Chapter 2 (PowerPoint download)

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					All Material Taken from Faster
Smarter Network+ Certification
by Melissa Craft




                                        Chapter 2
                                 Networking Components




                                                         1
Repeaters
   Passive Repeater
       Used to connect pieces of a cut cable or fix
        a break in cables.
       No changes are made to signal
       Does not have power source




                                                       2
Repeaters
   Active Repeater
       Extends the length of a cable
       Regenerates the signal
       Requires a power source




                                        3
Wireless Repeaters
 Amplifies the strength of wireless signal
 Used to extend range of wireless
  networks




                                              4
Hubs
   Sometimes referred to as:
       Multiport Repeaters
       Concentrators
   Passive Hubs simply receiver a signal &
    transmit it through all ports
   Active Hubs regenerate & retransmit signal to
    all ports
   Intelligent or Manageable Hubs can send
    alerts & information about their status & are
    easily monitored                            5
Hybrid Hubs
   Include additional ports for different types of
    wiring. (Standard hubs mainly use RJ-45
    ports with UTP cabling)
   Allows for connection of different types of
    cable. (UTP & Fiber)




                                                      6
Multistation Access Unit
   Referred to as MAUs or MSAUs
   Hubs used in Token Ring Networks
   When a connection problem occurs, the MAU
    will beacon. The port can then be closed, or
    “wrapped.”
   Actively regenerates signals around the ring
   Has “ring-in” and “ring-out” ports which are
    used to connect two or more MAUs together
                                               7
Bridges
   Uses to connect network segments, but splits traffic
    by filtering data frames
   Bridges learn the physical (MAC) addresses of
    network devices and stores this information in an
    internal table
   Bridge decides if data is meant for the same
    segment or a different one, and either ignores or
    discards the data
   Can be used to connect networks of different media
    types (Ethernet & fiber)
                                                           8
Switches
   Has multiple ports
   Like a bridge, a switch learns the physical
    addresses of devices on the network
   When the switch receives data, it determines which
    devices needs the data. The data is then sent only
    to the necessary device.
   A temporary “switched path” is created between
    sending & receiving devices
   Switches can be used with other switches to design
    segments logically bridged together
   Switch ports can also be dedicated to single network
    devices-thus creating very high speed links
                                                       9
Routers
   Used to connect multiple Local Area
    Networks (LANs)
   Routers filter data (like bridges & switches)
    but data is based on logical addresses which
    contain network segment addresses
   Routers use routing tables to determine the
    best path to send data


                                                    10
Brouters
 Combination of Bridge & Router
 Transmits Bridged & Routed Traffic

 Complex equipment, rarely used




                                       11
ATM Switches
   Asynchronous Transfer Mode-actually a very
    fast protocol which employs cells instead of
    variable length packets
   All cells are 53 bytes long
   Since all cells are equal, the switch does not
    have to check for packet length and perform
    error-checking


                                                     12
Frame Relay Switches
   Wide Area Network protocol used to transmit
    data over digital phone lines
   Uses dedicated digital circuit between
    locations and provides specific bandwidth
    rates
   Data packets vary in length and are
    transmitted in bursts
   Often used to connect multiple locations with
    the same organization

                                                    13
CSU/DSU
   Channel Service Unit/Data Service Unit
       Used to connect a WAN to a leased phone
        line, often with Frame Relay
       Looks like a Modem, but typically has more
        ports




                                                 14
Gateways
 Used to connect networks which utilize
  different protocols.
 Provided translation between protocols

 Provides a measure of security




                                           15
Wireless Access Points (WAPS)
  Used to connect multiple wireless
   devices
  Devices can seamlessly switch between
   WAPS if they move around (like cell
   phones)



                                       16
Modems
   Used to convert digital to analog (modulation)
    and analog to digital (demodulation)
   Can be internal, external, or laptop cards
   External modems use RS-232 interface with
    9 or 25 pins




                                                 17
Network Interface Cards (NICs)
   Used to connect computer to LAN
   Speed depends on type of network
   Must be correct type depending on protocol
    (though some can now be used with more
    than one type of protocol)




                                                 18
ISDN Adapters
   Often referred to as modems, but are actually
    CODECs (no analog signal are used)
   Used to connect to digital phone lines known as
    ISDN (Integrated services digital network) lines
   128 kbps over 2 B channels (64 kbps each) and 1 D
    channel (16 kbps) D channel contains only control
    information, not real data
   PRI (Primary Rate Interface) can be purchased with
    23 B channels and 1 D channel of 64 kbps
       This is roughly equal to a T1 line
                                                     19
SAN (Storage Area Network)
Adapter
   Allows access to data without overhead of
    standard protocol suite
   Can be fiber or copper media
   Only connect servers & storage devices, not
    personal workstations



                                                  20

				
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