Israel vs. Palestine: The Conflict by TB38T6q

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									Israel vs. Palestine:
    The Conflict
      Bradli Crump
Carrboro High School, NC
    February 1, 2010
                Introduction
• Two conflicting sides over land, resources,
  sovereignty, religion, and culture.
  – Jerusalem/Temple Mount
  – Jordan River
• Israelis – Judaism, claim rights to „Israel‟ a
  recognized state of the UN
• Palestinians – Islam, claim the same land as
  „Palestine‟, are not recognized by the UN, but
  have a central „PNA‟
• Both sides have contributed considerably to
  violence.
              The Issues
• Palestinian Refugees and the Right of
  Return
• Status of Jerusalem
• Borders and the Occupied Territories
• Israeli Security Concerns in relation to
  sovereignty
• Settlements in the West Bank
              Ancient History
• Cultural Conflict goes back several
  thousand years – mainly religious
  – Old Canaan conquered by Israeli tribes out of
    Egypt (according to Torah) [1200 BCE]
  – Hebrew settlements/conquests of present-day
    Jerusalem under Solomon
     • First Temple Built in Jerusalem on “Temple Mount”
     • Later split into two kingdoms: Israel and Judea (both
       later fall to Assyrians) after Solomon‟s death
  – Land referred to as „Palestine‟ by ancient
    Egyptians and „Israel‟ by the Jewish tribes
     • Same place, different language
       Ancient History cont…
  – Control continuously changes from app. 530 BCE –
    61 BCE ending with control from Roman Empire
• Christianity is founded around 4 BCE – 35 CE,
  followed by Islam in 622 CE
  – Non Jewish inhabitants of Israel/Palestine convert
    begin to practice Islam/Christianity
  – Roman Empire Collapses after schism,
    Israel/Palestine is conquered by Persians in 614 CE
  – Then, conquered by Arab Islamic armies – Al-Aqsa
    Mosque is built in 715 CE on Temple Mount
    (considered Third Holiest site in Islam)
       Ancient History cont…
• European Christian crusaders begin their
  attacks on „The Holy Land‟ occupied by
  Saladin and his Kurds
  – Crusaders briefly occupy Jerusalem in 1229
    CE, retaken by Mameluke Muslims, later
    defeated at acre and evicted from „Palestine‟
  – Ottoman/Turk conquest of area in 1517, part
    of official Ottoman Empire until 1917
    • Demographics in Jerusalem under Ottoman Rule:
      7120 Jews, 5760 Muslims, 3390 Christians
             Modern History
• World War I breaks out; Turkey (Ottoman
  Empire) fights against Allies
  – Balfour Declaration by the UK in Nov 1917
    • “His Majesty's government view with favour the
      establishment in Palestine of a national home for
      the Jewish people, and will use their best
      endeavors to facilitate the achievement of this
      object…” - British Foreign Policy during wartime
  – British control of Egypt extends itself to the
    Israel/Palestine area under pressure from the
    „Zionist Movement‟ Dec 1917
       Modern History cont…
• Faisal-Weizmann Agreement – Jan 3, 1919; part
  of the Paris Peace Conference
  – Leader of the Zionist Commission (Chaim Weizmann)
    met with Emir Faisal (Kingdom of Hedjaz)
  – Encourage mass Zionist/Jewish settlements in
    Palestine, in exchange for an Arab nation
    encompassing present-day Iraq, Syria, and the Fertile
    Crescent
  – Became irrelevant – Kingdom of Hedjaz was
    conquered in 1923 and incorporated under the
    Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
       Modern History cont…
• European Zionists continue to settle in Palestine
  – Britain begins to decolonize – grants
  independence to nearby Egypt and Transjordan
• League of Nations – France and Britain divide
  the Middle East into „Mandates‟
  – Churchill White Paper (June 3, 1922) – clarifies
    Balfour Declaration in response to anti-semetic riots
    in Palestine
  – Main Point: Europe dividing new nations for „self-
    determination‟ – deconstruction of imperialism
        Modern History cont…
• Britain caught in the middle of appealing to
  Palestine and Israel – violence escalates
  – Racial profiling, religious desecration, segregation,
    power struggle within Palestine
  – Zionist immigration continues
  – British policy continually changes with pressure from
    both sides
• Progress in Middle East halts somewhat as
  WWII begins in Europe
  – Britain is distracted, situation becomes even more
    unclear, violence continues to escalate
       Modern History cont…
• WWII – large portion of Jewish population flees
  Nazism for Palestine, many join Zionist
  movement, seek new life
  – Wounded Britain pulls out of Palestine completely by
    1948
  – Organized fighting with armies and weapons begins,
    bombings, massacres, spontaneous fighting from
    both sides
  – State of Israel declares independence May 14, 1948
     • Jordan, Egypt, Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, and Saudi Arabia all
       declare war on Israel
     • United States immediately recognizes new state, followed by
       USSR
• Israeli War of Independence 1948 - 1949
        Modern History cont…
  – Result: app. 800,000 Palestinians are displaced
    (PALESTINIAN REFUGEES)
  – Yasser Arafat founds the Palestinian Liberation
    Organization (PLO) 1964
• Six-Day War (Jun 5–11, 1967)
  – Israel aquires West Bank, Gaza Strip, and the Golan
    Heights – OCCUPIED TERRITORIES
     • Fighting causes many Palestinians to flee into neighboring
       Arab countries, especially from the Golan Heights
     • OC‟s under martial law – not represented by MP‟s
• First Intifada – 1987-1993 : Violence moves from
  organized to massive civil warfare
  – Triggered by Palestinian students : boycotting Israeli
    goods, strikes, graffiti, barricades, planned terrorism,
    resistance of authorities
            Modern History cont…
• Oslo Accords (Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-
  Government Arrangements)
   – GOI and PLO meet, sign accords on September 13, 1993)
   – Sets up the Palestinian National Authority
       • Mutual recognition between PNA/State of Israel
       • Government over the „Occupied Territories‟ gradually phased over
         in a period of 5 years to PNA
   – IDF (Israeli Defense Force) to withdraw from the areas, eventual
     sovereignty given to PNA
   – Failed
       •   Only addressed borders – no status of Jerusalem, refugees
       •   No provisions for a permanent Palestinian state
       •   OCT still under Israeli military control
       •   Cultural violence continues (Israeli anger at Palestinians/vice versa)
Yasser Arafat




                Yitzhak Rabin
           Modern History cont…
• Second Intifada (Al-aqsa Intifada) – response to failed
  Oslo Accords : suspended all-out civil war returns
   – Triggered by a MP visiting temple mount with over a thousand
     police guards, leading to violence
   – Response: International inquiry
       • Mitchell Report of 2001 by UN, EU, US, Egypt, and Jordan
   – Camp David Negotiations – US President Clinton facilitates talks
     with Israeli PM Ehud Barak and PA Chairman Yasser Arafat
       • Tried to negotiate final status of Israel and Palestine
       • Israel agreed to a partial two-state solution, rejected by Palestinians
       • Ultimately failed – neither side reached an agreement
       • Israel uses the complete Palestinian rejection of this plan as an
         example of unwillingness to seek peace on the part of the
         Palestinians
       • Palestine uses the unfair „compromises‟ presented by Israel as an
         example of Israeli greed; especially disliked the „Israeli Security
         provision‟
Modern History cont…                      (final I promise!)




– League of Arab States conference in Beruit –
  Saudi Arabia pushes movement to normalize
  Arab-Israeli relations
   • Arab Peace Initiative – March 28, 2002
   • Israel would withdraw from the Golan Heights,
     Gaza Strip, and West Bank completely
   • Israel would finance the return of the Palestinian
     refugees to Palestine, or give them compensation
– Israel basically ignores the Initiative‟s
  existence, no formal mention of it or
  response.
               Right Now
• Palestinians live in OCT‟s under Israeli
  military occupation
  – Human Rights Violations
  – Access to education, healthcare, even basic
    necessities is sporadic
  – Some representation under PNA - Parliament
• App. 4.5 million Palestinian refugees today
  – Original number: 800,000 in 1947
UN Involvement
              Israel and the UN
• Israel is a nation with „special status‟ in the UN
   – They are active members in the Western European
     and Others Group (WEOG) in NY
   – Are not part of UN operations in Geneva – barred
     from standing in elections, participating in Geneva
     committee debates, etc.
• Many accusations of Anti-Semitism in the UN by
  Israel and US
   – Israel tends not to trust the UN resolutions, does not
     always comply with peacekeeping forces based in
     Israel/Palestine Territories
      • Government of Israel says that it must have equal rights to
        equally honor the wishes of the General Assembly
        Palestine and the UN
• „Palestine‟ is not a recognized state of the
  UN, but representatives from the PNA
  speak as guests
  – „Observer‟ status in the UN – Palestinian
    National Authority is responsible for providing
    representation for the „Palestinian‟ peoples
  – Given because there is no legitimate national
    government for Palestine
 Previous UN Action
• Britain refers issue to the UN May,
  1947
   – UNSCOP (UN Special Committee on
     Palestine) : Resolution GA 181
      • Two State: Arab and Israeli
      • Establishes ‟47 Borders
      • Jerusalem would be internationally
        administered – part of neither state,
        temporarily run by UN
   – Never fully implemented
      • Geographic puzzle made navigation difficult
        for the still-fighting populations
      • Neither side would accept compromise,
        Israelis wanted all of it, Palestinians wanted
        all of it
      • Furious at Jerusalem plan
    Previous UN Action cont…
• General Assembly Resolutions – calls for
  violence to end, continued relief to aid
  Palestinian refugees
  – 1949 - UNRWA: provides food, education, aid, and
    temporary shelter – continues
• Security Council Resolutions
  – 1967 – UNSC242 - Israeli withdrawal from OC‟s,
    peace
  – 1973 – UNSC338 – Demand for peace, continuted
    conflict negotiation
  – All bark, no bite.
      What Needs to Be Done
• Two-State Solution – Israel and Palestine
  become separate, autonomous countries
  – Past Problems:
     • Israeli Security Concerns
         – Military outposts in OCT to act as warnings for impending
           invasions – concerned about Arab nations (Iran) who have
           pledged to destroy Israel
         – Israel wants complete control over Palestinian airspace
         – No Palestinian Armed Forces
     • Jerusalem (who gets it)
         – West Jerusalem and East Jerusalem
         – Both nations want it as their own capital – want jurisdiction over
           the whole thing (holy city)
         – Policing

								
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