Outline View lets you view all your Headings collapsed to any heading level you
want. It is an excellent way of getting to the section you want in a long document
extremely quickly.You can switch to View > Outline View and click on the 1
button to show just the Heading 1 paragraphsIt makes it incredibly easy to
restructure your document. Just drag and drop a heading to move not only that
heading, but all its associated subheadings and body text.Take a scenario where
someone else has written a report which you want to incorporate in a report
you're writing. So the title of their Report needs to become a Heading 1 in your
document, which means you have to convert all their Heading 1 paragraphs to
Heading 2 paragraphs, all their Heading 2 paragraphs to Heading 3 paragraphs
and so on. Using Outline View this takes seconds. Without Outline View it could
take hours, literally, if it was a long report.

Viewing a document in outline view


Slide: saving as a pdf
Many of the accessibility advantages of PDF documents are underused due to lack
of awareness by the reader. Users often believe PDFs to be inaccessible when the
root problem is that they lack the knowledge of how to personalise their view of
the document.From a user's viewpoint the following functionalities offer most
benefits:The ability to navigate via bookmarks.The ability to magnify and reflow
text, especially useful for reading documents in column format.The ability to
change the text and background colours.The ability to automatically scroll
through the document and therefore read it without mouse interaction.

One of the fundamental keys to accessibility is providing a well structured
document at the start of the process. If the source Word document is properly
structured using appropriate heading levels, once converted to PDF the document
should maintain those heading levels and the navigation that goes with them.

Save a Word 2007 document as a pdf

Word 2003 does not automatically allow a user to convert without third party

There are free online pdf convertors such as freepdfconvert.com.

Alternative convertors such as Zamzar or Online Convert.



Adobe Reader software allows the user to change the background and font colour
of a document which is particularly useful for learners with disabilities such as
dyslexia, as it allows them to reduce or increase the contrast between the
background and the text. To change the font go to Edit > Preferences >
Accessibility tab.


Adobe Reader allows the user to enlarge the text using the zoom function. To
access the zoom go to View > Zoom > Zoom To and select the appropriate
magnification value from the dialogue box.

Adobe Reader enables the user to automatically scroll through a document. This
can be useful for learners with motor impairments as well as for users reading a
document on a screen as it eliminates the need to manually scroll. To
automatically scroll through a document navigate to View > Automatically Scroll.
The speed can be controlled using the arrow keys or the number keys 1-9.

Read out loud

Adobe Reader has an inbuilt Read Out Loud function. The user can choose
whether to read the current page only or the entire document, and has some
degree of control over the voice, pitch and speed. To access this function,
navigate to View > Read Out Loud > Activate Read Out Loud.


If the text has been magnified to the point where it no longer fits on the screen,
or the user is reading a document with a column layout, the Reflow function can
be extremely useful. Reflow arranges the text so that it fits onto the screen,
therefore avoids the need for horizontal scrolling, and will rearrange columns into
continuous text making it easier to read in electronic format. The reflow function
can be accessed from View > Zoom > Reflow.


If a document has been structured correctly, users can view a hierarchical list of
bookmarks allowing them to quickly locate the relevant information within a
document. To open the bookmarks within a PDF navigate toView > Navigation
Panels > Bookmarks, or click on the Bookmarks icon on the left of the screen.The
Pages view in Adobe Reader displays a thumbnail image of each page of the
document, allowing the reader to quickly locate images and tables. To open the
Pages view within a PDF navigate to View > Navigation Panels > Pages , or select
the 'Pages' icon on the left of the screen.

Slide: Checking a document
Editing in Print Preview

When you are in Print Preview you can make changes easily. To do so, simply
remove the checkmark next to “Magnifier” in the “Preview” group on the Print
Preview menu. Now, instead of zooming in when you click on the document, your
cursor will be placed into the text and you can make your edits.


In Word 2007 click the Show/Hide button on the Home tab in the Paragraph
group. ( or Ctrl+Shift+8 ) Instead of viewing all nonprinting (or formatting)
characters all the time, you can pick which ones you prefer. Got to the Office
button > Word Options > Display > Always show these formatting marks and
choose which symbols to present on screen.

A list of formatting marks in Word

Reading Highlight

To help you visually scan a document for every occurrence of a word or phrase,
you can search for all occurrences and highlight them on the screen. This is a
new feature in Word 2007. Go to Home > Editing > Find > Find What > Select
Reading Highlight > Highlight All.

Adobe Acrobat has an in-built Accessibility Check which allows the user to check
the document for accessibility issues. This check will not guarantee that a
document is accessible but it will highlight major issues such as incorrect reading
order, images with no alternative text, problems with document structure etc. In
Adobe Reader go to Advanced > Accessibility > Full check. Make sure the 'Create
Accessibility Report' and 'Include repair hints in the Accessibility Report' boxes
are checked. Typically the Accessibility Check will find at least two problems; that
the text lacks a language specification and that there is no reading order.

Language Specification

Navigate to File > Document Properties. Under the 'Advanced' tab, use the drop-
down menu to specify the appropriate language.

Reading Order

This option should only be used if the source document has been structured
correctly. Go to View > Navigation Panels > Pages.Open the 'Pages' pane. Select
all pages. Right click and select 'Properties'. Under the 'TabOrder' tab select 'Use
Document Structure'.

Slide: saving As

Word offers you various ways to save a document. The docx file format is an
open standards based file format used by Microsoft Office 2007 and 2010.
However you need an Office 2003 plugin installed first before you can open in
previous versions of Word. The best solution is to save the document as .doc

A Word document may be saved as other file types such as: RTF (Rich Text
Format).PDF (Portable Document Format).HTML (Hypertext Mark-up Language).

The Rich Text Format, or RTF, is a format that can be opened and edited in
almost all Word processing programs. To save a document in Rich Text format,
select File > Save As from the main menu. In the Save As Dialog box choose Rich
Text Format.

The Portable Document Format (PDF) file format is commonly used to share Word
documents among readers who might not have Word installed on their
computers. PDF files are protected from changes and retain the exact elements of
a presentation thereby avoiding problems like missing fonts or broken layouts.

PDF files can be viewed by using free Adobe Acrobat Reader.

To convert a document in 2007 go to Save As > PDF. In earlier versions use a
third party solution see Microsoft Market website. http://office.microsoft.com/en-

For someone accessing the document using a screen reader the HTML or
Webpage option is preferable.
Check the document is structured, has suitable headings, tagged images, tables
with appropriate headings before saving as HTML. Remove any unnecessary line

When you save the file as HTML, use the Filtered option to get the cleanest
format possible.Select File > Save As from the main menu. In the Save As Dialog
box choose Web Page, Filtered.

The advantage of the Web Page option is that the page will look almost exactly
like the printed document. The advantage of the Web Page, Filtered option is that
the underlying code is much cleaner, the file size is significantly smaller, and
most, if not all, of the look and feel of the original document is retained.

Saving as a template

When you open a new Word document you are using the Normal template. You
can create your own templates with selected styles and structure and save as a
.dot (or .dotx) file. This file will be added to the Gallery or folder of templates
files. When you open a new document browse the Gallery or Templates folder and
open the required template. Use the template to create a new document.
Remember to save as a .doc otherwise you will replace the template file.

Slide: Customisation in Word

The ability to customise Word toolbars depends on the version of MS Office you
have. One of the main user interface features of MS Word, up to version 2003,
has been the ability to create toolbars and have the commands they contain
available to documents.

But when Office 2007 was launched with the new Ribbon toolbar it is now not
possible to customize the Ribbon without using XML and programming code. Two
third party AddIns for Office called Ribbon Customizer™ and ToolbarToggle™ let
you customize the Office interface, and both can display a version of the menus
and toolbars found in Office 2003 and earlier.

But these add-ons are not free beyond a brief trail period. If you install
ToolbarToggle a version of the Office 2003 Menu bar and Standard and
Formatting toolbars is displayed immediately beneath the Office 2007 ribbon .

Within the Word Ribbon there is a Quick Access Toolbar which can be customised.
The Quick Access Toolbar contains a set of commands that are independent of the
tab that is currently displayed. You can move the Quick Access Toolbar from the
very top to below the main Ribbon.

See instructions at Microsoft website http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/word-

View a YouTube video called Ribbons in Word 2007 and Customizing the Quick
Access Toolbar.

Ctrl + C, Ctrl + V, Ctrl + P are examples of useful keystrokes. If you're not
familiar with keystrokes go to Tools, Customise Keyboard and view actions and
allocated keystrokes. Alternatively browse along the Menu bar and see keyboard
instructions against many of the menu options. Within Word 2007 and 2010 go to
the Office button and select Word Options. Click Customize. In the bottom of the
window, click the Customize button beside Keyboard shortcuts. In the Customize
Keyboard box, locate the command for which you would like to edit the keyboard
shortcut. Start by selecting the category. For each category, the commands will
appear at the right side of the window. When you select one, a brief description
will appear at the bottom of the dialog box. The current shortcut key, if there is
one, will appear in the Current keys box.Click inside the box labeled Press new
shortcut key. Press the shortcut key you would like to use. Include the Ctrl, Shift,
or Ctrl + Shift keys. If the shortcut key is currently assigned, Word will tell you
what command currently uses the shortcut key. You can reassign the shortcut
key, or you can select a new one. Choose whether you'd like to save the shortcut
key in the Normal template (all documents) or only the current document. Click
Assign when you're happy with your changes. Click Close

Slide: Google Docs
A colleague has asked you to review a document she has produced and to add
comments or make changes you feel are necessary.

To show her what you have added and changed you use Track Changes. The
document you return will show the change indicators and your colleague can
either accept your suggested changes or ignore them.

So how does this work?

To turn on Track Changes go to View > Toolbars > Reviewing to display the
Reviewing toolbar. Click the Track Changes button. Any changes that you make
are now indicated by revision marks.

How does Track Changes work?

 YouTube How to Use Track Changes in Word 2007


Google Docs

Google Docs is an excellent way to collaborate and work with others in real-time
to create documents, spreadsheets or presentations. The files are stored online
and accessible from any computer. You can create a document from one of the
templates or import an existing document to edit. You can control who can access
the document, provide read-only or editing facilities.

View the Google Docs tour


Slide: Correcting tools
Word provides a way to remember words, paragraphs and chunks of text so that
all you have to do is press a few keys and the words appear. This function is
extremely helpful for slow typists or anyone who finds typing long, complex or
repetitive phrases tedious.

 AutoText is a way to store these words or phrases. In Word 2003 go to
Insert>AutoText. The dialog box offers predefined phrases and you can enter
your own text. When you start to type in the document a popup will appear -
press Enter to confirm the completion.

In Word 2007 the AutoText feature is now called Building Blocks. The feature is
basically the same as AutoText but the Building Blocks have additional

How to create and use document building blocks in Word 2007


The AutoCorrect function enables the user to automatically change words that are
spelt incorrectly.

Many words are entered in the AutoCorrect list and the changes happen as you
type in a document but you can also add your own mispelled words. Go to Insert
> AutoText and select AutoCorrect Tab. In the Replace box type the incorrectly
spelt word or phrase and in the with section type the correct words or phrase.
Click Add.

How to Use and Customize AutoCorrect in Word 2007


Slide: Emphasising tips for the dyslexic reader
The choice of font can add meaning but choose carefully. It is advised to use a
plain, evenly spaced sans serif font such as Arial and Comic Sans. Alternatively
include Verdana, Tahoma, Century Gothic, Trebuchet. Ask for feedback from the
readers as to what suits them.

Corporate documents and most paperback books use 11 font size however size
12 is more beneficial for anyone with dyslexia and definitely better for anyone
with poor eyesight.

The way to emphases text in a document is to use bold, italics, underline, colour
or capitals but sparingly if you are preparing a document that a dyslexic reader is
likely to access.

General tips for the dyslexic reader

Don’t use over long sentences

Don’t use long paragraphs

Break the text into short readable blocks

Don’t start a new sentence at the very end of a line as this causes problems for
the dyslexic reader.
Use a minimum of 1.5 or 2 line spaces within the body of the text this will help
the dyslexic reader to scan the page more easily

Use Bold Print rather than Italic or Underline because these can blur text for the
dyslexic reader

Avoid using underline as this cuts descenders in charactersHighlight important
parts of the text by putting it in a Box

Use Bullet Points or Numbers in long text items to draw attention to important

Don’t use unnecessary hyphenation

Don't use full justification of text as this affects the line length and hyphenation.

Slide: Summary


This is the end of Word processing learning object. You have looked at things to
consider when planning to produce a word processed document including use of
images, hyperlinks, tables and columns. You have also looked at using interactive
elements such as forms and ways to embed objects such as a sound file. You
have considered various ways to save and present a document and how to share
documents with others.

Next Steps

More advanced Word tutorials can be found at Internet4classrooms and Microsoft



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